Slike strani

Washington: Government Printing Office, 1906. 8°, 54 p., I l., 17

pl. and maps.

INSTITUTS SOLVAY. Travaux de l'Institut de Sociologie. Mémoires. Bruxelles and Leipzig: Misch & Thron, éditeurs. Contents:

Fasc. 1. Note sur des formules d'introduction à l'énergétique physio- et psychosociologique, par E. Solvay, 1906. (126 pp.)

Esquisse d'une sociologie, par E. Waxweiler, 1906. (306 pp.)

Fasc. 2. Fasc. 3. Les origines naturelles de la propriété : Essai de sociologie comparée, par R. Petrucci, 1905. (xvii, 246 pp.)

Fasc. 4. Sur quelques erreurs de méthode dans l'étude de l'homme primitif: Notes critiques, par L. Wodon, 1906. (36 pp.)

Fasc. 5. L'Aryen et l'anthroposociologie: Etude critique, par le Dr E. Houzé, 1906. (117 pp.)

Notes et
Sm. 4°.

Fasc. 6. Mesure des capacités intellectuelle et énergétique, par Ch. Henry, avec une remarque additionnelle (Sur l'interprétation sociologique de la distribution des salaires) par E. Waxweiler, 1906. (75 pp., 1 1.)

Fasc. 7. Origine polyphylétique, homotypie et non-comparabilité des sociétés animales, par R. Petrucci, 1906. (viii, 126 pp.)

INTERNATIONALER AMERIKANISTEN-KONGRESS. Vierzehnte Tagung. Stuttgart, 1904. Berlin, Stuttgart, Leipzig: Verlag von W. Kohlhammer, 1906. 8°, 2 pts., lxxxvii, 703 pp., 4 pls.; suppl., 87 pp., 6 pls., chart.

KÖNIGLICHE MUSEEN ZU BERLIN. Verzeichnis der in der Formerei der Königl. Museen Käuflichen Gibsabgüsse. (Prähistorische, Ethnologische und Anthropologische Gegenstände.) Berlin: Herausgegeben von der General-Verwaltung, 1906. 8°, v, 52 pp.

ROUILLARD, EUGÈNE. Noms géographiques de la Province de Québec et des Provinces maritimes empruntés aux langues sauvages. Avec carte indiquant les territoires occupés autrefois par les races aborigènes. Etymologie, traduction et orthographe. Québec: Éd. Marcotte, 82, rue Saint-Pierre, 1906. 8°, 110 pp., map.

ROY, PIERRE-Georges. Les noms géographiques de la Province de Québec. Levis: 1906. 8°, 514 pp.

THURSTON, EDGAR. Ethnographic Notes in Southern India. Madras: Printed by the Superintendent, Government Press, 1906. 8°, viii, 580 pp., 40 pls.

WILL, G. F., and SPINDEN, H. J. The Mandans. A Study of their Culture, Archaeology and Language. Papers of the Peabody Museum of American Archaeology and Ethnology, Harvard University. Cambridge, Mass.: Published by the Museum, August, 1906. 8°, pp. 79219, 4 maps, 15 pls., 16 figures.



[NOTE. Authors, especially those whose articles appear in journals and other serials not entirely devoted to anthropology, will greatly aid this department of the American Anthropologist by sending directly to Dr A. F. Chamberlain, Clark University, Worcester, Massachusetts, U. S. A., reprints or copies of such studies as they may desire to have noticed in these pages. — EDITOR.]


A. (G.) Elisée Reclus. (Ymer, Stockholm, 1905, XXV, 325-329, portr.) Biographical sketch, with appreciation of scientific labors.

Andrée (R.) Mythologischer Zusammenhang zwischen der Alten und Neuen Welt. (Globus, Brnschwg., 1906, LXXXIX, 89– 90.) Brief résumé and critique of Ehrenreich's Die Mythen und Legenden der südamerikanischen Urölker (Berlin,

106 p., 1905).

