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thoughts crowd in. The reason is, that an emotion or passion is connected with the perception or idea of its cause so intimately as not to have any independent existence: a strong passion, it is true, hath a mighty influence to detain its cause in the mind; but not so as to detain it forever, because a succession of perceptions or ideas is unavoidable. Further, even while a passion subsists, it seldom continues long in the same tone, but is successively vigorous and faint the vigor of a passion depends on the impression made by its cause; and a cause makes its deepest impression when, happening to be the single interesting object, it attracts our whole attention: its impression is slighter when our attention is divided between it and other objects; and at that time the passion is fainter in proportion.

133. The growth and decay of passions and emotions, traced through all their mazes, is a subject too extensive for an undertaking like the present: I pretend only to give a cursory view of it, such as may be necessary for the purposes of criticism. Some emotions are produced in their utmost perfection, and have a very short endurance; which is the case of surprise, of wonder, and sometimes of terror. Emotions raised by inanimate objects, trees, rivers, buildings, pictures, arrive at perfection almost instantaneously; and they have a long endurance, a second view producing nearly the same pleasure with the first. Love, hatred, and some other passions, swell gradually to a certain pitch, after which they decay gradually. Envy, malice, pride, scarce ever decay. Some passions, such as gratitude and revenge, are often exhausted by a single act of gratification: other passions, such as pride, malice, envy, love, hatred, are not so exhausted, but having a long continuance, demand frequent gratification. And with respect to emotions which are quiescent because not productive of desire, their growth and decay are easily explained: an emotion caused by an inanimate object cannot naturally take longer time to arrive at maturity, than is necessary for a leisurely survey: such emotion also must continue long stationary, without any sensible decay, a second or third view of the object being nearly as agreeable as the first: this is the case of an emotion produced by a fine prospect, an impetuous river, or a towering hill: while a man remains the same, such objects ought to have the same effect upon him. Familiarity, however, hath an influence here, as it hath everywhere frequency of view, after short intervals especially, weans the mind gradually from the object, which at last loses all relish the noblest object in the material world, a clear and serene sky, is quite disregarded, unless perhaps after a course of bad weather. emotion raised by human virtues, qualities, or actions, may, by reiterated views of the object, swell imperceptibly, till it become so


182. Emotions require the presence of an perating cause.-The same passion varies in strength at different times. Why?

vigorous as to generate desire: in that condition it must be handled as a passion.

134. As to passion, I observe, first, that when nature requires a passion to be sudden, it is commonly produced in perfection; which is the case of fear and of anger. Wonder and surprise are always produced in perfection: reiterated impressions made by their cause exhaust these passions instead of inflaming them. This will be explained in chap. vi.

In the next place, when a passion hath for its foundation an original propensity peculiar to some men, it generally comes soon to maturity: the propensity, upon presenting a proper object, is immediately enlivened into a passion; which is the case of pride, of envy, and of malice.

In the third place, the growth of love and of hatred is slow or quick according to circumstances; the good qualities of a person raise in me a pleasant emotion, which, by reiterated views, is swelled into a passion involving desire of that person's happiness: this desire, being freely indulged, works gradually a change internally, and at last produceth in me a settled habit of affection for that person now my friend. Affection thus produced operates precisely like an original propensity; for to enliven it into a passion, no more is required but the real or ideal presence of the object. The habit of aversion or of hatred is brought on in the same manner. And here I must observe, by the way, that love and hatred signify commonly affection and aversion, not passion. The bulk of our passions are indeed affection or aversion inflamed into a passion by different circumstances: the affection I bear to my son is inflamed into the passion of fear when he is in danger; becomes hope when he hath a prospect of good fortune; becomes admiration when he performs a laudable action; and shame when he commits any wrong version becomes fear when there is a prospect of good fortune to my enemy; becomes hope when he is in danger; becomes joy when he is in distress; and sorrow when a laudable action is performed by him.

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Fourthly, passions generally have a tendency to excess, occasioned by the following means. The mind affected by any passion is not in a proper state for distinct perception, nor for cool reflection: it hath always a strong bias to the object of an agreeable passion, and a bias no less strong against the object of a disagreeable passion. The object of love, for example, however indifferent to others, is to the lover's conviction a paragon; and of hatred, is vice itself without alloy. What less can such delusion operate, than to swell the passion beyond what it was at first? for if the seeing or conversing with

183. Growth and decay of various emotions and passions.-Emotions raised by inant mate objects. Love, hatred, &c-Further remarks concerning emotions caused by inan imate objects. Effect of familiarity with them.-Emotions raised by reiterated views of

human virtues.

a fine woman has had the effect to carry me from indifference to love, how much stronger must her influence be, when now to my conviction she is an angel! and hatred as well as other passions must run the same course. Thus between a passion and its object there is a natural operation, resembling action and reaction in physics: a passion acting upon its object, magnifies it greatly in appearance; and this magnified object reacting upon the passion, swells and inflames it mightily.

Fifthly, the growth of some passions depends often on occasional circumstances: obstacles to gratification, for example, never fail to augment and inflame a passion, because a constant endeavor to remove an obstacle preserves the object of the passion ever in view, which swells the passion by impressions frequently reiterated. Thus . the restraint of conscience, when an obstacle to love, agitates the mind and inflames the passion:

Quod licet, ingratum est: quod non licet, acrius urit.
Si nunquam Danaën habuisset ahenca turris,
Non esset Danaë de Jove facta parens.

Ovid, Amor. 1. 2..

