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valueless. Such persons may never enforce their claims unless the property hereafter should prove valuable, and may then attempt to oust the possessor, who by expending time and money has given the property its value, by pleading their inability, in the disturbed state of the country, to improve it. I recommend that a statute of limitations be passed, allowing one year for persons not in possession of property to bring an action to recover such property. You may also deem it advisable at this time, before rights become vested, to adopt a permanent policy as to the use of water for agricultural as well as mining purposes. Where water is scarce and valuable it is important to provide against monopolies, and that it should be used as much as possible for the common good.
“For many years, even before it was acquired by the United States, attention was directed to this territory as the most feasible route for a railroad to the Pacific. The severity of the seasons, and the great obstacles presented by mountain chains seriously impede the progress of the road now building, and must greatly enhance the cost of constructing and running it. These difficulties have forcibly suggested the practicability of a route through New Mexico and Arizona. It has indeed all the advantages to make it the highway between the oceans. In 1853–54 explorations to determine this question were made by persons who had no previous acquaintance with the country, but who in spite of all the obstacles they encountered reported that practicable routes existed. Recent explorations have removed all objections to this line by discovering easier grades in shorter distances. Both north and south of the 34th parallel, routes have already been found, over a country nearly level, and teeming with mineral wealth, where a snowstorm that would impede travel has never been known, and having abundant timber, wood and water for all railroad purposes.
“When such an enterprise has brought capital to the mines of Arizona, the transportation of its ores and products alone will yield a large revenue to the projectors.
“The legislative assembly of New Mexico, has taken the initiatory steps by passing an act incorporating the Kansas, New Mexico and Arizona railroad company, with ample powers and liberal provisions. I suggest reciprocal action on our part to advance the progress of this beneficient undertaking.
“Since the discontinuance of the overland mail in 1861, and until the action of the present Congress, no mail routes have been established in any part of this territory. We have been indebted to the courtesy of the military authorities for the means of communication between the principal points in the territory, and the mail routes in New Mexico and California. The attention of the Post Office Department has been repeatedly called to the deficiency in mail facilities, but so far without avail. The wants of our increasing population require that a mail route should be established from some point in New Mexico through this territory to California, and from Tubac or Tucson northerly through this point, connecting at Fort Mohave with a route to Utah, together with branches of like service to La Paz and the other principal points. It is recommended that you memorialize the Post
Master General for the immediate establishment of this mail service.
“The care and supervision of the friendly Indians is by federal laws entrusted to the Superintendent of Indian Affairs, while the work of subjugating the hostile tribes is committed to the military power.
“The action of a legislature on any question relating to these subjects is ordinarily unnecessary, but our isolated and remote situation, the large number of Indians in our midst that might be combined against us, the long hostility and brutal ferocity of some tribes, compel us to avail ourselves of all means for self defense and protection. The Pimas, Papagoes, and Maricopas, our well tried and faithful allies, maintain the same friendly intercourse that has always existed between them and us. I hope that nothing will be left undone on our part to strengthen and perpetuate amicable relations with them and other friendly tribes, by removing all just causes of complaint and promptly redressing all grievances.
“On the other hand, to the Apache has been transmitted for a century an inheritance of hate and hostility to the white man. He is a nurderer by hereditary descent—a thief by prescription. He and his ancestors have subsisted on the stock they have stolen and the trains they have plundered. They have exhausted the ingenuity of fiends to invent more excruciating tortures for the unfortunate prisoners they may take, so that the traveller acquainted with their warfare, surprised and unable to escape, reserves the last shot in his revolver for his own head.
“When the troops were removed from this territory at the commencement of the rebellion, it was nearly depopulated by their murders. They have made southern Arizona and northern Mexico a wilderness and a desolation. But for them mines would be worked, innumerable sheep and cattle would cover these plains, and some of the bravest and most energetic men that were ever the pioneers of a new country, and who now fill bloody and unmarked graves, would be living to see their brightest anticipations realized. It is useless to speculate on the origin of this feeling—or inquire which party was in the right or wrong.
It is enough to know that it is relentless and unchangeable. They respect no flag of truce, ask and give no quarter, and make a treaty only that, under the guise of friendship, they may rob and steal more extensively and with greater impunity. As to them one policy only can be adopted. A war must be prosecuted until they are compelled to submit and go upon a reservation. This policy has been pursued by the energetic and accomplished officer who commands this department, in his war with the Navajoes, who for more than a century have desolated New Mexico, and who were probably the most warlike tribe within our limits. He has been completely successful, and is now moving them to a reservation. He has commenced operations for a similar campaign against the Apaches, by establishing a large post in the heart of their country, and 'by moving actively against them from several points. If he is sustained and supplied with troops, in a very brief time the terrible Apache will be formidable no longer, and the principal obstacle to our advancement be removed.
“I learn, though unofficially, that a reservation for the Apaches has been established at the Bosque Redondo, with the Navajoes, and am informed by the Superintendent of Indian Affairs, that he has selected a reservation in the valley of the Colorado River for the other tribes who are disposed to be friendly, and for whom no reservation had been made. This would segregate the friendly and the hostile tribes and would remove the former from the influence of the latter, and from collision with the miners.
Before the reservation can support this population, an irrigating canal must be opened, for which an appropriation should be made by Congress. The communication of the Superintendent on the subject is submitted for your information, and it is recommended that you memorialize Congress for an appropriation adequate to the purpose. I have already suggested that you provide for forming companies of rangers, who shall co-operate with other troops that may be sent against the Apaches. During the past year our citizens have voluntarily organized companies, and have carried the war into the Indian country and dealt them some severe blows.
“Three expeditions were raised and led by Lieut.-Colonel King S. Woolsey, who, with his men, are entitled to some acknowledgment at your hands, for the energy, skill and public spirit they have manifested.
“As American citizens we cannot be indifferent to events which are transpiring in the Republic of Mexico. The attempt to force a mon