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invariably done in notes emanating from the yamên,) this came with the prince's card alone.

The reason for this is apparent. He desired to impress upon me that he takes a special personal interest in this matter. It was also intended to convey the thanks of himself and the government in a more pointed and emphatic manner than would have been the case had the note been in the usual form.

The kind reception which these youths have met with and the interest manifested in their welfare is very gratifying to the promoters of the scheme for sending them abroad. If the reports from them continue favorable it is not unlikely that the others will be sent faster than was originally contemplated, and also that the total number may be increased.

As Mr. Northrop is included in the prince's note of thanks, it seems proper that he should be furnished with a copy of it. A cover to Mr. Northrop's address is inclosed herewith. It contains a copy of the note referred to; and, if there be no objection, I would thank you to forward it to its destination.

I have, &c.,


[Inclosure 1.]

Mr. Low to Prince Kung.

Peking, January 10, 1873.

SIR: In a late American newspaper there appears a circular issued by the board of education of the State of Connecticut addressed to the teachers of the Chinese pupils recently sent from here, and a letter from the guardians and tutors of the students to the secretary of that board. As these letters may prove interesting to your imperial highness and their excellencies the ministers of the yameu, I beg to send them herewith. The English copy, unaccompanied by a Chinese version, is sent, for the reason that a translation made by the president of the Imperial University or some of the students will probably prove more acceptable than one made by translators attached to the legation.

I may add that, in a recent dispatch from the State Department, I am instructed to inform your imperial highness and also his excellency Le-Hung-Chang that the educational mission is regarded with much interest by my Government, and that it will afford the honorable Secretary pleasure to manifest his friendly feeling toward the students should occasion offer.

With renewed assurances of my high consideration,

I have, &c.,


NEW HAVEN, October 1, 1872.

The response to the call for homes and instruction for Chinese boys has been suprisingly prompt and cordial. One hundred and twenty-two families have offered to receive two each, so that homes are open for two hundred and forty-four, while, as yet, only thirty have arrived. The number, and especially the character, of the applicants show that this liberal and far-reaching plan of the Chinese government has enlisted the practical sympathy of philanthropists widely over this country. A desire to aid in promoting the progress of the largest nation on the globe, with the hope that these ambitions boys, when disciplined and equipped by the best education which America can impart in a thorough course of fifteen years' study, will become the exponents of a higher civilization and the benefactors of their country, is the explanation of this general interest in their culture.

My new and numerous correspondents propose many questions, which, burdened as I am with official duties, it is impossible to answer in detail. The commissioners of

the Chinese government will probably reside in Hartford. For obvious reasons the boys are placed in towns easily accessible to them. Hence they have been distributed only in Connecticut and Massachusetts, and those in the latter State are in towns not remote from Hartford. Their continuance in each locality will depend upon the progress made. Though in private families, they are expected to have regular schoolhours for study and recitation. They are still boys, and, though studious, exemplary, and bright, need strict control-a kind but firm and steady government.



State-House, New Haven, Connecticut, October 9, 1872.

To the Teachers of the Chinese Students:

The new Chinese educational mission awakens a profound interest as a prophecy of great progress to the oldest and largest nation on the globe. America congratulates China on the inauguration of this noble work and gives a cordial welcome to these ambitions and earnest students. Every possible effort should be employed to make this experiment a success. If wisely managed at the outset, it will expand into broad agencies and vast results. That nothing may be omitted to give efficiency to this comprehensive and liberal scheme, the following suggestions are submitted for your careful consideration:

I. These students should have regular school-hours for study and recitation, as well as for exercise and recreation. So far they seem to be exemplary, cheerful, studious, and promising, but their youth necessitates a parental supervision and watchful control-a kind but firm and steady government. While their habits of prompt and cheerful obedience must be continued, they should be thrown upon their own resources, and trained to self-reliance, self-denial, self-command, energy, and perseverance, and every manly virtue. The Chinese justly despise vacillation and effeminacy. They scorn sloth, love labor, and practice industry and economy. Resisting all temptations to indolence, prodigality, fickleness or irresolution, these boys should emulate that patience and persistence and frugality, which are the pride and practice of the true China


II. A regular record should be kept of the branches daily pursued, of the progress made, the deportment of each, and any aptitude shown for special studies. If any student should so underrate his privileges as to become irregular in his habits or negligent in his studies, he should be promptly reported to the commissioners.

III. As these students are preparing for positions of responsibility at home, it is important that they should continue the study of their own language and literature. Hence at least one hour a day will be set apart for each student to devote to the Chinese studies prescribed for him for a period of three months. Thus the knowledge and use of their vernacular will be kept up and enlarged.