At the same time, the mind, distressed with the obstacles, becomes impatient for gratification, and consequently more desirous of it. Shakspeare expresses this observation finely:

All impediments in fancy's course,
Are motives of more fancy.

We need no better example than a lover who hath many rivals. Even the caprices of the one beloved have the effect to inflame love; these occasioning uncertainty of success, tend naturally to make the anxious lover overvalue the happiness of fruition.

135. So much upon the growth of passions: their continuance and decay come next under consideration. And, first, it is a general law of nature, That things sudden in their growth are equally sudden in their decay. This is commonly the case of anger. And with respect to wonder and surprise, which also suddenly decay, another reason concurs that their causes are of short duration: novelty soon degenerates into familiarity; and the unexpectedness of an object is soon sunk in the pleasure that the object affords. Fear, which is a passion of greater importance as tending to self-preservation, is often instantaneous; and yet is of equal duration with its cause: nay, it frequently subsists after the cause is removed.

In the next place, a passion founded on a peculiar propensity, subsists generally forever; which is the case of pride, envy, and

134. (1.) What is said of any passion which nature requires to be sudden? (2.) What of passions founded on an original propensity peculiar to some persons? (3.) What of the growth of love and hatred? Other passions to which these, by a change of circumstances, give rise; fear, hope, &c. (4.) Whence the tendency of passions to excess is occasioned.The action and reaction between a passion and its object. (5.) Growth of passion promoted by obstructions to gratification. Illustrations given.

malice objects are never wanting to inflame the propensity into a passion.

Thirdly, it may be laid down as a general law of nature, That every passion ceases upon attaining its ultimate end. To explain that law, we must distinguish between a particular and a general end. I call a particular end what may be accomplished by a single act: a general end, on the contrary, admits acts without number; because it cannot be said, that a general end is ever fully accomplished, while the object of the passion subsists. Gratitude and revenge are examples of the first kind: the ends they aim at may be accomplished by a single act; and, when that act is performed, the passions are necessarily at an end. Love and hatred are examples of the other kind; desire of doing good or doing mischief to an individual, is a general end which admits acts without number, and which seldom is fully accomplished: therefore these passions have frequently the same duration with their objects.

Lastly, it will afford us another general view, to consider the difference between an original propensity, and affection or aversion produced by custom. The former adheres too close to the constitution ever to be eradicated; and, for that reason, the passions to which it gives birth continue during life with no remarkable diminution. The latter, which owe their birth and increment to time, owe their decay to the same cause: affection and aversion decay gradually as they grow; and accordingly hatred as well as love are extinguished by long absence. Affection decays more gradually between persons, who, living together, have daily occasion to testify mutually their good-will and kindness: and, when affection is decayed, habit supplies its place; for it makes these persons necessary to each other, by the pain of separation. (See Chapter xiv.) Affection to children hath a long endurance, longer perhaps than any other affection: its growth keeps pace with that of its objects: they display new beauties and qualifications daily, to feed and augment the affection. But whenever the affection becomes stationary, it must begin to decay; with a slow pace, indeed, in proportion to its increment. In short, man with respect to this life is a temporary being he grows, becomes stationary, decays; and so must all his powers and passions.

135. The continuance and decay of passions. (1.) Law concerning those of sudden growth; anger, &c. (2.) Concerning those founded on a peculiar propensity. (3.) The cessation of a passion on attaining its ultimate end. Distinguish between particular and general end. Examples of each kind. (4.) Difference between an original propensity and in affection or aversion produced by custom.-Effect of absence.-Affection between per Bons living together.-Affection to children.



136. For a thorough knowledge of the human passions and emotions, it is not sufficient that they be examined singly and separately as a plurality of them are sometimes felt at the same instant, the manner of their coexistence, and the effects thereby produced, ought also to be examined. This subject is extensive; and it will be difficult to trace all the laws that govern its endless variety of cases: if such an undertaking can be brought to perfection, it must be by degrees. The following hints may suffice for a first attempt.

We begin with emotions raised by different sounds, as the simplest case. Two sounds that mix, and, as it were, incorporate before they reach the ear, are said to be concordant. That each of the two sounds, even after their union, produceth an emotion of its own, must be admitted; but these emotions, like the sounds that produce them, mix so intimately as to be rather one complex emotion than two emotions in conjunction. Two sounds that refuse incorporation or mixture, are said to be discordant; and when heard at the same instant, the emotions produced by them are unpleasant in conjunction, however pleasant separately.

Similar to the emotion raised by mixed sounds is the emotion raised by an object of sight with its several qualities: a tree, for example, with its qualities of color, figure, size, &c., is perceived to be one object; and the emotion it produceth is rather one complex emotion than different emotions combined.

With respect to coexistent emotions produced by different objects of sight, it must be observed that however intimately connected such objects may be, there cannot be a concordance among them like what is perceived in some sounds. Different objects of sight, meaning objects that can exist each of them independent of the others, never mix or incorporate in the act of vision: each object is perceived as its exists separately from others; and each raiseth an emotion different from that raised by the other. And the same holds in all the causes of emotion or passion that can exist independent of each other, sounds only excepted.

137. To explain the manner in which such emotions exist, similar emotions must be distinguished from those that are dissimilar. Two emotions are said to be similar, when they tend each of them to produce the same tone of mind: cheerful emotions, however different

136. Concordant and discordant sounds, and the emotions they raise.-Emotion raised by an object of sight, with its several qualities.-Coexistent emotions produced by different objects of sight.

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