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tensive in women); the basal and terminal phalanges are relatively long, the metacarpal and the middle phalanx shorter in Japanese hands; the terminal phalanx is slimmer and more pointed. Slimness or thickness of hand and finger bones cannot be explained as being due to work, though the differences in articular surfaces doubtless are. The fine work, however, of the Japanese is more a product of experience than of particular finger-forms. So, too, perhaps the stiff European hand. Japanese children can often press their fingers back to touch the fore-arm. Brockelmann (C.) Ein Tieropfer in der georgischen Kirche. (Arch. f. Religsw., Lpzg., 1906, VIII, 554-556.) Calls attention to the fact that (as noted by the Patriarch Macarius of Antioch in 1671) the sacrifice of animals lasted in the Georgian churches till far on in the sevteenth century. Butler (H. C.) Preliminary report of the Princeton University expedition to Syria. (Amer. J. Archæol., Norwood, Mass., 1905, IX, 389-400.) Brief account of investigations of 1904 at Bosra, Si', Umm idj-Djimâl, the 'Ala country, il-Andarîn (the ancient city of Androna), Kerratin (almost as extensive as il-Andarin), the group of towns in the northern end of the Djebel Barisha, etc. Hundreds of inscriptions were copied, squeezes of architectural details made, also hundreds of photographs.

Dhorme (P.) La terre-mère chez les Assyriens. (Arch. f. Religsw., Lpzg., 1906, VIII, 550-552.) Points out traces in cuneiform texts of the tradition of the earth-mother among the Babylonians and Assyrians (e. g., in part of the myth of Ea and Atarhasis).

Falk (A.) Om utvecklingen af kännedomen om Kaspiska hafvet. (Ymer, Stockholm, 1905, xxv, 36-75.) Sketches the development of our knowledge of the Caspian sea, from the time of the geographer, Hecatæus of Miletus, down. Fraenkel (S.) Aus orientalischen Quellen.

(Mitt. d. Schles. Ges. f. Volksk., Breslau, 1904, H. XII, 42-44.) Cites from various authorities data concerning the "fire ordeal" and "witchcraft' Arabia.


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are not reputed to be old; the famous one of Ceylon is "father" of many). Also detailed description of an ebony plate copy (now in the Lübeck Ethnological Museum) of the footprint according to Siamese symbolic lore (108 figures are on it).

Karutz (R.) Von Buddhas heiliger Fussspur. (Globus, Brnschwg., 1906, LXXXIX, 21-25, 45-49, I fg.) Résumés data concerning the sacred footprints of Buddha in various parts of India (some

Littmann (E.) Inscriptions. (Amer. J. Archæol., Norwood, Mass., 1905, IX, 400-410.) Treats briefly of the inscriptions collected by the Princeton University expedition of 1904 in Syria Latin 45, Greek 776, Nabatæan 105, Safaïtic 1,295, Syriac 65, Arabic 138, Hebrew I. Many of the Latin, Greek, and Nabatean inscriptions are epitaphal and funerary. The new Safaïtic inscriptions add much to our knowledge of the life and language of the ancient northern Arabs (new names of deities and tribes occur).

Peters (J. P.) The palace at Nippur Babylonian, not Parthian. (Ibid., 450452.) Criticizes views of Hilprecht and Marquand. P. considers the palace Parthian, ca. 1200 B. C. Greek (Mycenæan) influences are apparent in the architecture. Robinson (D. M.) Greek and Latin inscriptions from Sinope and environs. (Ibid., 294-333.) Reproduces and discusses 79 Greek and Latin inscriptions and 17 others from elsewhere mentioning Sinopeans about one-half were discovered by the author in 1903. These consist of inscriptions on vase-handles, dedications, on sarcophagi, gravestones, The 8 Latin inscriptions are new. Rose (H. A.) Hindu pregnancy observances in the Punjab. (J. Anthr. Inst., Lond., 1905, XXXV, 271–278.) Treats of Hindu rites, some of which appear to be relics of an old custom of re-marriage during the first pregnancy"; strict taboo on first menstruation after marriage, observances at mid-pregnancy, the kanji and dewâ-dhâmî of the seventh month, the ceremonies of the eighth month (athwânsâ, mâwalî), taboos during eclipses, rites to avoid abortion.


