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from Constantius, it is probable the prince did not aspire to a higher rank than that of an ordinary chieftain.

Several churches in Wales bear the name of Garmon ; but as he visited this country twice, only one of them can be distinctly referred to his first mission, namely Llanarmon in Ial, Denbighshire. It is singular that the parish attached to it adjoins that of Mold, in which the “Alleluiatic Victory” is said to bave been gained ; and if Archbishop Usher has correctly determined the locality of the engagement, the church in question is possibly situated on the spot where Germanus is described to have raised a sacred edifice,* formed of the branches of trees interwoven together, in which he and his followers celebrated the services of Easter, and baptized the

* From the manner in which the story is related it may be gathered that the mode of consecration used upon the occasion was no other than the performance of the religious exercises of Lent; and though it does not appear that the consecration of ground for the erection of churches was necessarily confined to that season, yet the time when a similar occurrence took place, as described by Bede, is a remarkable coincidence. The following is a close version of the words of Constantius which relate to this particular.—“The sacred days of Lent were at hand, which the presence of the divines rendered more solemn, insomuch that those in. structed by their daily preaching flocked eagerly to the grace of Baptism. For the great multitude of the army was desirous of the water of the laver of salvation. A church, formed of interwoven branches of trees (frondibus contexta) is prepared against the day of the resurrection of our Lord, and though the expedition was encamped in the field, is fitted up like that of a city. The army, wet with baptism, advances, the people are fervent in faith, and neglecting the protection of arms, they await the assistance of the Deity. In the mean time this plan of proceeding, or state of the camp, is reported to the enemy, who, anticipating a victory over an unarmed multitude, hasten with alacrity. But their approach is discovered by the scouts; and when, after concluding the solemnities of Easter, the greater part of the army, fresh from their baptism, were preparing to take up arms and give battle, Germanus offers himself as the leader of the war.”—An exaggerated description follows of the rout of the enemy, who were thrown into consternation upon hearing the word Alleluia shouted thrice by the Britons.

greater part of the army of the Britons, before they proceeded to meet their enemies.

Lupus, it would appear, was the younger and less obtrusive of the two legates, as nothing is related of him in which the other does not bear a part. His name is rendered in Welsh by Bleiddian, a word of similar import. The churches ascribed to him are, Llanfleiddian Fawr in Glamorganshire, which bears the same relation to the town of Cowbridge as Llanbeblig and Llannor do to Carnarvon and Pwllheli;—and Llanfleiddian Fach, or St. Lythian's, in the same county. The latter is a small parish, but probably some parts have been detached from it by the Normans; and the occurrence of these names perhaps gave rise to the tradition, that Lupus was connected with the College afterwards founded at Caerworgorn. The chapels subject to Llanfleiddian Fawr are, Cowbridge (St. Mary,) and Welsh St. Donat’s (Dunwyd :) and, according to the Martyrology of Bede, the commemoration or festival of St. Lupus was held on the twenty ninth of July. The foregoing are all the churches whose foundations

may be attributed to this generation, ending with the accession of Constantine the Blessed, A. D. 433; most of which are situate in the territories of the sons of Cunedda, under whose protection it is obvious they were established. Nearly all the parishes annexed to them are of considerable extent, and have their subordinate chapelries, in which the Saints of the Catholic, or more modern character, predominate. For the support which they gave to the cause of Christianity, the children of Cunedda are called, in the Triads, the second holy family of Britain; the first being that of Bran ab Llyr Llediaith.


The Welsh Saints from A. D. 433 to A. D. 461.

It is proposed that the next generation shall commence with the accession of Constantine A. D. 433, and terminate with the deposition of Vortigern A. D. 464; not that any reliance can be placed upon the history or chronology of the “Kings of Britain,” but, since it has been generally received, it will give the reader a clearer idea of the succession of events.

