« PrejšnjaNaprej »
upon her treasury. The text of this agreement will be found in Section VI of this volume.
The second event of primary importance was the drafting and ratification of two Claims Conventions between Mexico and the United States. The representatives for Mexico in the negotiations were Ramón Ross and Fernando Gonzales Roa; for the United States they were Charles Beecher Warren, now Ambassador to Mexico, and John Barton Payne. The Claims Conference began its sessions on May 14, 1923, at Mexico City and adjourned its sittings on August 15. On the 31st of the same month, the United States formally recognized the Obregón government, thus resuming full diplomatic relations with Mexico after an interval of over three years.
The work of the conference resulted in two agreements, a General Claims Convention and a Special Claims Convention. The text of these two documents is published in Section II of the Year Book. The ratification of the Conventions by the two governments provided the necessary machinery for settling the aggravating and unfortunate sources of discord between this country and Mexico. Up to the present time, however, neither government has appointed its representatives on the joint commission, though this must soon be done to conform to the terms of the agreement.
The final event of chief significance in Mexican history from 1921 to 1924, was the disastrous attempt to overthrow the Obregón government by a party of discontented army leaders and politicians at whose head, nominally at least, stood Adolfo De la Huerta, former Secretary of the Treasury, provisional President from the downfall of Carranza to Obregón's inauguration, and for three years, together with Obregón and General Plutarco Elias ('alles, a member of the famous Sonora triumvirate which controlled the politics and government of Mexico.
The revolt began in December, 1923, some three months after De la Ihuerta had resigned his position as Secretary of the Treasury and announced his candidacy for the presidency to succeed Obregón. The principal leaders of the movement besides De la Huerta were Jorge Prieto Laurens of San Luis Potosí, and Generals Guadalupe Sanchez, Fortunato Maycotte, and Enrique Estrada. The rebel forces were particularly strong in Vera (ruz, Jalisco, Ilidalgo, Puebla, in the Yucatán Peninsula, and throughout the Isthmus. To the north, also, various companies of bandit-revolutionists caused the Obregón forces much annoyance by attacking trains and interrupting railway communications.
The revolt was finally suppressed, after the loss of many lives, the expenditure of much money, and the total disruption of the nation's business, in March of this year. That the Obregón golernment survived the uprising at all was due in large part to the timely and effective aid of the United States, and to the moral sup
port of the Coolidge Administration. In a practical way the latter aided Obregón by the sale of arms and ammunition to the Mexican government forces; by placing an embargo upon the shipment of arms and munitions to the revolutionists; and by permitting the Mexican federal troops to be moved across American territory in order to reach the scene of military operations.
The revolution was brought about, according to its adherents, by Obregón's interference in the politics of the various states, and by his efforts to establish General Calles in the presidency as his successor. There was also some attempt to make it appear a movement to protect established property rights against confiscatory and radical legislation. Unfortunately for De la Huerta and his associates, however, the rebellion seemed to be actuated more by personal ambition than by disinterested patriotism, so that it could neither win respect abroad nor take on the proportions of a great popular crusade at home.
The collapse of the De la Huerta uprising has left Mexico face to face with difficulties of the first magnitude. The presidential election occurs July 6, and in this, of course, lies much potential danger. The country's economic situation is probably worse than it has been at any time since Obregón became president. The government's financial plight, moreover, is little short of desperate, and unless the Treasury can obtain a loan from American bankers within the near future to relieve the situation, the present administration will hand down to its successor a perilous and tangled legacy.
This much, however, should be said: Whenever Mexico is assured of long continued peace and order in her politics, she will experience an economic and social transformation of the greatest magnitude. She will demand capital and goods and outside aid of many kinds. Probably never before has she so looked to the United States to supply these things or felt more kindly toward this country. If our government and people can aid Mexico in this quest for a stable government and in the solution of the difficult social and economic problems she now faces, we will not only add materially to our own national prosperity and establish ourselves more firmly than ever before in Mexico's economic life, but we will also serve the great cause of humanity and make ourselves a blessing to a nation at present badly disorganized and sadly distressed.
