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pointed Iltutus to be its principal. But the genealogies show that Iltutus must have been at that time too young for the office, since about eighty years afterwards he is known to have flourished in the court of Arthur, and in his younger days he was not an ecclesiastic but a soldier. The relationship in which he stood to Germanus was that of sister's grandson, as will appear from the following scale.

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It does not follow that these generations should be necessarily parallel, but the Chronicles and Triads state that Arthur, Hywel, and Iltutus or Illtyd were contemporary; and if it be said that Iltutus was appointed by St. Germanus in his first visit, the inconsistency will appear more glaring. * But while all other accounts agree that Iltutus was the first principal of the College which afterwards bore his name, the Book of Llandaff decides the question by saying that he received his appointment from St. Dubriciust who lived in an age succeeding that of Germanus. If the foregoing extract be compared with the narration of Constantius, its incongruities increase. Lupus did not accompany Germanus the second time, and therefore could not have been Bishop of Caerworgorn. The same note

* The anachronism did not escape the acuteness of Archbishop Usher“Iltutus S. Germani fuisse discipulum, et in Vincentii Speculo Historiali, et in Landavensium Regesto legimus; licet id ægre temporum ratio patiatur.” Cap. XIII.

+“A Dubricio Landavensi episcopo in loco, qui ab illo Lan-iltut, id est Ecclesiæ Iltuti accepit nomen, est constitutus." Usher, from the Regestum Landavense.

implies that Germanus lived to remove Dubricius to Llandaff, and place Cadog or Cattwg in his room; but Archbishop Usher puts an end to this idea, by showing that Germanus returned to Gaul, and died in the second year of his last mission. That Dubricius received any appointment from St. Germanus, except perhaps the bishoprick of Llandaff, is questionable ; and, by the order of time, it would appear that the connexion of Germanus and Lupus with the institutions of Caerworgorn and Llancarvan was altogether apocryphal.

Authorities are not wanting to show that Germanus was the founder of the Universities of Oxford and Cambridge, but they are not worthy of a serious refutation, and even the credulous Constantius does not make mention of any schools founded at this time in Britain. That Germanus made regulations for the stability of the British Church is very probable; and if credit be given to an anonymous treatise which Usher says was written in the eighth century, he introduced the Gallic liturgy into this country. It is certain, however, that his visit was the commencement of a frequent intercourse which subsisted for some time afterwards between the Cambrian and Armorican Churches; and it was by no means unlikely that the one Church should adopt some of the regulations of the other.

In the Welsh accounts Garmon or St. Germanus is called the son of Rhedyw, Rhedygus, Ridicus, or Redgitus; and notwithstanding the variety of names in different MSS. there can be little doubt that the same person is intended.* It is further stated that he was a native of Armorica; and as proofs remain that his countrymen spoke the same language as the Britons, he may have derived from that circumstance one of the qualifications which fitted him for his mission. His sister is said to have been the mother of Emyr Llydaw, an Armorican prince; but as Usher does not quote this relationship

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* From other authorities it appears that the correct name was Rusticus.

from Constantius, it is probable the prince did not aspire to a higher rank than that of an ordinary chieftain.

Several churches in Wales bear the name of Garmon; but as he visited this country twice, only one of them can be distinctly referred to his first mission, namely Llanarmon in Iâl, Denbighshire. It is singular that the parish attached to it adjoins that of Mold, in which the “ Alleluiatic Victory” is said to bave been gained ; and if Archbishop Usher has correctly determined the locality of the engagement, the church in question is possibly situated on the spot where Germanus is described to have raised a sacred edifice,* formed of the branches of trees interwoven together, in which he and his followers celebrated the services of Easter, and baptized the greater part of the army of the Britons, before they proceeded to meet their enemies.