The chronicles of Walter and Geoffrey relate that about this time, the Britons were so oppressed with the inroads of barbarians, that they applied to Aldor, king of Armorica, for assistance ; upon which he sent them his brother Constantine with a large body of troops; and it would appear that Constantine performed such important services after his arrival that he was elected to the headship of the confederated states of the island. The Triads confirm this account so far as to say that Cystennyn Fendigaid, or Constantine the Blessed, * was one of the three foreign princes of Britain ; and the "Genealogy of the Saints” calls him Cystennyn Llydaw, or Constantine of Armorica. In his person the office of Pendragon of the Britons assumed, for the first time, the appearance of a monarchy, but it still continued to be elective. Upon his death in 443, his son Constans was elected to succeed him. This person was in 448 murdered by Vortigern, who usurped the kingdom until 464, when he was deposed and his son Vortimer chosen in his room.

* He is distinguished from Constantine the Great, who is called Cystennyn Amherawdwr and Cystennyn ab Elen.

Constantine has been surnamed "the Blessed” in consequence of being considered a Saint of the British Church, and Llangystennyn near Conway is perhaps dedicated to his memory. In “Achau y. Saint” the following curious notice occurs respecting him :-" It was the glory of the emperor Theodosius in conjunction with Cystennyn Llydaw, surnamed the Blessed, to have first founded the College of Illtyd, which was regulated by Balerus, a man from Rome; and Padrig, the son of Mawon, was the first principal of it, before he was carried away captive by the Irishmen."*_ The College here mentioned was that of Caerworgorn, which was also called Côr Tewdws; but what authority Theodosius the Second, who was at this time emperor of Rome, or rather of the East, could have exercised in Britain is more than can be explained; unless it be supposed that the name was given to the College in compliment to him because Balerus was a Roman. The account will not justify the supposition that it was founded by Theodosius the Elder, or by Theodosius the Great, neither of whom was a contemporary of Cystennyn Llydaw. But the most remarkable part of the statement is a Welsh tradition respecting the great Apostle of Ireland, who, according to the Silurian catalogue of Saints, was the son of Mawon, and a native of the country of Gŵyr or Gower in Glamorganshire. He was also called Padrig Maenwyn; and as Caerworgorn was situated near the sea coast, the story that he was carried away from thence by the Irish in one of their expeditions would be thought by no means improbable, if it were supported by other testimonies. In a composition acknowledged to be a genuine production of St. Patrick, and entitled his “Confession,” he states that he was but sixteen years


when he was made captive; his youth, therefore, precludes the idea that he was at that time the principal of a College. He further explains that his father was Calpurnius, a deacon, who

* Cambrian Biography, voce Padrig.

lived at “ Bonavem Taberniæ,” near to which was the village of “ Enon,” from which he was himself taken into captivity. The situation of these last places is disputed ; and while they are generally considered to have been in North Britain, others contend that they should be looked for in Armorica. To enter into the circumstances of his life would be needless upon the present occasion, and, until the evidence of his connexion with the Principality were better supported, all further investigation would be deemed irrelevant. Ricemarchus, Giraldus Cambrensis, and John of Teignmouth relate that he settled at one time in a small valley at Menevia, called Vallis Rosina, where he built a monastery and intended to pass his days in religious seclusion. But an angel, appearing, commanded him to preach the Gospel in Ireland ; and, in confirmation of his mission, displayed to him the whole of that country in a vision from the spot where he stood. The legend adds that the same angel foretold that Menevia should be famed for another Saint, who should be born there thirty years after that day. The Saint predicted was St. David; and absurd as the whole fable may appear, the latter part of it was embodied in one of the collects of the Breviary of Salisbury, and devoutly repeated over a great part of England before the Reformation. The only religious edifice in Wales, known to have been dedicated to St. Patrick, was a chapel, which once existed in the parish of St. David's Pembrokeshire; and, according to John of Teignmouth, was situated close to the spot where the angel showed him the vision of Ireland.* The year

447 is the date of the second mission of St. Germanus to Britain. His stay was short, as, according to the computation of Usher, he died in Italy the following year. His former colleague, Lupus, survived him thirty years, but upon this occasion he was accompanied by Severus, Bishop of

• Llanbadrig in Anglesey is reported to have been named from another Padrig, the son of Aelfryd ab Goronwy.


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