IV. Filial piety and patriotism are to be inculcated. Love of country and ambition to become the exponents of our science and culture, and thus the benefactors of their own land, should be an incentive and inspiration to them as soon as they can be led to appreciate their privileges and responsibilities.

V. They should be early instructed in the laws of health, especially as to neatness and bathing, precautions against "colds" in the sudden changes of our climate, protecting the feet and the person, guarding against currents of air, of a sudden chill after violent exercise and when in a perspiration.

VI. For the present, reading, spelling, drawing, and writing, and especially writing simple English sentences, should be their prominent exercises. Geography and arithmetic, and particularly rapid addition and "mental combinations," will soon follow.

The commissioners will frequently visit and inspect the boys, and the continuance of the boys in each locality will depend upon their progress and improvement.


SPRINGFIELD, MASS., October 8, 1872.

DEAR SIR: The deep interest you felt toward the young students recently sent by the Chinese government to be educated in this country, as shown by your energetic and prompt action in securing suitable homes for them, calls for some public acknowledgment of your invaluable services on our part. Permit us, therefore, to tender to you, as we now do, our united thanks; hoping the young students also, when they come to years of discretion, will be able to appreciate your efforts for them in their comparatively helpless condition in a strange land.


We must not fail to mention in this connection the great pleasure we experienced from the cordial welcome the public has shown toward this educational mission, and we feel especially grateful to those good people who have so promptly responded to the call for homes for those young students, where they are cared for, protected, and instructed. It will give us the greatest pleasure to report to the Chinese government this cordial welcome and this generous treatment which we have received of American people.

We remain, dear sir, your obedient servants,


Secretary of the Board of Education, New Haven, Conn.

[Inclosure 2.]

Prince Kung to Mr. Low.

A few days since a note was received from your excellency, stating that your Government regards with much interest the sending of Chinese young men abroad for study, and that the honorable Secretary of State would take pleasure in rendering them such aid as he could properly. An extract from a newspaper accompanied your note, which was, without delay, sent to the imperial university for translation.

From these letters the generous and thoughtful kindness of the superintendent of education toward each of the students is plainly apparent. Such generosity is worthy of praise and commendation; it is highly appreciated by this government, and will be gratefully remembered.

When communicating with your Government I beg that you will convey to all who have so kindly manifested an interest in the educational mission my warmest thanks. Such acts of kindness tend to strengthen and make lasting the sympathy and friendship now so happily existing between your country and mine, a fact which will be as gratifying to your excellency as to me.

With thanks and compliments.

JANUARY 14, 1873.

[Card of Prince Kung.]

No. 56.

Mr. Low to Mr. Fish.

No. 223.]

LEGATION OF THE UNITED STATES, Peking, January 18, 1873. (Received March 29.) SIR: It was, perhaps, not unnatural to suppose that as the time approached for the Emperor's assumption of personal authority, some indication as to the course he would pursue with reference to the claims that are almost certain to be advanced by foreign governments, looking to a recognition of diplomatic equality, would be given.

The fact is, however, that nothing has yet appeared which affords the slightest clue to the decision that has been come to concerning these questions. The prince and ministers are reticent, and when the subject is broached they decline to discuss it. In my personal interviews with the ministers recently the subject has not been alluded to, for the reason that, in my opinion, it is the wiser and more dignified course to abstain from such discussions until the appropriate time arrives.

Some of my colleagues, not agreeing with me in this opinion, have endeavored to obtain from the yamên, if not a promise, some decided opinion. All their efforts in that direction have been met by the same answer, "We cannot assume to discuss the question, much less decide

it; it is one which the Emperor can only decide when he assumes the duties of sovereign de facto."

The French minister informs [me] that he has commenced discussing with the yamên the points of treaty revision. His chief object in beginning the discussion now is to reach the audience question through the second article of the French treaty of 1858. It may be doubted whether this discussion will result in any good. I see no reason to modify the opinions expressed in previous dispatches concerning this subject. Time, and time alone, will determine whether I am correct or


I have, &c.,


No. 57.

Mr. Low to Mr. Fish.

No. 231.]

LEGATION OF THE UNITED STATES, Peking, February 20, 1873. (Received April 21.) SIR: The third commercial rule appended to the treaty of 1858 designates munitions of war and salt as contraband, which can neither be imported nor exported.