VICEROYS OF NEW SPAIN 1. D. Antonio de Mendoza.! 2. D. Luis D. Velasco... 3. D. Gastón de Peralta.. 4. D. M. Enriquez de Almanza. 5. Conde de la Coruña... 6. D. Pedro Moya de Contreras. 7. Marqués de Villa Manrique. 8. D. Luis de Velasco, the Younger. 9. Conde de Monterey. 10. Marqués de Montes Claros.. 11. D. Luis de Velasco, the Younger (second term). 12. Dn. Fray Garcia Guerra. 13. Marqués Guadalcazar.. 14. Marqués de Gálvez.. 15. Marqués de Cerralvo. 16. Marqués de Cadereyta.. 17. Duque de Escalona... 18. D. Juan de Palafox y Mendoza. 19. Conde de Salvatierra... 20. Marcos Torres y Rueda. 21. Conde de Alva de Liste. 22. Duque de Alburquerque. 23. Marqués de Leiva.. 24. D. D. Osorio de Escobar y Liamas. 25. Marqués de Mancera.. 26. Duque de Veraguas. 27. D. Fr. Payo de Rivera. 28. Marqués de la Laguna. 29. Conde de Monclova.. 30. Conde de Galve. 31. Juan Ortega y Montañez. 32. Conde de Montezuma y Tula. 33. Juan Ortega y Montañez (second term). 34. Duque de Alburquerque (second term). 35. Duque de Linares... 36. Marqués de Valero.. 37. Marqués de Casa Fuerte. 38. D. J. Antonio de Vizarrón. 39. Duque de la Conquista. 40. Conde de Fuenclara.. 41. Conde Revillagigedo, the Elder. 42. Marqués de las Amarillas... 43. D. Francisco Cagigal.... 44. Marqués de Cruillas... 45. Marqués de Croix.. 46. D. Antonio M. Bucareli. 47. D. Martin de Mayorga.. 48. D. Matfas de Gálvez.. 49. D. Bernardo de Gálvez.. 50. D. Alonzo Nuñez de Haro. 51. D. Manuel Antonio Flores.. 52. Conde de Revillagigedo, the Younger. 53. Marqués de Branciforte. 54. D. Miguel de Azañza... 55. F. Berenguer de Marquina. 56. D. J. de Iturrigaray.. 57. D. Pedro Garibay.. 58. D. Franco Javier Lizana.
1535 to 1550
1621 to 1624
59. Francisco J. Venegas.
1810 to 1813 .1813 to 1816
1816 to 1821 ..1821
GOVERNMENTS SINCE INDEPENDENCE
September 28, 1821, to April 11, 1822.
Proclaimed May 18, 1822; took oath May 21; crowned
The Marqués of Vivanco, political chief of Mexico, took charge on the abdication of Iturbide. On March 31, 1823, Congress elected a Supreme Executive Council of three, which entered upon its duties on April 2, 1823.
UNDER CONSTITUTION OF OCTOBER 4, 1824 President.
General Guadalupe Victoria, October 10, 1824, to April
1, 1829. President..
General Vicente Guerrero, April 1, 1829, to December
17, 1829. Acting President.... Licentiate José Maria de Bocanegra, December 17,
1829, to December 23, 1829. Supreme Executive Council
December 23, 1829, to December 31, 1829. President.
. General Anastasio Bustamante, December 31, 1829, to
August 14, 1832. Acting President....General Melchor Muzquez, August 14, 1832, to Decem
ber 24, 1832. President.
.General Manuel Gómez Pedraza, December 24, 1832,
to April 1, 1833. President..
.General Antonio López de Santa Anna, April 1, 1833,
to January 28, 1835. President. ...General Miguel Barragan, from January 28, 1835, to
February 27, 1836.
Licentiate José Justo Carro, February 27, 1836, to
UNDER CONSTITUTION OF JANUARY 1, 1837
General Anastasio Bustamante, April 19, 1837, to
Anna. From July 10 to July 17, 1839, General
..General Antonio López de Santa Anna, October 10,
1841, to October 26, 1842.
.General Nicolás Bravo, October 26, 1842, to March 5, 1843.
.General Antonio López de Santa Anna, March 5, 1843, to October 4, 1843.
General Valentin Canalizo, October 4, 1843, to Feb. ruary 1, 1844.
General Valentin Canalizo, February 1, 1844, to June 4, 1844.
(Canalizo during this period was acting in lieu of Santa Anna, who had been elected Constitutional President, under the law of June 12, 1843.)
UNDER CONSTITUTION OF JUNE 12, 1843
President.... ...General Antonio López de Santa Anna, June 4, 1844,
to September 12, 1844. Acting President... General José Joaquin de Herrera, September 12, 1844,
to September 21, 1844. Acting President... General Valentin Canalizo, September 21, 1844, to De
cember 6, 1844. President.
.General José Joaquin de Herrera, December 6, 1814,
to December 30, 1845. President.
General Mariano Paredes y Arrillaga, January 4, 1811,
to July 28, 1846. President.
.General Nicolás Bravo, July 28, 1844, to August 4,
1846. Acting President....General José Mariano Salas, August 5, 1846, to De
cember 24, 1846. By decree of August 22, 1846, the Constitution of 1824 was reestablished.
UNDER CONSTITUTION OF 1824 Vice-President and Acting President..Don Valentin Gomez Farías, December 24, 1816, to
March 21, 1847. President... . General Antonio López de Santa Anna, March 22,
1847, to April 1, 1847. Substitute President. General Pedro M. Anaya, April 1, 1847, to May 20,
.General Antonio López de Santa Anna, May 20, 1847,
to September 16, 1847. President.
Licentiate Manuel de la Peña y Peña, September 16,
1817, to November 14, 1847. Acting President....General Pedro M. Anaya, November 14, 1847, to Janu.
ary 8, 1848. President and Acting President.. Don Manuel de la Peña y Peña, January 8, 1848, to
June 2, 1848. President..
General José Joaquin de Herrera, June 2, 1848, to
January 15, 1851. President.
General Mariano Arista, January 15, 1851, to January
5, 1853. Acting President....Don Juan B. Ceballos, January 5, 1853, to February