B. (Z.) A földrajz halottai 1905-ben. (Földr. Közlem., Buda-Pest, 1905, XXXIII, 407-418.) Treats of geographical necrology for 1905. Brief sketches of A. Bastian, W. T. Blanford, V. B. Dejtéri, Comte P. de Brazza, J. Edkins, E. A. Gregory, P. M. Lessar, E. Reclus, E. Richter, F. von Richthofen, Tippoo Tip.


Balfour (H.) President's address. (J. Anthr. Inst., Lond., 1905, XXXV, 1319.) Discusses activity of the society, publications of members, anthropology in universities, physical deterioration, Advocates the adoption in anthropology of "a binominal, or better still, a trinominal system of nomenclature, combined with a well-organized system of registration." Bethe (E.) Mythus, Sage, Märchen. (Hess. Bl. f. Volksk., Lpzg., 1905, IV, 97-142.) Discusses the nature and characteristics of myth, sage and märchen. Dr B. considers a märchen to be "the common property of all of the many peoples of Asia, Europe, and at least the North of Africa," an international being that takes on nationality, so that, whether it be Finn or German, the folk-soul lies in it. The märchen

AM. ANTH, N. s., 8—38,

has eternal youth. The sage is bound (not free like the märchen) to places, customs, times; it tells not of "a king,' but of "King Gunther," not of "a castle," but of "Troy castle." It has not the charmingly indefinite "once upon a time." The myth can arise from any of the several equally justified roots of religion, cult of the dead, ensoulment of nature, etc., perhaps even fetishism. Märchen, sage, and myth have all had to do one with another and the web of their interweaving is often most beautiful. Broomall (H. L.) The significance of errors in speech. (Proc. Del. Co. Inst. Sci., Media, Pa., 1906, 1, no. 2, 30-45.) According to the author, the evolution of language is "imitation modified by increasing significance and decreasing effort." From this "errors" arise (many examples are given). Every correct form of language was or will be an error and every error was once correct or represents forms that will sometime be correct. The error is only an error in time. It is the sign of life. By it the living language is distinguished from the dead. English abundantly exemplifies this. Conybeare (F. C.) Die jungfräuliche

Kirche und die jungfräuliche Mutter. Eine Studie über den Ursprung des Mariendienstes. (Arch. f. Religsw., Lpzg., 1905, VIII, 373-389; 1906, IX, 73-86.) Treats of the development of the idea (in a mythoplastic age) of the church personified as a virgin, a virgin bride, the first-born of God, the oldest of all things, domina mater ecclesia, the spiritual mother of Christ, the bride of God, the bride of Christ, etc. The early hymnology uses these expressions of the church and not of Mary - Mariolatry comes later.


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DeHaan (J.) Over den dood. (Natuurk. Tijdschr. v. Nederl. -Indie, Weltevreden, 1905, dl. LXV, 61-73.) Discusses views of various philosophers and men of science concerning death, particularly the recent view of Bolk, who distinguishes sexual and somatic death among the higher animals. The natural death of the human being is sex-death. Dieterich (A.) Hermann Usener. (Arch.

Mexican priestly offerings, sacrifices of war-prisoners, cruel punishment of domestic and foreign enemies, criminals, etc., infanticide, sacrifice of widows, slaves, etc.). So far as politics are concerned, according to G. the object of human sacrifice was the punishment in the most cruel way possible of enemies and the spreading abroad of fear, in order to make easier the ruling of the many. Infanticide and slave sacrifices probably served private economic ends. Hall (G. S.) The undeveloped races in

contact with civilization. (Bull. Wash. Univ. Assoc., St Louis, 1906, IV, 145– 150.) Abstract of lecture. Argues against man as exterminator, the exhaustion and depletion of indigenous populations (e. g. in Congo) by the whites and the making over of others (American Indian) into "a cheap imitation of the white man,' "the deepening of the color line against the negro, etc. Ingegnieros (J.) D'une classification des criminels fondée sur la psychopathologie. (Rev. Scient., Paris, 1906, ve s., v, 648-651.) Outlines a psychopathological classification of criminals. The divisions are: I. Moral anomalies (disthimic); 2. intellectual anomalies (disgnosic); 3. volitional anomalies (disboulic). Each of these has three subdivisions: Congenital, acquired, transitory. Besides these three groups there is another including composite types. Knapp (C.) Elisée Reclus. (Bull. Soc. Neuchât. de Géographie, Neuchâtel, 1905, XVI, 310-316.) Biographical sketch and appreciation of chief works of great Belgian geographer and ethnographer.

