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mence a course of study at college. By gagement, 1. To go through a full course interrupting their college studies occasion of collegiate and theological education in ally, in order to recruit their finances by some approved college and seminary; and, teaching a school, they might, after long 2. To refund the sums advanced to aid delays, be able to complete the requisite them, should the providence of God, in afcourse at last; and then, by similar efforts, ter life, give them the means of doing so. carry themselves through the required the- Such are, in few words, its principles. ological course at a seminary. Others, A rigid supervision is maintained over more fortunate, might be so far assisted those who accept its patronage. And setby a church or some wealthy and benev- ting out in its admirable career with a few olent patron or friend.* But the greater young men, it has gone on, under the fanumber, in despair of success, were likely vour of God, diffusing its blessings far and to renounce all expectation of being able wide. It has rendered aid to young men to preach the Gospel, and to resign them- belonging to eight different Evangelical selves to the necessity of spending their Churches. At one period, some three or lives in the ordinary pursuits of business, four years ago, the number of persons not in making known the “unsearchable whom it was aiding exceeded 1100! Duriches” of Christ to their fellow-men. ring the year ending May 1st, 1843, the
These remarks, it will be perceived, ap- number aided was 468. These were purply to such youths only as conscientious- suing their education at institutions in difly cleave to those churches which require ferent parts of the country; some in acada college education, as preliminary to a emies and grammar-schools, some in col-theological one, in all aspirants to the sa- leges, and the rest in theological schools. cred ministry. This is the rule, except And the whole number of those who had in very extraordinary cases, with the whole been aided, up to that time, was 3482. of the Presbyterian churches, excepting The receipts for that year were 33,789 dolthe “ Cumberland Presbyterians ;” with lars, and the expenditure 29,290. The the Episcopalians, and with the Congre- amount refunded that year by beneficiaries gationalists. The Baptists and the Meth- who had completed their course of educaodists, as we have seen, are less strict, tion was 2157 dollars. The earnings of and are satisfied with a common English the young men under the patronage of the education, and a competent knowledge of society, chiefly from teaching schools dutheology. But even among these, great ring their racations, have some years and laudable efforts are now put forth in or- amounted to no less a sum than 20,000 der to give a higher education to as many of dollars.*
а their candidates for the ministry as possi- The sums granted by this society toble; and it is on this account, as well as those who are admitted to its benefits vary for more general objects, that they have from forty-eight to seventy-five dollars à established so many colleges within the year, the latter sum being rarely exceedlast few years.
God is granting his rich ed. Its funds have been liberally augblessing to their efforts in this great cause; mented by bequests from devoted Chrisof this every year furnishes cheering evi- tian friends who loved it during life, and, dence.
remembered it in death. Its first presiTo meet the demands of the churches for dent gave it 1000 dollars during his lifea vastly-augmented number of ministers of time, and left it a legacy of 5000. Mr. the Gospel, and to help those young men Burr, whom we have already had occasion who desire to respond to this demand, the to speak of, also left it a handsome legacy. American Education Society was formed The late Dr. Porter, for many years a dison the broad basis of rendering its aid to all tinguished professor in the Theological.. pious young men, of suitable talents, who Seminary at Andover, though far from beappear to be called to preach Christ, and ing a man of much wealth, bequeathed to. who belong to any of the evangelical de- it 15,000 dollars. Many of its friends have nominations. The only conditions imposed given proof of large and enlightened views upon the recipients of its bounty are an en- by the patronage they have given it. It + Several of the colleges possess funds bequeathed able ministers of the Gospel in the course
has assisted a great number of most valuto them for the express purpose of educating poor and pious young men for the ministry. The Rev. of their education, and to these we have Dr. Green, in his historical notices of the College of to add no fewer than sixty of the missionNew-Jersey, relates that, more than half a century aries supported in foreign lands by the since, a pious young man of the name of Leslie was American Board of Commissioners for educated at that institution for the ministry of the Gospel; but, fearing to assume the responsibility of Foreign Missions, one of the largest and that office, he devoted himself to teaching a school oldest foreign missionary societies in the of a high order, in which employment he was emi- United States. nently successful. At his death he bequeathed to the college the sum of 15,000 dollars, the interest of
Of late years, however, the number of which was to be devoted to the education of poor young men assisted by this Society has . young men for the ministry. This fund has already * This society has permanent funds to the amount educated a large number of excellent ministers.
