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Muhme," "O du lieber Augustin," Maidens' dance, from the Jauer district in Silesia.

Schulte (O.) Spottnamen und -Verse auf Ortschaften im nördlichen Oberhessen. (Hess. Bl. f. Voldsk., Lpzg., 1905, IV, 142-167.) Cites the blason populaire relating to more than 100 places in northern upper Hesse. Among the types or groups of these names and verses are those attributing droll or foolish things to the inhabitants, those referring to the economic situation of the place, those dealing with the moral qualities of the people, those based on peculiar pronunciations, etc., those nicknames for which no explanation is apparent, those "wandering verses applied again and again with mere change of name of place, the blason populaire of towns and cities, those verses, etc., referring to the various places in a parish, etc. On pages 165166 examples of incorrect and correct interpretations are given.

Siebourg (M.) Zwei griechische Goldtänien aus der Sammlung C. A. Niessen in Köln. (Arch. f. Religsw., Lpzg., 1906, VIII, 390-410, 2 fgs.) Describes and discusses two gold head-bands with Greek inscriptions from Bêt Djibrîn (the ancient Baitogabra) between Jerusalem and Ascalon in Judea. The significance of death-wreaths and the accompanying inscriptions is considered at some length -the inscriptions indicate folk-belief in communication with the dead. Some heathen formulæ have been taken over by Jews and Christians.

Siebs (T.) Ruf, Sang und Spruch beim Aus- und Eintrieb des Viehs. (Mitt. d. Schles. Ges. f. Volksk., Breslau, 1904, H. XII, 97-102.) Treats of the language used to call and drive away cattle, etc., in Seidorf in the Hirschberg district. Specimens of the narrative songs used with the call are also cited. Stuart (D. R.) Imperial method of inscription on restored buildings: Augustus and Hadrian. (Amer. J. Archæol., Norwood, Mass,. 1905, 1X, 427-449.) Hadrian "acted with a chivalrous regard for the memory of the founder that matched or even surpassed the respectful attitude of Augustus." S. finds evidence that C. I. L. VI, 31060 cannot be connected with the Palatine Temple of Victory and used as a proof of restoration by Augustus, and that the letters of the inscription of Agrippa on the Pantheon

date back to Hadrian's restoration and no farther.

Svensén (E.) Ordspråk, ordstāv ock talesätt från nordöstra Småland. (Svenska Landsmål, Stockholm, 1904, 4265.) Gives list in dialect (alphabetic according to chief word) of 500 proverbs, sayings, refrains, figures of speech, riddles, prayers, formulæ, etc., from the northwestern part of the province of Småland in Sweden.

Tonks (O. S.) A new kalos-artist : Phrynos. (Amer. J. Archæol., Norwood, Mass., 1905, IX, 288-293, 5 fgs.) Discusses two fragments of a Greek_kylix (belonging to the cycle of the Lesser Masters), with bust of woman, profile to left. These with a British Museum kylix (Stroibos vase) the author considers to be the work of a new kalosartist Phrynos, whose "love name" was Stroibos.

Usener (H.) Quellenverehrung. (Arch. f. Religsw., Lpzg., 1906, VIII, 559-560.) Cites evidence for Low Saxon spring and fountain cult as late as the second half of the 16th century.

Vasič (M.) Bronsani sud iz Viminacija.

(Vjesn. hrvats. Archeol. Drustva, Zaghreb, 1905, N. S., VIII, 148–158, 4 figs.) Describes a bronze vessel (bust of young satyr) from a grave at Kostolca, the old Roman colony of Viminacium. Visor. (Svenska Landsmål, Stockholm, 1904, 66-72, 121-133.) Gives texts of 20 ballads, love-songs, etc., collected chiefly by L. F. Rääf in the district of Ydre, Ostergothland.

Vram (U. G.) Frammenti scheletrici in tombe cristiane presso Niksii, Montenegro. (A. d. Soc. Rom. di Antrop., 1906, XII, 191–194.) Describes briefly with measurements fragments of 3 skeletons from a Christian cemetery at Kocani near Niksii in Montenegro.

Weissenberg (S.) Speise und Gebäck bei den südrussischen Juden in ethnologischen Beziehung. (Globus, Bruschwg., 1906, LXXXIX, 25-30, 5 fgs.) Treats of implements for salting meat and methods of preparing it, use of cooking vessels, hand-washing, meals and meal-times, holiday fare, favorite foods, fasts, baking bread, its forms, etc. (the bird is a favorite motive in Jewish cult and domestic furniture), among the South Russian Jews.