Muhammadan pregnancy observances in the Punjab. (Ibid., 279-232.) Treats of the observances of the seventh month (satwahin, satwânsâ) and ninth month (naumâsâ). In Delhi many elaborate customs (some borrowed from the Hindus) connected with pregnancy survive. Thin milk in the mother's breasts presages a boy. Many food

taboos exist. Volland (Dr) Bilder aus Armenien und

Kurdistan. (Globus, Brnschwg., 1906, LXXXIX, 41-44, 7 fgs.) Notes on the tells of the plain of Charput, ruins of old Malatia; modern Malatia and Charput.



Foy (W.) Australien, 1903-04. (Arch. f. Religsw., Lpzg., 1906, VIII, 526549.) Reviews and résumés of literature: Spencer and Gillen's The Northern Tribes of Central Australia (Lond., 1904), Howitt's The Native Tribes of South-East Australia (Lond., 1904), and various articles by Mathews, Roth, Clements, Peggs, and others. Giglioli (E. H.) Il tavau danaro o valuta di penne rosse dall'Isola Deni o S. Cruz, Melanesia. (A. p. l'Antrop., Firenze, 1905, XXXV, 389-392, I fg.) Describes from specimens in the museum in Florence the tavau, a sort of "money" of red feathers, in use on the island of Sta Cruz, Melanesia. This "money" is kept wound on two bark rings, the feathers being attached to a body made from strips of pandanus leaves; various ornaments of shell, pieces of mother-ofpearl, etc., are attached. The ornamented part is 8 mm. long and 57 mm. wide.


Haddon (E. B.) The dog-motive in Bornean art. (J. Anthr. Inst., Lond., 1905, 113-125, 19 fgs.) Discusses the dog-motive in the tattoo-patterns, bamboo-carvings, etc., of the BahauKenyah-Kayans, etc., of Borneo, and the modifications of it by the Kalamantan, who have absorbed some of their culture. Mr H. thinks this motive originated with the Bahau-Kenyah-Kayans and was carried with them in their migrations— in Sarawak the dog's head appears conventionalized as a rosette. Among the Kalamantans the dog-motive is looked upon as a prawn; by the Ibans of Rejan as a scorpion.

Lang (A.) The primitive and the advanced in totemism. (Ibid., 315-336.) Discusses the question whether the Central and Northern Australian tribes (as Professor Spencer believes), or those of S. E. Australia on the Murray and Darling rivers are "the most primitive (the word does not refer to material progress) in religion and in social organization.' L. holds that the totemism of the Central Australian Arunta, contra Spencer, is not at all primitive, but has been modi

fied by the stone amulet and reincarnation belief.

Lasch (R.) Ein neuer Beitrag zur Kunde der Eingeborenen Westaustraliens. (Mitt. d. k.-k. Geogr. Ges. in Wien, 1906, XLIX, 137-141.) Résumés the data (furnished by Robert Austin) in W. E. Roth's "Notes of Savage Life in the Early Days of West Australia" (Proc. Roy. Soc. Qnsld., 1903, XVII pt. 2, 4569), relating to physical characters, disease, hunting and fishing, food, moral ideas, education and disposition, death and spiritism.

Ling Roth (H.) Tatu in the Society islands. (J. Anthr. Inst., Lond., XXXV, 283-294, 3 pls.) General description, instruments and pigments used, age at operation, method of tatu, origin of the custom (for women it is a mark of puberty and for men a seal of manhood and the performance of duties), the decay of the art (due to the missionaries). Mathews (R. H.) Sociology of some Australian tribes. (J. & Proc. R. Soc. N. S. W., Sydney, 1906, XXXIX, 104– 123.) Treats of the Wombaia of the Northern territory, the Wongaibon on the Lachlan river, Barkunjee of western New South Wales, the first more in detail (subdivisions, marriage-sections, marriage-sequences and progeny-names). Mr M. is of opinion that 'neither promiscuous intercourse of the sexes, nor group marriage' have ever existed among the social institutions of the aborigines of Australia." Also "the divisions into cycles, phratries, and sections have not been deliberately formulated, with intent to prevent consanguineous marriages and incest, but have been developed in accordance with surrounding circumstances and conditions of life." He criticizes Spencer and Gillen's and Howitt's recognition of "two exogamous groups," substituting therefor two principal divisions. Among the Wongaibon, Barkunjee, etc., "exogamy is entirely absent."