of 73,000 dollars.
greatly diminished; partly owing to the of the Reformed Dutch Church supported very difficult times through which the twenty-four last year. A Methodist Educountry has passed; partly because of cation Society has also been formed at higher requirements in the department of Boston. preliminary studies; and partly from most These statements will give the reader of the evangelical communions having now some idea of our Education Societies. education societies of their own. Thus Though of recent origin, they are exercithe “Old School” Presbyterians have a sing an immense influence in training up Board of Education under the direction of a more thoroughly-educated ministry. In their General Assembly, which prosecutes the absence of precise information, the its work most wisely and efficiently. It young men now receiving assistance from had 350 beneficiaries during the year end them may be moderately estimated at ing 1st May, 1843, and had assisted 1330 1600 in all, and of these at least 250 annuyoung men in all. Its receipts for that ally finish their studies, and enter on the year amounted to 30,000 dollars.*
work of preaching the Gospel. A number of devoted clergymen and laymen of the Protestant Episcopal Church, having met at Georgetown, in the District of Columbia, for the purpose of laying the
CHAPTER XVIII. foundation stone of an Episcopal church, were providentially led to talk the importance of having a plan for aiding pious institutions, in their several gradations,
I HAVE spoken of the various literary but indigent youths, of suitable talents, in preparing for the ministry. The result through which our youth may pass in prewas the formation, in 1818, of the Protest- paring for the professional course with ant Episcopal Education Society. It has have noticed also the education societies
which they usually close their studies. I proved a great blessing to the church and for assisting poor but pious young men, of to the world. It may be said to have
suitable capacity, in their preparations for originated the Episcopal theological school near Alexandria, in the District of Colum- the ministry. And 1 now come to speak
of the theological schools, in which a very bia ; and nearly a tenth part of the clergy of the church to which it belongs have been large number of our candidates for the more or less assisted by it. A sixth part ministry complete their studies for the sa
cred office. of the present clergy in Ohio, an eighth of
Formerly the young men who sought to those in Pennsylvania, a fifth of those in Maryland, and a large proportion of those tions which require, in those who occupy
enter the ministry among the denominain Virginia, have been aided from its funds; their pulpits, a college and theological edand it is now assisting a seventh of all the
ucation-I use the term in a technical students in the several theological schools of that church in the United States. I do sense, and mean nothing invidious-were not know the precise number of its pres- immediately under some individual pas
compelled to study theology, more or less ent beneficiaries, but believe it exceeds eighty.
tor, and it was common for six or eight of There are also several Education Soci- them to place themselves under this, and eties among the Baptists, which have aid a few under that other, distinguished divine. ed a large number of young men. That They often resided in the house of their
spiritual teacher; sometimes they boarded
in families near his house ; they availed * The American churches have long been im- themselves of his library, and were directpressed with the importance of having a competent ed by him in their studies. and sufficiently numerous ministry. The friends of the American Education Society observe the last
But this was obviously a very imperfect Thursday of February yearly as a day of special method. Few pastors could afford time to prayer for colleges, academies, and other institutions do their pupils justice ; fewer still possessof learning, that God may be pleased to pour out his ed such a range of learning as to fit them Spirit upon them, bring many of the students to a saving knowledge of his Gospel, and incline their for conducting others to the acquisitions, hearts to preach it. The General Assembly of the in various branches of knowledge, required “Old School” Presbyterian Church recommended in order to a competent preparation for the last year, to all the churches under their care, to ob- ministry. serve the first Sabbath of November as a day of special prayer to the Lord of the harvest, « that he
To the late Rev. Dr. John M, Mason, of would send more labourers into his harvest.” They New-York, one of the most eminent divines recominended the subject also to the daily intercessions of Christians, in view of the vast demand for ring the eight years from 1831 to 1839 it had aided ministers of the Gospel.