Wigström (E.), Nyblin (A. G.), ock Lampa (S.) Seder ock bruk från olika

landskap. (Svenska Landsmål, Stockholm, 1904, 116-120.) Notes on Christmas and Easter customs in Scania, Bleking, Närke, and Gottland, peasant wedding and dance in Närke, etc. Wigström (Eva). Folktro ock sägner. (Ibid., 309-404.) Nos. 906-1313 of brief legends and folk-beliefs from various parts of Sweden. Wiklund (K. B.) Ortnamnen på 1904 års Norrbottenskarta. (Ymer, Stockholm, 1905, XXV, 90-103.) Discusses the orthography of place-names on the 1904 map of Norrbothnia. Place-names should be written according to the laws of the language spoken by the people proper to the region. - Swedish, Finnish, Lapp, as the case may be.

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Språken i Finland, 1880-1900. (Ibid., 132-149, 3 maps). Discusses, with detailed statistics, the distribution of languages in 'Finland from 1886 to 1900. During this period the percentage of Finnish-speaking people increased from 85.29 percent to 86.75 percent, the percentage of Swedish-speaking decreasing from 14.32 percent to 12.89 percent, although an actual increase in numbers occurred. The numbers of Lapps rose from 961 to 1,336; Russians from 4,195 to 5,939; Germans from 1,720 to 1,925. There were in 1900 ca. 2,000 Gypsies, at least 1,100 Jews, 102 Tatars, some Esths, Polacks, Letts, etc., besides scatterings of various other European nationalities. Wilke (A. G.) Zur Entstehung der Spiral-Dekoration. (Z. f. Ethn., Berlin, 1906, XXXVIII, 1-33, 76 fgs.) Discusses the origin of the spiral decoration on ceramic objects, etc., from prehistoric central Europe, particularly Butmir. The place of origin of this motif was southern Hungary (Transylvania and Butmir in particular); the motif arose through the shifting against one another of concentric semi-circles (the art of central Europe ca. 2500 B. C.); this accounts for the appearance of the meander and spiral ornaments in widely separated places having no intercourse with one another.

Zielinski (T.) Hermes und die Hermetik.

(Arch. f. Religsw., Leipzig, 1905, VIII, 321-372; 1906, IX, 25-60.) In this detailed discussion of Hermes and the origin of Hermetic doctrine, philosophy, cosmogony, etc. (there are three dogmatic layers of Hermetic, literature; a higher and a lower Hermetics), the author

comes to the conclusion that "Hermetics spread from Arcadia over Cyrene to Egypt."


Biasutti (R.) "Crania Ægyptiaca." Esame di 42 crani di Egiziani antichi conservati nella collezione del Museo Nazionale d' Antropologia, Firenze. (A. p. l'Antrop., Firenze, 1905, xxxv, 323-362). Describes, with details of measurements, 42 ancient Egyptian skulls of diverse provenience (Cro-Magnon type 1, Mediterranean 31, AustroAfrican 7, nannocephalic 2, brachycephalic 1). The alleged negroid element is discussed. B. concludes that the population of ancient Egypt was very heterogeneous, having in the lowest stratum a notable proportion of " AustroAfrican" (Bushmanoid) with some traces of nannocephalic, pigmy types. The brachycephalic element, unlike the Cro-Magnon (very old) and the prevailing Mediterranean type, entered Egypt only in the historic period. Other negroid traces are very rare and sporadic. The indigenousness and development in situ of the ancient Egyptians are justified by the African origin of the primitive fond. Binetsch (G.) Beantwortung mehrerer Fragen über unser Ewe-Volk und seine Anschauungen. (Z. f. Ethn., Berlin, 1906, XXXVIII, 34-40.) Answers to questions concerning: Name, word for God (Mawu), creation-legend (first human beings came from sky in basket), soul (heaven not so good a place as earth for man), spirit, love and worship (sacrifices, etc.), idols (provincial, town, house; good and bad spirits), sorcery, rainmaking, sacred animals (leopard, hyena, crocodile, dog, cat; with some tribes sheep, goat, and white-tailed black monkey), mystic ceremonies, witchcraft. Dennett (R. E.) Notes on the philosophy of the Bavili. (J. Anthr. Inst., Lond., 1905, XXXV, 48-55.) Treats of cosmological ideas (everything is a manifestation of Nzambi), temporal ideas (months, seasons), the categories (6-water, earth, fire, motion, fruitfulness, life), the sacred groves (6 groups of 4 each, corresponding to the categories). author believes that "beyond fetishism .. there is a higher form of religion among the Bairli (of Luango), which is connected with certain symbols in the form of: (1) sacred groves, (2) sacred lands and rivers, (3) sacred trees, (4)


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Fritsch (G).

