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portion to the number of perceptions and ideas that have passed during that interval. This measure is indeed far from being accurate; because in a quick and in a slow succession, it must evidently produce different computations of the same time: but, however inaccurate, it is the only measure by which we naturally calculate time; and that measure is applied, on all occasions, without regard to any casual variation in the rate of succession.

That measure would, however, be tolerable, did it labor under no other imperfection besides that mentioned: but in many instances it is much more fallacious; in order to explain which distinctly, an analysis will be necessary. Time is computed at two different periods; one while it is passing, another after it is past: these computations shall be considered separately, with the errors to which each of them is liable. Beginning with computation of time while it is passing, it is a common and trite observation, That to lovers absence appears immeasurably long, every minute an hour, and every day a year: the same computation is made in every case where we long for a distant event; as where one is in expectation of good news, or where a profligate heir watches for the death of an old rich miser. Opposite to these are instances not fewer in number: to a criminal the interval between sentence and execution appears woefully short: and the same holds in every case where one dreads an approaching event; of which even a school-boy can bear witness: the hour allowed him for play, moves, in his apprehension, with a very swift pace; before he is thoroughly engaged, the hour is gone. Among the circumstances that territy a condemned criininal, the short time he has to live is one; which time, by the influence of terror, is made to appear still shorter than it is in reality. In the same manner, among the distresses of an absent lover, the time of separation is a capital circumstance, which for that reason is greatly magnified by his anxiety and impatience: he imagines that the time of meeting comes on very slow, or rather that it will never come: every minute is thought of an intolerable length. Here is a fair, and, I hope, satisfactory reason, why time is thought to be tedious when we long for a future event, and not less fleet when we dread the event. The reason is confirmed by other instances. Bodily pain, fixed to one part, produceth a slow train of perceptions, which, according to the common measure of time, ought to make it appear short: yet we know, that, in such a state, time has the opposite appearance; and the reason is, that bodily pain is always attended with a degree of impatience, which makes us think every minute to be an hour. The same holds where the pain shifts from place to place ; but not so remarkably, because such a pain is not attended with the same degree

157. The natural measure of time.--Its inaccuracy.-Time computed (1) when it is passIng. Instance of absent lovers; of longing for a distant ovent. Opposite instances - When an approaching event is dreaded. The computation of time whilo suffering bodily pain: also in travelling a bad road.

of impatience. The impatience a man hath in travelling through a barren country, or in a bad road, makes him think, during the journey, that time goes on with a very slow pace. We shall see afterwards, that a very different computation is made when the journey is over.

158. How ought it to stand with a person who apprehends bad news? It will probably be thought that the case of this person l'esembles that of a criminal, who, terrified at his approaching execution, believes every hour to be but a minute : yet the computation is directly opposite. Reflecting upon the difficulty, there appears one capital distinguishing circumstance: the fate of the criminal is determined; in the case under consideration, the person is still in suspense. Every one has felt the distress that accompanies suspense: we wish to get rid of it at any rate, even at the expense of bad news. This case, therefore, upon a more narrow inspection, resembles that of bodily pain: the present distress, in both cases, makes the time appear extremely tedious.

The reader probably will not be displeased, to have this branch of the subject illustrated, by an author who is acquainted with every maze of the human heart, and who bestows ineffable grace and ornament upon every subject he handles :

Rosalinda. I pray yon, what is't a-clock ?
Orlando. You sliould ask me, what time o' day; there's no clock in the forest.

Ros. Then there is no true lover in the forest; else, sigling every minute, and groaning every hour, would detect the lazy foot of Time, as well as a clock.

Orla. And why not the swift foot of Tine? Had not that been as proper? Ros. By no means, Sir. Time travels in divers paces with divers persons. I'll tell you who Time ainbles withal, who Time trots withal, who Tine gullops withal, and who he stands still withal ?

Orl. I prythee whom doth lie trot withal ?

