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Holland, of small bricks, with the gable ley of that stream it proceeds to the ends to the street, and troughs under Genesee at Rochester, and onward to the eaves projecting far over the streets. the Mountain Ridge, at Lockport, where The Dutch language has not even yet it rises by five double locks to the level wholly fallen into disuse, in some fami- of Tonawanda creek, a tributary of Nilies. The cily charter was granted in agara river, and, a part of the way, by 1686, and extended westward to the dis- the channel of the former, goes on to tance of a mile from the river, and north- Lake Erie at Buffalo. west to the north line of the manor of The canal is there about 500 feet highRensselaerwyck, being 13 miles in er than the Albany basin; 200 of which length. In 1815 the limits were en- are attained at Schenectady, nearly 300 larged, by adding the small town of Col. at Canajoharie, and 400 at the Long onie. Population, 1850, 51,000.

Level, above Little Falls. Beyond that CANALS.--The Erie Canal was the are the only two descents on the route, first of any considerable extent in the and these are but small. United States, was planned and execu- Among the principal constructions on ted by the influence of Dewitt Clinton the route, are the grand embankment, and his friends, and must ever be regard- near Rochester, 100 feet high and two ed as the result of labors creditable to miles long; the fine stone aqueducts at them and the state, the period being one Little Falls and Rochester, the former in which much opposition was exci- 214 feet long, and the latter stretching ted against it, in consequence of the ig- across the Genesee, 900 feet, on nine norance of the people of works of that beautiful arches. At Buffalo, is a fine kind. The project of connecting the harbor, lined with spacious storehouses, navigation of the lakes with that of the crowded, in the season of navigation, Hudson, by means of a channel three with the numerous steamboats and othhundred and sixty-three miles long, al- er vessels employed in the navigation of most every foot of wnich was to be ex- the lakes. The branch from Syracuse cavated, and which must be taken across extends through the great salt region; streams and over hills and valleys, ap- and there are several other branches. peared to many as visionary and ridicu- The Champlain Canal.-Parting from lous; but the difficulty of acquiring land the Erie canal at the junction, eight and of reconciling conflicting interests in miles from Albany, this important work the choice of routes, conspired to in- crosses the mouth of the Mohawk, passcrease the discouragement of the under- es through Waterford, and along the taking Had the calculations of the west bank of the Hudson, at the foot of projectors been unfounded, the result the hilly range called Behmis's heights, would doubtless have discouraged imi- the scene of the battle of Saratoga, tators : but the Grand canal of New crosses it at Miller's Falls, to Fort EdYork has long been, and will ever be, ward (in the French wars known as the a monument of successful enterprise, First Carrying Place), passes on to Fort transcending in its beneficial effects the Ann, or the Second Carrying Place, most sanguine expectations.

where it enters Wood Creek, following 1:e Erie canal was commenced in it to its mouth at Whatehall (formerly 1817, and finished in 1825. It extends Skeenesborough), at the southern exfrom the great basin at Albany north- tremity of Lake Champlain. The eleward, along the right bank of the Hud- vation overcome on this route is 150 feet, son, to the mouth of the Mohawk, and from which the descent is about 75 feet thence rising, by nine double locks, to toward the north : the lake being about the level of the banks, crosses the Mo- that height above the river's level at Alhawk twice by aqueducts and follows bany. The length of the route is about the valley of that stream to Rome. 60 miles. Thence it crosses to the Oswego river The Delaware and Hudson Canal.near Syracuse, whence the Oswego canal This canal commences at Rondout, and leads to Lake Ontario; and up the val- | extends to the Delaware river, having

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the state.

COMMON SCHOOLS.—The first report | accrue to the citizens in general, from to the legislature, showing the number the institution of schools in various parts and condition of the schools in New York, of the state, for the purpose of instructwas made in 1798, when the number of ing children in the lower branches of schools in the state was but about 1,500 education, such as reading their native and the number of scholars about 60,000. language with propriety, and so much The first appropriations for common of writing and arithmetic, as to enable schools was made in 1795, and was on a them, when they come forward into acscale of liberality which shows a just tive life, to transact with accuracy and appreciation of ihe importance of this despatch, the business arising from their fundamental interest in the infancy of daily intercourse with each other." The sum appropriated was

And this, less than sixty years ago, $50,000 annually for five years. In was the highest view of popular educa1805, a permanent school fund was tion entertained in a state, which now founded by the appropriation of half a has its noble and munificently-endowed million of acres of the vacant lands of seminaries and colleges, its armies of the state.