Die Buschmänner der Kalahari von S. Passarge. (Z. f. Ethn., Berlin, 1906, XXXVIII, 71-79.) Critique (severe in places) of Passarge's article on the Kalahari Bushmen in Mitt. a. d. deutschen Schutzgebieten for 1905. Dr

F. believes that the so-called ancient and mighty Bushman kingdom of Chief "Dukúri" belongs to the realm of fable. The hair system of the short primitive peoples of central and southern Africa is considered (embryonal vestiges, etc.).

Gentz (Lt.) Die Bureneinwanderung nach unseren deutschen Kolonien. (Globus, Brnschwg., 1906, LXXXIX, 53-55.) Discusses recent Boer immigration into German South Africa. A great Boer settlement in Madagascar was planned, but not favored by the French govern



Gottschling (E.) The Bawenda : a sketch of their history and customs. Anthr. Inst., Lond., 1905, XXXV, 365386, I pl. I fg.) Treats of name (people of Wenda, their former home); history (European settlers not allowed previous to 1872; kingdoms, chiefs); nationality (author speaks of mixture of Asiatic blood), appearance and character, habits of life (dwellings, food, drink, etc., sleeping, agriculture, pastimes, trades, war); curriculum, vitæ (birth, education, declaration of manhood and puberty, engagement and marriage, family life, daily routine of work, meals, pleasures, illness, death and burial); tribal constitution (royalty, power of chief, taxation, division of country); administration of justice (courts, punishment, peculiar laws); religious customs (gods, priests and witch doctors, places of worship, sacrifices and prayers, superstitious customs); knowledge of nature and natural phenomena (astronomy, time-reckoning, meteorology, geology, botany, zoölogy, etc.); proverbs and adages (author possesses ca. 600); language (clearly Bantu, but a distinct dialect of the stock). Grant (W.) Magato and his tribe. (Ibid., 266-270.) Brief sketch of Magato, called by Europeans the "Lion of the North," paramount chief of the Mavenda in 1894, and his people (circumcisionrites, houses, animal-killing, social code, counting, religion—no superstitious

ideas concerning snakes-"bride purchase").

Hall (R. N.) Stone fort and pits on the Inyanya estate, Rhodesia. (Ibid., 92– 102, 2 pl., 4 fgs.) Gives descriptions, plans, and measurements. Remains of old aqueducts and hill terraces occur in large numbers throughout Inyanya — the former are said to be "a marvel to all modern engineers who inspect them." These remains "have no similitude whatever to the remains of ancient buildings found in any other part of Rhodesia." Many of the trees found in this area "are not indigenous to S. E. Africa." Härtter (G.) Sitten und Gebräuche der Angloer, Ober-Guinea. (Z. f. Ethn., Berlin, 1906, XXXVIII, 40-51.) Treats of protective ceremonies for infants, naming, visit of mother to fetish-priest, determination of what ancestor is reincarnated in child, education, marriage (seclusion of bride, concubinage, wedded life and widowhood), sickness and disese (caused by spirits), and their curebay sorcery, death and burial, punish ment of spendthrift heirs and debtors (nephew inheritance obtains), etc.

Der Fischfang im Evheland. (Ibid., 51-63.) Describes fishing in sea, lagoons, rivers much of their knowledge of the art has been derived from the natives of Accra and the Fantis (also from the Europeans). Implements used are hooks (introduced by Europeans), spears, several varieties of nets, baskettrap, etc. Water-poisoning is also in use. At pages 62-63 is a list of the Ehve names of edible and inedible fishes.

Spiele der Evheer. (Ibid., 64-70.) Describes kpemdeshia (a stone-passing and guessing game for children; patapre (a word-game), afutiti (a leaping over obstacles), miawo 'veve miele (a breaking into a circle game), ve or didada (gambling game with fruit thrown on mat), hodada (played with 4 cowrieshells), atidada (something like Ger"Mühlezieben"), etc. Of games


of foreign origin are noted cards and a ball-game.