f. Religsw., Lpzg., 1905, VIII, i-xi, portr.) Appreciative sketch of life and scientific activities (d. Oct. 21, 1905). Among Usener's chief works were: Kallone (1867), Italische Mythen (1875), Epicurea (1887), Götternamen (1896), Sintflutsage (1899), Dreiheit (1903). Usener was a great philologist and a pioneer in the science of religion. Drews (P.) Das Abendmahl und die Dämonen. (Hess. Bl. f. Volksk., Lpzg., 1905, IV, 176-205.) Treats of the folklore of the Lord's Supper, particularly in regard to its protective power against demons. Nowhere else was the collision of Christian-divine and heathen-demoniacal power so marked as in the Lord's Supper,-fear of profanation of the elements, etc., and the incoming of mortal sin, accidents of handling and partaking, participation of the ungodly and the unworthy, cup and water, etc. Belief in the demon onset has passed largely, but the customs and rules remain. Förteckning öfver vetenskapliga skrifter

af professor Hjalmar Stolpe. (Ymer, Stockholm, 1905, xxv, 445-446.) List of scientific writings (37 items, 18721904) of the late H. Stolpe.

Fürst (K. M.) Om åldersanatomi. (Ibid., 76-89.) General discussion of the growth of the body and its organs according to age-stature, head measurements, internal organs, skeleton, blood, etc. The divisions of life recognized are: childhood (1-15 or 16 years), youth (15-20 or 25), adult age (20-25-45-50), age of regression (50-65-70), senility (70 and over).

Geddes (J.) Simpler spelling. (Educa

tion, Boston, 1906, XXVI, repr. p. 1-9.) Argues for a "universal alphabet that will be used." With a universal alphabet spelling reform will come of itself. Reforms in other lands are noted. Goldstein (F.) Die Menschenopfer im Lichte der Politik und der Staatswissenschaft. (Globus, Brnschwg., 1906, LXXXIX, 37-41.) Discusses the sacrifice of human beings past and present (ancient

Le Double (M.) L'évolution des os de la face. (Rev. Scientif., Paris, 1906, ve s., 548-556, 584-590.) Treats of the evolution of the bones of the face in the animal series and in man, variations and abnormalities of growth, monstrosities, etc. Dr L. attributes the slow and progressive reductions in the dimensions of the maxillaries to the struggle between the brain and the jaw, effect of milder manners (choice of food, cooking, etc.) on the size and volume of the teeth; also to hereditary selection. Lehmann (E.) Teufels Grossmutter. (Arch. f. Religsw., Lpzg., 1905, VIII, 411-430.) Treats of "the devil's grandmother" in literature, märchen, myths, etc., particularly Teutonic (with analogues elsewhere).

dle class English people (from St Thomas
Hospital) with respect to ectocranial and
entocranial sutures ages of subjects
17-85. Authors agree with Picozzo as
to earlier obliteration in males. The
lambdoid closes later than the coronal
and sagittal as a rule. Signs of a me-
topic suture occurred in 6 skulls. Ab-
sence of internal obliteration indicates
an age below 30, while after 60 all the
internal sutures have disappeared. Ecto-
cranial sutures are usually open under 30
and obliteration commences below the