Ethnological notes on the aboriginal tribes of Queensland. (Proc. and Trans. Roy. Geogr. Soc. Austral., Brisbane, 1905, XX, 49-75). Treats of the sociology of the Wonkamurra, Murawurri, Badyeri (at pages 55-65, grammar and vocabulary), Inchalachee, succession of totems, etc. Also in reply to "grossly inaccurate statements of Professor Bald. win Spencer," Mr M. again emphasizes

devolution of section names through the mother, and the absence of exogamy.

Ethnological notes on the aboriginal tribes of Western Australia. (Ibid., 1904, XIX, 43-72, 2 pl.) Treats of rock carvings and paintings (on Depuch island there are hundreds of carvings), organization (several systems the tuar the most primitive), initiation ceremonies, superstitions (prowling malevolent spirits, food-supply ceremonies, serpent monsters, man-stealing creature, delaying darkness, stopping rain, etc.), language (brief vocabularies from Roeburne district and Lower Fitzroy river).

Ethnological notes on the aboriginal tribes of New South Wales and Victoria. (J. R. Soc. N. S. W., Sydney, 1904, XXXVIII, 203-381). This article, with some additions, has been reprinted (Sydney, 1905, XIV, 183, 4 fgs.). It contains a mass of information concerning sociological and marriage institutions, language, food regulations, sorcery and magic, initiation and other ceremonies, mythology, and folklore (some 20 tales, pages 135-174, 177-183), etc. The bibliography (pages ix-xiv) shows Mr M. to have published 95 different articles relating to the Australian aborigines. The pirrimbir or "avenging expedition" of the natives of S. E. New South Wales is described by the author for the first time (pages 37-50) with some detail. At page 103 we learn of the existence among many tribes of "a hybrid tongue or jargon, comprising a short code of words, by means of which a mother-in-law can carry on a limited conversation in the presence of her son-in-law, respecting some of the events of daily life." Some sections of this monograph, the author expects, "will completely revolutionize all the old school notions respecting the organization of Australian tribes," and, "it will be evident that the old women's yarns about 'marriage by elopement,' 'marriage by capture,' and group marriage' are practically impossible as fundamental matrimonial laws in aboriginal society."

Roth (W. E.) Notes on government, morals and crime. (N. Queensld. Ethnogr. Bull., No. 8, Brisbane, 1906, pp. 12, 4 pl.). Treats of assembly of elders, camp council, rights and powers of individual, sex relations, obscenity (sodomy, masturbation, bad language) laziness, falsehood, gluttony, respect for old age, treatment of non-tribesmen, saluta

tion (kissing fairly rare; much formality), trespass, inheritance, crimes against the person and against property, prop. erty-marks and "message-sticks," expiation. The "message-sticks" are discussed in detail, with many figures. Dr R. believes that "the marks on the socalled message-sticks' do not convey the slightest intimation of any communication." They merely accentuate the bona fides of the messenger. Stephan (Dr) Anthropologische gaben über die Barriai, Neupommern. (Globus, Brnschwg., 1906, LXXXIX, 1415, I fg.) Describes, with table of measurements, three Barriai young men (2023 years) from New Pomerania. Cephalic indices, mesocephalic and dolichocephalic; stature of tallest, 1700; of shortest, 1595 mm.


Thomas (N. W.) Australian canoes and rafts. (J. Anthr. Inst., Lond., 1905, XXXV, 56-79, 3 pl., 2 fgs.). This valuable article, with abundant bibliographical references, discusses types, distribution, construction and furnishings, use and methods of propulsion, etc., of the bark canoes, dug-outs, logs and rafts used for navigation by Australian aborigines. In the west and south navigation and even swimming are said to have been unknown. A list of canoe-names is given (73-77). The one-piece bark canoe is probably original in Australia; the sewnbark type, limited to the northern region, may have been imported; the dug-out of the Blue mountains is probably native; the out-rigger is of Papuan origin. T. thinks the Tasmanians reached that island by canoes (they resemble the Seri balsas), not by land.

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Bushee (F. A.) Communistic societies in the United States. (Polit. Sci. Q., Boston, 1905, XX, 625-664. ) Critical historical study of the various groups (Owenite, Fourierite, recent socialistic and communistic, religious, etc.) of communistic societies in the United States, 1732-1900, their origin, and the causes of their successes and failures. Lack of elasticity needful for the free play of individual desires is a marked cause of nonsuccess. Dr B. has noted about 100 of these attempts at communistic life in the United States.