The annual returns from the teachers, and its hundreds of thousands school districts were incomplete till 1817, of pupils. when there was 5,000 schools, and over SchEnECTADY.—This is one of the 200,000 scholars, exclusive of the city oldest towns in the state, and was for a of New York. In 1821, the number of long time important as a frontier posipupils had increased to over 300,000; tion, nothing but a wilderness being and since that period the increase in the found between it and Canada. For a number of schools, and of children in number of years it has been distinguishstructed, has borne a near proportion ed as the seat of one of the most flourto the increase of population, till by the ishing literary institutions in the state, last report of the state superintendent of Union college, the edifices of which occommon schools, the number of school cupy a pleasant and commanding posidistricts is shown to be near 12,000, and tion, overlooking the extensive meadows the children instructed, about 800,000. of the Mohawk, surrounded by a sucThe annual appropriation from the in- cession of undulated and hilly country, come of the permanent fund is now and enlivened by the Erie canal and the $300,000 and from taxes $800,000, of lines of railroads which here meet by which $55,000 is appropriated to the various routes from Albany, and proceed purchase of school libraries and appa- on in company, with occasional separaratus, and the remainder is applicable tions, to Rochester, and finally terminate exclusively to the payment of teachers' together at Buffalo. wages and the support of schools.

In the year 1769, Schenectady, while Since the foundation in 1835, the dis- a mere village, fifteen miles west of Altrict libraries have grown to the amount bany, garrisoned by a few troops, was of 1,500,000 volumes. The benefits of the viciim of the jealousies and contenThese depositories of intelligence.accessi- tions of those sent for its protection; for ble to every mind in the state, can never the soldiers having deserted their posts, be adequately estimated. They will be one of those secret predatory bands of abundant in the fruits of industry, vir- savages, which were long the scourge tue, and refinement, through all coming of our frontier settlements, led on by generations.

Frenchmen from Canada, fell upon it in A striking illustration of the progress the dead of night, massacred almost evof education in this state is found in ery man, woman), and child, and burnt looking at the views of her early states- their dwellings. A few fugitives escamen as to the degree of instruction to be ped, and carried the shocking lale to provided in the common schools. The Albany. regents of the university, in 1793, sug- The exposed state of the country gest to the legislature “the numerous west of this place was so great, and the advantages which they conceive would number of the people so small compar

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ed with the extent of unoccupied land, and the grounds beyond are shadec that inducements were not found to ex- with large and fine trees. tend settlements fast beyond this point; rooms in the main building are occupiand even down to the period of the ed by the Lyceum society, and for sciRevolutionary war, nearly the whole entific purposes. middle and western parts of New York COOPERSTOWN.--This pleasant vilwere included in a single county. lage, two hundred miles from New

A few scattering villages only were York, by way of Catskill, and sixty-six then to be seen, at Cooperstown, Johns- from Albany, enjoys a beautiful situatown, &c., &c., usually with block hou- tion on Otsego lake, on a gentle emises, or other slight means of protection, nence at its south end, backed by a hilprovided against the apprehended dan- ly range of considerable elevation, in gers of savage parties. The five na- which the cleared and cultivated land tions of Indians, viz., the Mohawks, is agreeably mingled with the forests. Oneidas, Cayugas, Onondagas, and Sen- The streets, broad and straight, are well ecas, who had been, for the most part, shaded with trees, and lined with dwelfriendly to the English through the ling-houses, many of them of rather an French wars, were, many of them, old and venerable appearance. To the drawn over to the British interest by Indians it is said to have been a favorite John Johnson, one of the sons of Sir place of resort. William Johnson, who had long exer

The first white inhabitant was Mr. cised the most important influence over John Christopher Hardwick, who resithose savage people. By the aid of the ded here for a short time, about ten celebrated Brandt, a half-blood of doubt- years before the Revolutionary war; but ful character and courage, a series of in 1788, the first permanent settlement calamities was brought upon those weak was made by Mr. William Cooper; and and defenceless settlements, which can two years later, the county of Otsego not be recounted without exciting the was formed, of which this town is the mingled feelings of commiseration and capital. Remains of a road are still to horror. But, for those, events, as well be seen, which was cut through the foras for other particulars, relating to the est by a brigade of General Sullivan's history of that now populous and pros- army, from Fort Plain to the head of perous portion of the state, we must re- Otsego lake; and at the outlet are some fer our readers to the works of Mr. traces of a dam constructed by the Campbell (a descendant of a family of troops, at the direction of their comthe sufferers), the Life of Colonel Wil- mander, General Clinton, by which the let by his son, and the Life of Brandt, water was made to rise, and then, the by Mr. Stone.

dam being broken down, allowed it to Schenectady Lyceum.--This institu-rush down in a torrent, which cleared tion (a view of which is given on the' the channel of the incumbrances of logs opposite page) was erected a few years that impeded the passage. since, to supply a deficiency, long felt, Cooperstown is deservedly admired in a city so long and so honorably dis- by travellers, and annually the resort of tinguished as the seat of a seminary of citizens, seeking the pleasures of the the highest class. It is designed for the country in the summer season. The instruction of boys in studies preparato- population however is small, the numry to college and business; and enjoys ber of dwelliug-houses being only about an advantageous and convenient situa- a hundred and sixty. The people are tion. The principal building is of an distinguished for their refinement and octagonal form, of brick stuccoed, in a courteous manners. fanciful Gothic style, with pointed doors Cooperstown may be taken as a faand windows, and surmounted by a stee- vorable specimen of one of the severa! ple. In advance of this, and of the classes of New York villages : such as line of the yard-fence, are two small have grown up since the Revolutionary buildings belonging to the institution ; I war, and have no associations with the

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