279 young men in preparing for the ministry, and + Dr. Hawks's “ History of the Episcopal Church supported 134 in 1840. It was mainly owing to its in Virginia,” p. 261.
cfforts that the Baptist Theological Seminary. at * In particular, “The Northern Baptist Education Newton was founded in 1827. The latter society Society," and "The Baptist Education Society of was founded in 1817, and has maintained many stuNew-York." The former of these was instituted in dents at the Hamilton Literary and Theological In1814, and has the seat of its operations in Boston. Du-stitution, founded in 1820.
that America has ever produced, we owe of an orthodox professorship of divinity, he the first attempt to establish anything that was led to unite with Mrs. Phillips, widow could be called a theological school. He of the late Hon. Samuel Phillips, one of the collected in Europe an extensive and valu- founders of Phillips' Academy, and her able theological library, and commenced a son, in a plan for connecting with that course of instruction in various branches academy the erection of buildings, and the of theological study about the beginning of appropriation of certain funds for the supthe present century. For years he carried port of a theological professor, and of indiit on almost single-handed, and many young gent students of theology. men heard at his feet the masterly instruc- Meanwhile, a similar plan for another tions that he was so capable of giving them. seminary was formed by the late Rev. Sam
The theological seminary at Andover uel Spring, D.D., of Newburyport, and the was founded in 1808, and being the first, on Rev. Leonard Woods, D.D., of West Newa complete plan, founded in the United bury, now a professor in the Seminary at States, and the most celebrated, I shall no- Andover, and funds were pledged for its tice it more amply than the rest.
endowment by Mr. Bartlett and Mr. Brown, The college buildings are beautifully sit- two parishioners of Dr. Spring, and by Mr. uated on elevated ground near the village Norris, of Salem-all at the solicitation of of Andover, about twenty miles to the north Dr. Spring, who was the author of this of Boston. They consist of two large edi- scheme. Dr. Woods, in whose parish the fices for the residence of the students, and institution was to be placed, was to be proa central building, in which are the chapel, fessor, and a colleague was to be appointed the library, lecture-rooms, &c. At a due to assist him in his pastoral duties. distance behind these stand the refectory Thus far had the parties proceeded, not and steward's house. The grounds in front only without concert, but although living are tastefully laid out, and their walks and within the compass of twenty miles, and avenues adorned with various sorts of for several of them having friendly intercourse est trees. Facing the seminary buildings, with each other, without being cognizant and forming one side of a street which bor- of one another's plans. This seems to ders the grounds in front, stands a row of indicate the intervention of a kind omnishouses where most of the professors re- cient Providence, and may have been a link side. The grounds are very ample, the in the chain of causes which cordially unisituation salubrious, and the buildings re- ted, in the end, the two parties into which markably convenient.
the orthodox Congregationalists of NewThis seminary forms a branch, as we England were then divided, and to the have elsewhere stated, of Phillips' Acad- adoption of a better creed for the seminary emy, which stands in the immediate vicin-than it might have had otherwise. ity, though the two institutions are no far- These parties were, on the one hand, the ther connected than by being both under so-called moderate Calvinists, moderate the same board of trustees.
both in action and speculation, and, on the The history of the Andover Seminary other hand, the Hopkinsians, the keenmay be given in a few words. It origina- sighted, active, fervid, pungent, and perted in a growing conviction of the need haps rather ultra men of their time. Now, there was for a higher standard of qual- to have continued and widened the separaification in the clergy, and in the obvious tion of these parties by their having connecessity of having something to take tiguous and rival seminaries, would have the place of the University of Harvard on been no less disastrous than their union its defection from the Faith. Farther, the was desirable, both for the nearer approxgood providence of God was manifested in imation of both to exact truth, and for its the undertaking, by his giving both the common defence against the advance of necessary means and the heart to four or Unitarianism; and nothing could well have five enterprising merchants to lay the been imagined more likely to produce foundation.
prompt and effectual union, than their being One of these was the aged Samuel Ab- led to co-operate in establishing a common bot, of Andover, who had already executed seminary. But it seems very doubtful how a will bequeathing funds to a large amount far they would ever have thus combined for the support of professors and indigent their efforts, had not certain members of students of theology in Harvard Universi- each been led, in the providence of God, by ty. But having lived to witness the new ways that they knew not, and for a high movements there, and to be convinced of end which they never contemplated, each the danger of trusting a legacy to an insti- to advance thus far in their projects. The tution which, in his view, had perverted the evil sure to result from there being two funds left by Mr. Hollis* for the support such seminaries was obvious ; the benefits
to be derived from their being united in one * Thomas Hollis, Esq., a highly-esteemed Chris. tian merchant, was born in England in 1659, and died were appreciated, at least to a certain exin 1731. He founded the professorships of theology sented to it a philosophical apparatus and many and mathematics in Harvard University, and pre- I books.