Klose (H.) Musik, Tanz und Spiel in Togo. (Globus, Brnschwg., 1906, LXXXIX, 9-13, 71-75, 13 fgs.) Treats of the war-drums of the Ewe, the fetishdrums of the great idol Wurupong in Kunya, their uses and the dances connected therewith, the signal drums and their "language"; the drums of Ho adorned with trophies of human skulls,

traveling Haussa dance girls and singers, etc.; the war-drums of the Haussa; the drums and other musical instruments, "bands," etc., of the people of Bassari ; the mask-dance of the Anago, gambling games and songs of various sorts (particularly the adi), children's games, etc. Loir (A.) L'alimentation des indigènes.

(Rev. Scient., Paris, 1906, ve s., V, 590-592.) Dr L. thinks (he saw the Kaffirs of S. Africa in 1902) that "the deplorable condition of these natives is due to defect of alimentation" something like beri-beri or scurvy is epidemic among the coolies. Sudden changes in

food and modes of nourishment are dangerous for these people. Mine and prison fare soon kill them, or nearly so. The native menu is always best. Myers (C. S.) Contributions to Egyptian anthropometry. II. The comparative anthropometry of the most ancient and modern inhabitants. (J. Anthr. Inst., Lond., 1905, Xxxv, 80-91, 6 curves.) Discusses measurements and indices, variability, frequency-distributions, correlation, of prehistoric skulls from Nakada and the heads of fellahin conscripts from Kena and Girga, "living under similar conditions and in the same region of the valley of the Nile as did their Nakada ancestors about 5000 B. C. M. concludes that "there is no evidence that the 'prehistoric' and the modern population of southern "Upper Egypt differ in physical measurements." The homogeneity of the Egyptians there is the same as it was 7000 years ago. Randall-MacIver (D.) The manufacture of pottery in Upper Egypt. (Ibid., 20-29, 6 pl.) Describes the three kinds of pottery (hæmatitic, painted, household the first, original in Nubia; the second, confined to two or three places between Assuân and Keneh; the third, manufactured everywhere north of Assuân but foreign to Nubia) chiefly made in Upper Egypt to-day. Comparison with ancient Egyptian pottery is reserved for another article. The processes of making are noted with some detail. Reinsch (P. S.) The negro race and European civilization. (Amer. J. Sociol., Chicago, 1905, XI, 145-167.) Discusses race-mixture, type of civilization, social organization, slavery, lack of mechanical arts ("greatest deficiency of the negro race"), rudimentary art-sense, expertness in oratory with rich folklore, fetishism (intellectual life chiefly taken

up with this). Low stage of culture among African negroes "due rather to social, political and climate conditions than to the physiological, personal incapacity of the negro." The "missionary-made" man is not the ideal. An economic foundation for African culture is necessary; in creating this European influence may succeed, but permanent bondage under the whites is the wrong way. Schenk (A.) Note sur dix crânes du Congo Français. Tribu des Yeveng; race des Fang. (Bull. Soc. Neuchât. de Géogr., Neuchâtel, 1905, XVI, 296–303. ) Brief description, with measurements, of 10 Fang skulls (6 male) from the Yeveng tribe in French Congo, collected by Father Trilles. All are dolichoceph



Torday (E.) and Joyce (T. A.) Notes on the ethnography of the Ba-mbala. Anthr. Inst., Lond., 1905, XXXV, 398426, 3 pl.) Treats of migrations, resemblances between the Ba-Mbala (a Bantu people of the Inzia-Kwilu region) and the tribes of Portuguese West Africa, clothing and ornament (red body-painting, scarification at puberty, tattooing simple and rare), food (salt used as money; geophagy and cannibalism common; drunkenness a sign of wealth), fishing and hunting (rather poor shots), crafts (basketry learned from the BaYanzi, pottery made by women, metallurgy, house-building, etc.), trade (shellmoney, markets, credit-system), social organization ("communism with a strong flavoring of anarchy"; unit is village community, with chief holding position by wealth; muri, a special class; marriage, child and adult), slavery (threefourths slaves), property (renting of land unknown), education and psychology (children precocious, geographical knowledge and memories good, arithmetic poor), message-arrows, music (no foreign songs sung), justice (= "palaver' - round this their whole life centers), war, poison ordeal, death and burial (children before puberty, plants, food, and weapons have no soul), religion (moloki a malevolent being; mapuans, fetishes), reproduction, abnormalities, language (vocabulary, pages 421-426).