Ros. Marry, he trots hard with a young maid between the contract of her niarriage and the day it is solemnized : if the interim be but a se'ennight, Time's pace is so hard, that it scems the length of seven year.

Orla. Who ambles Time withal?

Ros. With a priest that lacks Latin, and a rich man that hath not the gont; for the one sleeps easily, because he cannot study; the other lives merrily, because he feels no pain: the one lacking the burtben of lean and wastetul learning; the other knowing no burthen of heavy tedious pennry. These Time ambles withal.

Orla. Who doth he gallop withal?

Ros. With a thief to the gallows: for, though he go as softly as foot can full, he thinks himself too soon there.

Orla. Who stays it still withal?

Ros. With lawyers in the vacation : for they sleep between term and term, and then they perceive not how Time moves.--As You Like It, Act III. Sc. 8.

159. The natural method of computing present time, shows how far from the truth we may be led by the irregular influence of passion; nor are our eyes immediately opened when the scene is past ; for the deception continues while there remain any traces of the passion. But looking back upon past time when the joy or distress

158. Computation by a person who apprehends bad news.—How this case differs from thout of a criminal appronching the timno of exocutivi..

is zo longer remembered, the computation is very different: in that condition we coolly and deliberately make use of the ordinary measure, namely, the course of our perceptions. And I shall now proceed to the errors that this measure is subjected to. Here we must distinguish between a train of perceptions and a train of ideas : real objects make a strong impression, and are faithfully remembered : ideas, on the contrary, however entertaining at the time, are apt to escape a subsequent recollection. Hence it is, that in retrospection, the time that was employed upon real objects, appears longer than that employed upon ideas: the former are more accurately recollected than the latter; and we measure the time by the number that is recollected. This doctrine shall be illustrated by examples. After finishing a journey through a populous country, the frequency of agreeable objects distinctly recollected by the traveller, makes the time spent in the journey appear to him longer than it was in reality; which is chiefly remarkable in the first journey, when every object is new, and makes a strong impression. On the other hand, after finishing a journey through a barren country thinly peopled, the time appears short, being measured by the number of objects, which were few, and far from interesting. Here in both instances a computation is inade, directly opposite to that made during the journey. And this, by the way, serves to account for what may appear singular, that, in a barren country, a computed mile is always longer than near the capital, where the country is rich and populous: the traveller has no natural measure of the miles he has travelled, other than the time bestowed upon the journey; nor any natural measure of the time, other than the number of his perceptions: now these, being few from the paucity of objects in a waste country, lead him to compute that the time has been short, and consequently that the miles have been few: by the same method of computation, the great number of perceptions, from the quantity of objects in a populous country, make the traveller conjecture that the time has been long, and the miles many. The last step of the computation is obvious: in estimating the distance of one place froin another, if the miles be reckoned few in number, each mile must of course be long: if many in number, each must be short.

160. Again, the travelling with an agreeable companion, produceth a short computation both of the road and of time; especially if there be few objects that demand attention, or if the objects be familiar: and the case is the same of young people at a ball, or of a joyous company over a bottle: the ideas with which they have been entertained, being transitory, escape the memory: after the journey and the entertainment are over, they reflect that they have been much diverted, but scarce can say about what.

159. (2.) When the time of an event has passed; how we compnte.-The retrospection of time employed upon real objects, and upon ideas. Examples.--Computation of distanco end of time in passing through a populous country; and through a barreu 030.

When one is totally occupied with any agreeable work that admits not many objects, time runs on without observation; and upon a subsequent recollection, must appear short, in proportion to the paucity of objects. This is still more remarkable in close contemplation and in deep thinking, where the train, composed wholly of ideas, proceeds with an extreme slow pace: not only are the ideas few in number, but are apt to escape an after reckoning. The like false reckoning of time may proceed from an opposite state of mind: in a reverie, where ideas float at random without making any impression, time goes on unheeded, and the reckoning is lost. A reverie may be so profound as to prevent the recollection of any one idea: that the mind was busied in a train of thinking may in general be remembered; but what was the subject, has quite escaped the memory. In such a case we are altogether at a loss about the time, having no data for making a computation. No cause produceth so false a reckoning of time as immoderate grief: the mind, in that state, is violently attached to a single object, and admits not

different thought: any other object breaking in, is instantly banished, so as scarce to give an appearance of succession. In a reverie, we are uncertain of the time that is past; but, in the example now given, there is an appearance of certainty, that the time must have been short, when the perceptions are so few in number.