Bushnell (D. I., Jr) Appunti sopra alcuni oggetti dell' America del Nord esistenti nel Museo Antropologico di Firenze. (A. p. l'Antrop., Firenze, 1905, XXV, 363382.) Describes various ethnological objects from North America now in the Anthropological Museum in Florence : Grooved stone axes, celts, "banner stones,' "other stone objects, chipped stone implements, disks, pipes (Sioux and Ojibwa), pottery fragments, hats (Haida), moccasins (Algonquian, etc.), ornaments and decorations in skin, etc., knife-sheaths, wampum and bead-work, lacrosse-racket (Ojibwa), ornaments, etc., of the missionary era (Tadousac). See also American Anthropologist, 1906, N. S., VIII, 243-255. Friederici (G.) Der Tränengruss der Indianer. (Globus, Brnschwg, 1906, LXXXIX, 30-31.) Treats, with numerous references to literature of subject, greeting guests and strangers by weeping and sighing, a custom found both in South America (Charruas, Tupi, Lenguas) and in North America (Texas, Caddoan tribes, Sioux, etc.). F. considers this greeting nothing more than a senselessly exaggerated and degenerate form of courtesy "raised to the highest " power.

Ueber eine als Couvade gedeutete Wiedergeburtszeremonie bei den Tupi. (Ibid., 59-60.) Discusses an old custom (he who has killed an enemy, is, at the cannibal feast, made to lie still in a hammock, given a little bow and arrow to shoot at a wax target; also given a new name, etc.) reported by Hans Stade; also the name-giving ceremonies of the Tupi - these are "due to fear of the spirit of the slain.” Ethnologic parallels

from the Aztecs and Pueblo Indians are cited. Gann (T. W.) The ancient monuments of northern Honduras and the adjacent

parts of Yucatan and Guatemala, the former civilization in these parts and the chief characteristics of the races now inhabiting them; with an account of a visit to the Rio Grande ruins. (J. Anthr. Inst., Lond., 1905, XXXV, 103-112, I fg.) Notes on buildings within mounds, stone-faced pyramids, ovoid underground chambers, former civilization (no metals), pottery (3 sorts), burial customs, religion, physical characters of modern Mayas, language, native arts and agriculture, influence of white civilization (altogether evil) — visit to ruins, "good specimen of Toltec architecture." Giuffrida-Ruggeri (V.) Gl'indigeni del Sud-America centrale fotografati dal Boggiani. (A. p. l'Antrop., Firenze, 1905, XXXV, 383-387, 1 pl.) Notes on the Boggiani collection of photographs of Indians of central S. America (See American Anthropologist, 1905, N. S., VII, 325). Facial and other peculiarities are discussed "the secondary (or tertiary) sexual characters are well marked in the faces of these Indians." Hill-Tout (C.) Report on the ethnology of the Statlumн of British Columbia. (J. Anthr. Inst., Lond., 1905, XXXV, 126-218.) In this important monograph are treated ethnography and sociology (list of 30 settlements), marriage (nearness of blood the only bar), dwellings, food, dress, puberty (Statlumн customs sui generis), mortuary (taboos and prohibitions) and birth customs, "salmon ceremonies," totemism (personal is earlier), nomenology (system of naming true source of group names), crests (from earlier personal), time-divisions, sundry beliefs and superstitions, linguistics (156–177), myths and traditions (177-205 - English texts of 7 native texts, interlinear translation and free rendering of 2), vocabulary (206– 218) of some 850 words. With regard to totemism and certain magical ceremonies there are striking resemblances between these Indians and the Arunta, etc., of central Australia. The StatlumH were once a strong and populous Salish tribe. MacCurdy (G. G.) Archæological researches in Costa Rica. (Ibid., 437442, 2 pl., 3 fgs.) Critical résumé of Hartman's Archæological Researches in Costa Rica (Stockholm, 1901). Nordenskiöld (E.) Beiträge zur Kenntnis einiger Indianerstämme des Rio Madre de Dios-Gebietes. (Ymer, Stock