Traeger (P.) Die Troglodyten des Matmata. (Z. f. Ethn., Berlin, 1906, XXXVIII, 100-114, 17 fgs.) Account of visit in 1903 to the troglodytes of the Matmata mountains in south Tunis,

their houses, dress, physical characters! (projecting ears are possibly due to head covering), customs, etc. The inhabitants represent Arabized (clothing, customs, speech) Berbers. The houses number 200 with a population of some I 200. Hamy seeks to identify the houses of Médinine with Sallust's mapalia. In any case these cave-dwellings are very old. Trilles (H.) Proverbes, légendes et contes Fang. (Bull. Soc. Neuchât. de Geogr., Neuchatel, 1905, XVI, 49-294 pp., 5 pl.) In this interesting and rather comprehensive monograph Father Trilles, after an ethnographic introduction, treats of proverbs and sayings (67-111), religious legends and origin-myths (128– 170), nature-myths (170-180), wondertales (180-205 - giant and dwarf stories abound), animal-stories (205-246- the tortoise and elephant cycles), moral tales (247-284). In all, the French texts of 34 legends and tales are given, and at pages 287-294 native texts with interlinear translations of four. The proverb is Fang philosophy, history, morals, religion (e. g., "to live with one's wife's relatives is to become a child again"). Meal-time (6 p. m.) is the story-hour. The tale-tellers are wandering bands and old men. The animal-tales have two cycles, that of the tortoise, typifying the wisdom of the little, and that of the elephant, typifying the wisdom of the big. The Fang are a fine African people of Bantu stock, cannibals, but eating only prisoners. Villattes Forschungen in der Sahara.

(Globus, Brnschwg., 1906, LXXXIX, 55-57, I fg.) Résumés briefly the explorations of N. Villatte, the scientific member of the Sahara expedition (1904) of Captain Laperinne in the region toward the Niger. At the wells of Timissao was found a grotto with Tamashek inscriptions and drawings of animals (cattle, camels, ostriches). Wheelwright (C. A.) Native circumci

sion lodges in the Zoutpansberg district. (J. Anthr. Inst., Lond., 1905, XXXV, 251-255.) Describes the "lodges" or "schools" (there are three grades of teachers with different functions) as observed among the Bavenda in 1904, and the ceremonies in connection therewith. They were originally held in April or May at intervals of five years. Native public opinion drives many to submit to the rites (great secrecy is maintained)

and many Christian natives break away from the mission stations to join the "schools," which usually last three months.

White (F.) Notes on the great Zimbabwe elliptical ruin. (Ibid., 39-47, 6 pl.) Author gives results (descriptions, measurements, etc.) of survey made by him in 1903, compared with the data of Bent and Swan, etc. W's observations throw out altogether the "cubit theory" of Bent and Swan and show how little foundation there is for the view that the builders were Semitic (Arabs), and that sun-worship had here reached an advanced stage. The plans of the builders, whoever they were, "are quite wanting in symmetry or in evidence of careful design."

Willoughby (W. C.) Notes on the totemism of the Becwana. (Ibid., 295314.) Treats of words used to express the totem idea, tribal totems, animal totems (especially crocodile and hare), cattle in Becwana life and customs (ox sacrifice, etc.), purification of warriors, marriage ceremonies, prerogatives of chiefs, children's play, oaths, plant and cereal totems, New Year's purification, etc. W. states that though every Becwana tribe has its present-day totem (and every small boy knows what his tribal totem is), yet it is decadent, and these totems have practically no influence upon their great rites and everyday customs.

The central place in all the ritual of the greater ceremonies is taken by cattle. The most valuable evidence for plant-totems (veneration of lerötse and Kaffir-corn) is to be found in the initiation ceremony for girls.


Adachi (B. und Y.) Die Handknochen der Japaner. (Mitt. d. Med. Fac. d. K.-Jap. Univ. zu Tokyo, 1905, VI, 349375, 6 pl.) In this eighth contribution to the anatomy of the Japanese, Dr and Mrs A. give the results of their examination of the bones of the hand of 25 adult Japanese (m. 15, w. 10) and 10 adult Europeans (m. 4, w. 2, ? 4) - the various bones are studied in detail, with measurements. The hand-bones of the Japanese are shorter and proportionally thicker than those of Europeans; the articular surfaces are more curved, more extended, more rarely split, etc. (the articular surface is more curved and ex

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