About a year ago a quantity of shell, ordered by the Japanese government through an American house, arrived at Shanghai, en route to their port of destination, Nagasaki. Notice was given to the proper authorities that such goods were on the way, and, when the ship arrived, application was made for permission to transship them. The customs authorities refused the permission asked for and seized the goods. The case was tried by a properly constituted court and a decree of confiscation rendered. Subsequently, through the intercession of the consulgeneral, and upon the owners giving a bond in the full value of the goods, they were released and reshipped to their destination. The condition of the bond was, that the case should be referred to Peking for re-examination by the yamên and the legation, and if, after such examination, it should be decided that the seizure and confiscation were warranted by the terms of the treaty, the sum named should be paid without further question. The owners of the goods were not charged with fraud or evasion; on the contrary, it was conceded that they acted in good faith, not supposing that the bringing of contraband goods into a treaty port, merely for the convenience of reshipping them to foreign countries, would subject them to confiscation or their owners to any other penalty. In presenting the case to the yamên, I asked for the cancellation of the bond, and also that a definite rule should be made and promulgated for regulating transshipment of such goods in the future. After considerable discussion it was agreed that the bond in question should be canceled, the yamên conceding the point on the score of equity alone. This concession was coupled with a declaration that after a certain date transshipment would not be allowed, and that if contraband goods arrived after the time named they would be confiscated. (See inclosure No. 1.) To this I replied, (inclosure No. 2,) objecting to the proposed rule as being in conflict with treaty right, and declining to issue orders to the consuls in accordance with the yamên's request. Further discussion and correspondence ensued, in

which the position on either side was restated and the question argued without reaching any definite result.

In a note received a few days since from the yamên, (inclosure No. 3,) the ministers indicate that they are ready to abandon their position; they now propose to allow transshipment of munitions of war upon conditions which practically concede all that has been contended for. To this I have replied, (inclosure No. 4,) accepting, with certain reservations, the proposition.

The question is, I trust, practically settled in a manner which will facilitate trade and at the same time work no injury to the Chinese gov


The effect of all this will probably be that most of the war material needed for Nagasaki and ports in the inland sea will come to Shanghai for reshipment, and, as American steamers practically control the carrying-trade between Shanghai and those ports, it is obvious that this arrangement will prove of considerable value to our commercial interests.

In view of the facts above stated, I would respectfully suggest that the Treasury Department be informed of the new regulation.

I have, &c.,


[Inclosure 1.]

Ministers of the Yamên to Mr. Low.

PEKING, June 21, 1872.

Your excellency is aware that some time ago the tsungli yamên sent instructions to the superintendent of trade and the inspector-general of customs to investigate and decide, in concert with the taotai of Shanghai, the claim against the China and Japan Trading Company growing out of the importation and transshipment of eighty-four cases of shell.

On the 15th instant we received a communication from the superintendent of trade in which bis excellency states that Mr. Hart, after his arrival at Shanghai, wrote on the 27th April to Taotai Shên to inform him that the object of the importation of shell by the aforementioned company had actually been to transship these goods for conveyance to Japan; permission ought, therefore, to be given to send them on, and the bond issued by claimants should be cancelled; but this case having been settled, no further importation of munitions of war ought to be allowed.

Mr. Commissioner Dick issued his first notification on the 30th July, 1871, thinking that it would come to the knowledge of everybody near and far. It seems advisable, however, that Mr. Dick should now publish another notice to the effect that munitions of war, arriving from foreign ports at Shanghai, will, after having been duly reported to the customs, either be sent off again in the same vessel, or allowed to be transshipped for re-exportation, but all on condition that the vessel has sailed from the foreign port before the 7th May, 1872. If, however, munitions of war should arrive within the limits of the port of Shanghai in any vessel which left home after the before-mentioned date, such goods will neither be allowed to leave again in the same vessel nor to be transshipped and re-exported, but will be regarded as contraband and forthwith seized and confiscated by the customs. Thus a uniform rule will be established, and the merchants will understand that a violation of the rules takes place as soon as a vessel with munitions of war on board enters the limits of the port, though no lauding of these goods be effected; and they will further understand that the transshipment of munitions of war being interdicted, it is of no use to import these articles with a view of shifting them from one vessel to another.

These propositions of the inspector-general were communicated to Mr. Dick by Shên, taotai, and a definite course of action will be decided upon as soon as Mr. Hart, who left for Kuangtung on the 4th May, shall have returned."

The tsung li yamên beg to add the following remarks:

Rule 3 of the treaty distinctly prohibits the export and import of contraband goods, and although transshipping such goods is different from selling them, the fact is they

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