holm, 1905, XXV, 265-312, 35 fgs.) Gives ethnological results of expedition of 1904-05 among the TambopataGuarayo, Yamiaca, etc., of the Rio Madre de Dios country. Tribal nomenclature and distribution, organization (chiefdom important), language (brief Vocabularies of Tambopata-Guarayo, Arasa, Yamiaca, Atsahuaca, Tuyoneiri the first two are Tacana, the third and fourth Pano, the last neither Tacana nor Pano), physical characters, war, friendly intercourse, migrations and agriculture (fields widely scattered), fishing and hunting (few tame animals), weapons (bow and arrow in detail), houses (each tribe has several dwelling-places in connection with its various fields), family (small, monogamous), fire and foodpreparation (vegetable food most important; eat all day), disease and death, etc., (dysentery; clean, daily baths; not cannibals), clothing and ornament (ornaments on cotton shirts few; hunting trophies worn; nose-piercing; necklaces), dance and song with featherdress, painting face and body, hammocks and basketry, drawings (Yamiaca drawings on clothes, walls, etc., due to more contact with whites), hospitality (marked; no word for "thank you,' no handshake, only nodding with head as greeting). N. has found out much that is new about these "wild Chunchos."


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Ethnographische und archäologische Forschungen im Grenzgebiet zwischen Peru und Bolivia, 1904-1905. (Z. f. Ethn., Berlin, 1906, XXXVIII, 80-99, 20 fgs.) Treats of the Quechua Indians of the borderland between Peru and Bolivia and the results of archeological investigations (chulpas, burial-caves, etc.) on the eastern slopes of the Andes. Among the objects found were bronze needles (topos) with llama-heads or leaf heads, such as are still used by Quechua women, pestles, pottery fragments- sometimes quite modern objects (later additions to original votive gifts). In one burial cave were 200 skeletons, in one chulpa 16; few had but one. Certain old Quechua customs (dances, burial of property with dead, foundation-sacrifice, "magic" for dry weather, making-sick, etc.) are noticed. The "wild" Indians or Chunchos are briefly considered. Palmer (T. C.) lected on the 1893 to 1897.

Sci., Media, Pa., 1906, 1, no. 2, 26-28, I fg.) Describes briefly a collection of arrow heads (110 in number), “reject " clippings and flakes, pottery fragments, piece of slate gorget, scraper, hammer, axes, etc., presented by the author to the museum of the Society. A large number of the arrow-heads are of the "white flint" so common along the Delaware. In the angle between the river and Lamokin run once stood an Indian village. Seler (E.) Das Dorfbuch von Santiago Guevea. Eine zapotekische Handschrift aus der Mitte des sechzehnten Jahrhunderts. (Z. f. Ethn., Berlin, 1906, XXXVIII, 121-155, 36 fgs.) Describes and discusses (hieroglyphics, names, numbers, words, etc.) a Zapotec Ms. of 1540 (from two copies, one at Guevea, one in the Mexican National Museum). Three languages appear, Aztec, Zapotec, Spanish. The upper half of the leaf contains the hieroglyphics of the place and those of 19 points around it; the lower pictures of the people presenting tribute to the kings.

Indian implements colriver shore at Chester, (Proc. Del. Co. Inst.

Sergi (G.) Contributo all' antropologia Americana. (A. d. Soc. Rom. di. Anthrop., 1906, XII, 197-204, I pl.) Treats of three American types of crania: Ancient Peruvian, which has negroid or oceanic pigmoid elements (cranial form, capacity, stature) due to trans-Pacific immigrants this skull is Sphenoides parvus peruvianus, modern Bolivian Indian (Ovoides bolivianus), with Melanesian affinities; mound-builder skull with central Asiatic relations. Prof. S. sees two pre-Columbian currents of immigration into America, one Oceanic, the other Asiatic. Simmons (H. G.) Eskimåernas forna och nutida utbredning samt deras vandringsvägar. (Ymer, Stockholm, 1905, XXV, 173-192, map, 6 fgs.) Discusses former and present distribution and migrations of the Eskimo tribes, with references to recent authorities, particularly Boas and Thalbitzen- the map is modified from that of the latter (it shows regions now uninhabited by Eskimo but containing evidences of their former residence: Southeast coast of Labrador, east coast of Greenland, the Arctic archipelago between Greenland, Baffin Land and Victoria Land, and a portion of the extreme N. E. Asiatic coast). One of the notable Eskimo "ruins" is "Eskimopolis" on Buchanan Strait, visited by the author in 1899. S. considers rash

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