Lombroso (C.) A propos des caractères
dégénératifs du crime et du génie. (Rev.
Scient., Paris, 1906, ve s., V, 795.)
Note in reply to M. Le Double's remarks
Lombroso main-
in a previous number.
tains that physical malformations "are
only external signs, not corollaries."
Genius, with crime and madness, is a
-a fertile,
branch of the tree of epilepsy -
even wonderful, product of epileptic de-

v. Luschan (F.) Ueber ein rachitisches
Schimpanseeskelett. (Z. f. Ethn., Ber-
lin, 1906, XXXVIII, 115-120,
Describes, with measurements, the skel-
eton of a male chimpanzee ca. 15 years
old (long in the Dresden Zoological Gar-
den), the skull and pelvis of which are
This skeleton is
particularly rachitic.
compared with that of a sound adult
animal of the same size.
Mantegazza (P.) Il preteso pregiudizio
delle razze. (A. p. l'Antrop., Firenze,
1905, XXXV, 303-310.) Critique of Fi-
not's recent volume Le préjugé des races
(inspired by the fatal and mad word
equality"). M. does not agree with Fi-
not's conclusions that "the psychology of
peoples demonstrates their mental unity,"
and the virtues and vices of a race are
but the effects of historical circumstances
or of the influence of environment."

Darwin dopo cinquant'anni. (Ibid.,
311-322.) Sums up the results of Dar-
win's views and influence-the "temple
of evolution" has not remained quite as
"Evolution" is too Eng-
it was built.
lish, too utilitarian, and "natural selec-
tion" has been "overworked."
Parsons (Elsie C.) The religious dedica-
tion of women. (Amer. J. Sociol.,
Chicago, 1906, XI, 585-622.)
cusses this topic from the crudest form
(wives of the gods among the natives of
Guinea) to the modern nun and Protest-
Author holds that in
ant church-goer.
the phenomena involved "we discover
one of the many impressive series of so-
cial factors which have contributed so
richly to the development of human per-
sonality." When woman was a chattel,
male ownership kept her chaste, and
"now religion seems to safeguard the
products of a social means that is out-
Parsons (F. G.) and Box (C. R.) The
relation of the cranial sutures to age.
(J. Anthr. Inst., Lond., 1905, XXXV,
30-38.) Gives results of examination
of 82 skulls, mostly of lower and mid-


Pradel (F.) Der Schatten im Volksglau-
ben. (Mitt. d. Schles. Ges. f. Volksk.,
Breslau, 1904, H. XII, 1-36.) Inter-
esting discussion of the shadow in folk-
lore, shadow as soul, under-world of
shadows, shadowlessness of spirits and
elves, shadow as essential part of man,
fear of loss of shadow under the equator
(Amboyna, Old Calabar, etc.), correla-
tion of power and strength with shadow,
shadow as protective "demon," form of
shadow, loss of shadow (Peter Schlemihl
haunt," magic con-
cycle), shadow as "
nected with shadow (stepping on, urina-
ting on), shadow in oaths and legal lore,
defiling of water through shadow, medi-
cinal virtue and evils of tree-shadows,
etc., pregnancy caused by shadow of
leaf (Tahiti), proverbs and sayings about
the shadow, riddles, etc. Widespread
is the idea that man's shadow is his soul.

Kopflose Menschen und Tiere in Mythe und Sage. (Ibid., 37-42.) Gives numerous references to the many and widespread myths and stories concerning headless men (often with head under Horses in particular arm) and animals. appear headless in association with the headless wild huntsmen. Dr P. suggests as sources of such myths not decapitation (the spirit of the beheaded was regarded as headless), but ancient burial customs (separation of head from body before cremation, inhumation, etc.). The idea was then carried over to animals. Reid (C. A.) The biological foundations of sociology. (Amer. J. Sociol., Chicago, Dr R. argues that 1906, XI, 532-544.) races evolve only when placed under influences which, because injurious to the individual, weed out the weak and the unfit, and leave the race to the strong and fit." This accounts for tall and robust negroes, fine Chinese race (city-life for ages). Human beings develop under three stimuli: nutrition, use, injury.


Races can be improved only by breeding favorably-varying individuals. There is no reason why we should not rival, and even surpass the Greeks. Improved environment and selective breeding will do it.