* From the manner in which the story is related it may be gathered that the mode of consecration used upon the occasion was no other than the performance of the religious exercises of Lent; and though it does not appear that the consecration of ground for the erection of churches was necessarily confined to that season, yet the time when a similar occurrence took place, as described by Bede, is a remarkable coincidence. The following is a close version of the words of Constantius which relate to this particular.—“The sacred days of Lent were at hand, which the presence of the divines rendered more solemn, insomuch that those in. structed by their daily preaching flocked eagerly to the grace of Baptism. For the great multitude of the army was desirous of the water of the laver of salvation. A church, formed of interwoven branches of trees (frondibus contexta) is prepared against the day of the resurrection of our Lord, and though the expedition was encamped in the field, is fitted up like that of a city. The army, wet with baptism, advances, the people are fervent in faith, and neglecting the protection of arms, they await the assistance of the Deity. In the mean time this plan of proceeding, or state of the camp, is reported to the enemy, who, anticipating a victory over an unarmed multitude, hasten with alacrity. But their approach is discovered by the scouts; and when, after concluding the solemnities of Easter, the greater part of the army, fresh from their baptism, were preparing to take up arms and give battle, Germanus offers himself as the leader of the war.”--An exaggerated description follows of the rout of the enemy, who were thrown into consternation upon hearing the word Alleluia shouted thrice by the Britons.

Lupus, it would appear, was the younger and less obtrusive of the two legates, as nothing is related of him in which the other does not bear a part. His name is rendered in Welsh by Bleiddian, a word of similar import. The churches ascribed to him are, Llanfleiddian Fawr in Glamorganshire, which bears the same relation to the town of Cowbridge as Llanbeblig and Llannor do to Carnarvon and Pwllheli;—and Llanfleiddian Fach, or St. Lythian's, in the same county. The latter is a small parish, but probably some parts have been detached from it by the Normans; and the occurrence of these names perhaps gave rise to the tradition, that Lupus was connected with the College afterwards founded at Caerworgorn. The chapels subject to Llanfleiddian Fawr are, Cowbridge (St. Mary,) and Welsh St. Donat's (Dunwyd :) and, according to the Martyrology of Bede, the commemoration or festival of St. Lupus was held on the twenty ninth of July.

The foregoing are all the churches whose foundations may be attributed to this generation, ending with the accession of Constantine the Blessed, A. D. 433; most of which are situate in the territories of the sons of Cunedda, under whose protection it is obvious they were established. Nearly all the parishes annexed to them are of considerable extent, and have their subordinate chapelries, in which the Saints of the Catholic, or more modern character, predominate. For the support which they gave to the cause of Christianity, the children of Cunedda are called, in the Triads, the second holy family of Britain ; the first being that of Bran ab Llyr Llediaith.

SECTION VIII.

The Welsh Saints from A. D. 433 to A. D. 464.

It is proposed that the next generation shall commence with the accession of Constantine A. D. 433, and terminate with the deposition of Vortigern A. D. 464; not that any reliance can be placed upon the history or chronology of the

Kings of Britain,” but, since it has been generally received, it will give the reader a clearer idea of the succession of events.

The chronicles of Walter and Geoffrey relate that about this time, the Britons were so oppressed with the inroads of barbarians, that they applied to Aldor, king of Armorica, for assistance ; upon which he sent them his brother Constantine with a large body of troops; and it would appear that Constantine performed such important services after his arrival that he was elected to the headship of the confederated states of the island. The Triads confirm this account so far as to say that Cystennyn Fendigaid, or Constantine the Blessed, * was one of the three foreign princes of Britain; and the “Genealogy of the Saints” calls him Cystennyn Llydaw, or Constantine of Armorica. In his person the office of Pendragon of the Britons assumed, for the first time, the appearance of a monarchy, but it still continued to be elective. Upon his death in 443, his son Constans was elected to succeed him. This person was in 448 murdered by Vortigern, who usurped the kingdom until 464, when he was deposed and his son Vortimer chosen in his room.

* He is distinguished from Constantine the Great, who is called Cystennyn Amherawdwr and Cystennyn ab Elen.

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