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The proper way to make cream of wheat and chopped figs is this. First, take half a cup of cream of wheat, a few chopped figs, four cups of boiling water, and a little salt. Second, stir the wheat slowly into the boiling water. Third, allow the mixture to steam about fifteen minutes. Fourth, add the chopped figs. Fifth, let the mixture steam until the wheat is soft, that is, between fifteen and twenty-five minutes longer.

VIII. Exercises

1. Translate into plain English one of the recipes given below.

2. Translate another of them into literary English, that is, English enlivened by wit, humor, sarcasm, metaphor, or contrast.

3. Write a recipe for some dish that you know how to make.


Caution 1. Please remember that in the English language there are three little words called articles. These are 'a," "an," and "the." There is no law forbidding their use, even when one is writing recipes.

Caution 2. Make the different processes stand out clearly from each other.

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Mix cocoa with sugar, then stir in the water, either hot or cold. Cook directly over the flame. Add to scalded milk and let it blend from five to ten minutes. Beat with Dover Egg beater just before serving.

Pan Broiled Chops.

Use frying pan heated hot. Rub over quickly with tiny bit of fat, so meat will not stick. Put in meat. Sear on one side, then the other. Lower temperature and cook slowly until done. Do not fry. Pour out fat as it melts.

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Cook fish and potatoes together until potatoes are soft. Drain and mash with fork. Add beaten egg, butter and seasoning. Beat until light. Take up by spoonfuls. Pat lightly and fry until brown.

Poached Egg.

Break egg carefully into saucer. Have ready a frying pan with water enough to cover egg. Bring water to boiling point. Slip in egg. Lower temperature immediately. Cook till white is of desired consistency. If the yolk comes out of water, pour spoonful of water on it.

IX. Memorize


That low man seeks a little thing to do,
Sees it, and does it;

This high man, with a great thing to pursue,
Dies ere he knows it.

That low man goes on adding one to one;
His hundred's soon hit;

This high man, aiming at a million,

Misses an unit.

That has the world here; should he need the next,
Let the world mind him!

This throws himself on God, and unperplexed

Seeking shall find him.


A Grammarian's Funeral.


I. Introduction

EVERY School library should contain several collections of letters and a number of biographies rich in correspondence. In addition each pupil should own a collection of letters such as is found in H. J. Anderson's English Letters (Longmans); Cook and Benham's Specimen Letters (Ginn & Co.); or Claude M. Fuess's Selected English Letters (Riverside Literature Series; Houghton Mifflin Co.). The references in parentheses in the following exercises are to these three books.

II. Exercises in Business Letters

1. Make a collection of business letters; study them in order to determine their relative merit; mark them with reference to stationery, neatness, form, spelling, punctuation, grammar, and rhetorical excellence; paste them on cardboard and hang them in the English room, thus making an instructive exhibit.

2. Make a similar exhibit of friendly letters.

3. Make an exhibit of formal invitations and replies. 4. Write the letters needed to issue a school annual. 5. Carry on the correspondence involved in the production of a school play, the purchase of a class picture, the management of a base-ball team, or the organization of a track meet.

6. Write all of the letters, advertisements, invitations, and programs required for the proper management of a school dance or banquet.

7. After finding suitable models, write the following cycle of business letters, preserving them as an evidence of your fitness for a business position: (a) A Letter of

Application; (b) An Order Letter; (c) A Letter of Complaint; (d) A Sales Letter; (e) A Letter inclosing a Check; (f) An Answer to an Order Letter; (g) An Answer to a Letter of Complaint; (h) A Letter requesting Payment; (i) A Letter acknowledging Payment. (Consult Dwyer's The Business Letter.)

III. Exercises in Friendly Letters

1. Advice. Write a letter of advice to yourself from your father or mother or from yourself to a friend. For models see "Susanna Wesley to Her Son,” July 24, 1732 (Anderson, page 12) and "Sidney Smith to Lucy," July 22, 1835 (Fuess, page 41; Anderson, page 75). 2. Books. In a letter to a friend tell your real opinion of one of the books you have read in school. Model: William Cowper to the Reverend Thomas Unwin, October 31, 1779 (F. 30).

3. Children. Write a friendly letter to a child. Models: "Francis Jeffrey to his Grand-daughter," June 20, 1848 (A. 105); "Thomas Hood to May," April, 1844 (F. 59); "John Brown to his Son," 1856 (A. 107); “Lewis Carroll to Jessie," January 22, 1878 (A. 119); "Robert Louis Stevenson to Tom Archer," 1888 (A. 126), (C. B. 124).

4. Consolation. (a) Write a letter announcing a piece of bad news. (b) Write a letter designed to hearten some friend who is in trouble. Models: "Oliver Cromwell to Colonel Valentine Walton," July 5, 1644 (A. 2); "The Duke of Wellington to a Lady," January 21, 1812 (A. 36); "Abraham Lincoln to Mrs. Bixby," November 21, 1864 (C. B. 100); "William Vaughn Moody to Daniel Gregory Mason," February 16, 1896 (F. 103).

5. Description. Write a letter describing a city, a state, or a country. Models: "Lady Mary Wortley Montague on Holland," August 3, 1716 (A. 10), (C. B. 2); "Robert Southey on Lisbon," February 1, 1796 (A. 49); "Lafcadio Hearn on New York," 1889 (F. 99); “Phillips Brooks on India," February 22, 1883 (C. B. 118). 6. Farewells. Write a letter bidding good-bye to a friend

whom you do not expect soon to see. See "Thackeray to Fitzgerald," October 27, 1852 (F. 76).

7. Homesickness. Write a letter to your mother telling how you wish you were home or to a friend explaining a desire to be with him or her. Model: "Lord to Lady Collingwood," June 16, 1806 (A. 32).

8. Hotels. Describe a hotel at which you have been a guest. "O. W. Holmes to James T. Fields," October 23, 1867 (F. 69).

9. Invitation. "George Washington to Dr. John Cochrane (C. B. 41).

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10. Journeys. Write a letter describing a journey you have made. Models: “Lady Anne Barnard to Henry Dundas," May 7, 1798 (A. 11); “Samuel Rogers to Thomas Moore," October 17, 1814 (A. 61); "T. B. Macaulay to T. F. Ellis," July 1, 1834 (A. 79).

11. Luck. Write a letter announcing a piece of good or ill luck. Model: "Horatio Nelson to his Wife," August 18, 1794 (A. 30), (C. B. 41).

12. Nothing. Write a letter about nothing. See “Alexander Pope to Henry Cromwell," April 17, 1708 (A. 9), (C. B. 2).

13. Paper Cutter. In the name of your watch, knife, handkerchief, or any other article that is yours, write a letter to the person who gave it to you. Model: "Robert Louis Stevenson to Miss Adelaide Boodle," October 10, 1888 (A. 131).

14. Pet. Write a letter about one of your pets. Model: "Charles Dickens to Maclise," March 12, 1841 (A. 97). 15. Public Ceremony. Write a letter describing a procession, pageant, or great public ceremony of any kind. Model: "Lucy Aikin to Mrs. Taylor," July, 1806 (A. 35).

16. Public Opinion. Write a letter explaining the state of public opinion on any live question. Model: "Benjamin Franklin to Joseph Priestley," October 3, 1775 (F. 20).

17. Rebuke. Write a letter rebuking a sinner. Models: "Samuel Johnson to the Earl of Chesterfield,” February, 1755 (F. 21), (C. B. 19); "Abraham Lincoln to Horace Greeley," August 22, 1862 (F. 67), (C. B. 97).

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