Retzius (G.) Hjalmar Stolpe. (Ymer, Stockholm, 1905, XXV, 5-16, 3 fgs.) Appreciative sketch of life, scientific activities, etc., of H. Stolpe, best known by his Development of primitive ornament (1890-1891), and Studies in American ornament (1896). Schlaginthaufen (O.)` Das Hautleistensystem der Primatenplanta unter Mitberücksichtigung der Palma. (Morphol. Jahrb., Lpzg., 1904, XXXIII, 577-671; 1905, XXXIV, 1-125, 194 fgs.) In this valuable and detailed monograph, based on the investigations of the soles of 330 Simiæ and Prosimiæ and of 365 human soles (European 278, West African negro 51, Papuan 24, Japanese, Chinese, East Indian 12), with examination of all the previous literature on the subject (bibl. 109 titles, pages 608-612), Dr S. presents a thorough-going study of the cutaneous crests and furrows of the sole (the palm also is considered) among the primates and several human races- - macroscopic and microscopic aspects, embryology, physiology, topography (in detail with statistics), etc. certain peculiarities man and the Catarrhine monkeys belong together (e. g., the triradius, t13, never occurring typically in the Platyrrhines). The gorilla, the orang, and the chimpanzee resemble man in diverse ways (which is really nearest cannot yet be determined). man race-differences occur. The MayaIndians (Wilder) are more primitive than the West African Negroes (S.). The Papuans of northern New Guinea depart most from the original type. The most primitive elements are the "insulæ primaria," from which the crests, etc., develop. Simmel (G.) The sociology of secrecy and of secret societies. (Amer. J. Sociol., Chicago, 1906, XI, 441-498.) Discusses friendship, marriage, secrecy as a sociological technique (e. g., in commerce), reciprocal confidence (protective character), reticence on an objective basis (secret societies of the Moluccas, Gallic druids, etc.), correlation of secrecy and individualistic separateness, gradual initiation, ritual, etc. The secret element in societies is a primary


sociological fact, the secret society is a secondary structure. Secret associations have always had a significant rôle in political aristocracies. The secret society seems dangerous because it is secret. Singer (H.) Der Stand der geographischen Erforschung der deutschen Schutzgebiete. (Globus, Brnschwg., 1906, LXXXIX, 77-82.) Résumés recent geographical literature concerning the German colonies and protectorates in various parts of the world. Starbird (R. S.) The ethnological in Matthew Arnold. (Bull. Wash. Univ. Assoc., St Louis, 1906, IV, 112-121.) Arnold's use of ethnological terms seems a mere rhetorical flourish, but he used this device "because he felt instinctively a fundamental relation between the products of a literary man and the life of that man, between the literary output of an age and some characteristic movement of that age, and between literature as a whole and life as a whole." He hits off easily the distinctive marks of a race. One idea pervades his work- let us perfect our race.

Swift (E. J.) The school and the individual. (Ibid., 122-141.) Protests against "the dominant sin of the schoolmaster, the attempt to make children homogeneous.' Cites examples of children who resented direction and coercion. Tjeenk Willink (H. D.) Mammalia voorkomende in Nederlandsch-Indie.

(Natuurk. Tijdsch. v. Nederl-Indie, Weltevreden, 1905, dl. LXV, 154-345.) This valuable monograph on the mammalia of the Dutch East Indies includes notes on the anthropomorphic apes, the Hylobates, Cercopitheci, etc. The local names are given. The maias (as the Dayaks called the orang) constructs a "nest "in the trees in which it sleeps at night - Dr Buttikofer found so many of these as to lead him to believe that the creature sometimes built a new one every night. An index of names is added. Vram (U. G.) Metodo per determinare l'inclinazione dell' orbita. (A. d. Soc. Rom. di Antrop., 1906, XII, 195-196.) Briefly describes an easy method of finding the horizontal inclination of the orbit. Warren (S. H.) On the origin of "eolithic" flints by natural causes, especially by the foundering of drifts. (J. Anthr. Inst., Lond., 1905, XXXV, 337364, I pl.) Treats of classes of "eoliths" (battered surfaces, flaked surfaces, chipped edges) and the possible

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