PART VI.

THE RESEMBLANCE OF EMOTIONS TO THEIR CAUSES.

161. That many emotions have some resemblance to their causes is a truth that can be made clear by induction ; though, as far as I know, the observation has not been made by any writer. Motion, in its different circumstances, is productive of feelings that resemble it : sluggish motion, for example, causeth a languid, unpleasant feeling ; slow uniform motion, a feeling calm and pleasant; and brisk motion, a lively feeling that rouses the spirits and promotes activity. A fall of water through rocks raises in the mind a tumultuous confused agitation, extremely similar to its cause. When force is exerted with any effort, the spectator feels a similar effort, as of

161. Computation of road and time when travelling with an agreeable companion.---Com. putation of time passed at a ball, or when occnpied with any agreeable work, admitting few objects; after a process of deep thinking; after a reverie; falso reckuning arising from immoderate grief.

161. Emotions resemble their canses. --Effect on the mind of various degrees of motion and of force.-- View of a large object; of an elevatod oue.

force exerted within his mind. A large object swells in the heart: ab elevated object makes the spectator stand erect.

162. Sounds also produce emotions, or feelings that resemble them. A sound in a low key brings down the mind such a sound in a full tone bath a certain solemnity, which it communicates to the feeling produced by it. A sound in a high key cheers the mina by raising it: such a sound in a full tone both elevates aud swells the mind.

Again, a wall or pillar that declines from the perpendicular produceth a painful feeling, as of a tottering and talling within the mind; and a feeling somewhat similar is produced by a tall pillar that stands so ticklish as to look like falling. A column with a base looks more firm and stable than upon the naked ground, and for that reason is more agreeable; and though the cylinder is a more beautiful figure, yet the cube for a base is preferred, its angles being extended to a greater distance from the centre than the circunference of a cylinder. This excludes not a different reason, that the base, the shaft

, and the capital of a pillar ought, for the sake of variety, to differ from each other: if the shaft be round, the base and capital ought to be square.

A constrained posture, uneasy to the man himself, is disagreeable to the spectator; whence a rule in painting, that the drapery ought not to adhere to the body, but hang loose, that the figures may appear easy and free in their movements. The constrained posture. of a French dancing-master in one of Hogarth's pieces is for that reason disagreeable ; and it is also ridiculous, because the constraint is assumed as a grace.

163. The foregoing observation is not confined to emotions or feelings raised by still life : it holds also in what are raised by the qualities, actions, and passions of a sensible being. Love, inspired by a fine woman, assumes her qualities : it is sublime, soft, tender, severe, or gay, according to its cause. This is still more remarkable in emotions raised by human actions : it hath already been remarked, that any single instance of gratitude, besides procuring esteem for the author, raiseth in the spectator a vague emotion of gratitude, which disposeth him to be grateful; and I now further remark, that this vague emotion hath a strong resemblance to its cause, namely, the passion that produced the grateful action. Courage exerted inspires the reader as well as the spectator with a like emotion of courage; a just action fortifies our love of justice, and a generous action rouses our generosity. In short, with respect to all virtuous actions, it will be found by induction, that they lead us to imitation, by inspiring emotions resembling the passions that pro

162. Emotions proinced by various sounds; also by a view of a wall or pillar ileclining from a perpendicular.--Column resting on a base or on the ground. - Proper form of the base of a culminn.-- A constrained posture disagreeable. Hence a rule in pinting.

163. Emotions raised by the qualities, actions, and passions of a sensible boing. —Effect of observing or reading or an instance of gratitude, &c. Practical inferonce.

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