tent; yet this union of the two institutions, / pathize, and act together. These results and the adjustment of principles common to are matters of devout astonishment tomany both, cost nearly two years of anxious and a beholder of what God has wrought anid incessant labour, during which the negotia- the movements of our times. tions were more than once wellnigh bro- The opposition, in various forms, to orken off, and at one time quite abandoned. thodoxy was considerable, but was of little "No one,” says the Rev. Dr. Woods, "who avail in retarding its progress. Fears were did not himself act a leading part in these at one time entertained lest a majority of interesting transactions, can ever have an the trustees of Phillips' Academy, under adequate conception of the unnumbered dif- whose guardianship the seminary is placed, ficulties which the principal agents had to should ultimately be found men of lax opinencounter, or of the amount of solicitude, ions; but, as most of the suspected parties and of effort, which fell to their lot, or of died or resigned their seats within a few the variety of dangers to which the great years, those fears gradually subsided on object was from time to tiine exposed."* the vacancies being filled up by others who
The greatest difficulty in the way of the were unquestionably sound in the faith.* union was the adjustment of a common Anxiety on this head led to a greater socreed, to be subscribed by the professors of licitude about creating a Board of Visiters, the seminary. The founders of Phillips' and the quinquennial renewal of subscripAcademy had already adopted the West- tion by the professors and visiters, though minster Assembly's Shorter Catechism. this could not be extended to the trustees, To this Dr. Spring, with the advice and no provision to that effect having been support of his friend, the Rev. Dr. Emmons, made at the institution of that board. strenuously objected, because some parts With all these guards, and looking to of it were widely understood to imply what the present character of the boards, the he did not believe, and, partly, because he friends of the institution consider that thought that more definite and extended there is none in the country more comstatements on several points of doctrine pletely guarded against perversion." At were desirable, He and his friends, also, the same time, the most perfect freedom wished for additional barriers against her- of inquiry is allowed, and even encouraged esy, and particularly for a Board of Vis- among the students, in order that their iters, professing the same creed, and with faith may rest on conviction, not on huample powers for tne correction of errors. man authority or constraint. No subscripThese difficulties were adjusted at last by tion to a creed is required of them, nor the institution of such a board, and by the can any one who gives to the prosessors adoption of a new creed, drawn up by a satisfactory evidence of Christian characcommittee from both parties, and couched ter be debarred from entering the seminavery much in the language of the cate- ry, or dismissed from it on the ground of chism, but with some omissions and some his belief. This condition was required additions. And this creed is to be solemn- by the State Legislature on their enlarging ly repeated and subscribed in the presence the powers of the trustees, so as to enable of the trustees of the academy, by every them to hold the additional funds required professor and every visiter, on his induc- for the establishment of the seminary. tion into office; and the same iş be re- And although its expediency has by some peated, in like manner, by each of them, been doubted, it seems as yet to have had once every five years, during his continu- no bad consequences. It has been thought ance in office.
unreasonable to require a minute profesIn this, adjustment the Hopkinsians gain- sion of faith from students who go to the ed their main object, but, at the same time, institution for the very purpose of learning sacrificed some favourite points which they what is truth, as well as how to teach it. would gladly have introduced into a semi- The seminary was opened in the autumn nary of a more sectarian character. Some, of 1808. For several years there were indeed, a few of whom are still to be found, only three professors, but now there are persisted in their objections to the semina- five, one of whom acts as president of the ry on this account, but nearly the whole institution. Each member of the faculty orthodox community of New-England have has a salary of 1500 dollars per annum, tocordially acquiesced in it, so that the ar- gether with the use of a family dwellingrangement has most happily, though silent- house, and is debarred from receiving any ly, become a virtual bond of union among compensation for preaching abroad. them. Foreign missions, and other great The departments of the professors are, benevolent enterprises to which the semi- Sacred Literature, including the Greek and nary soon gave birth, hastened and con
* It must be kept in mind that Phillips' Academy firmed this coalescence by bringing the was founded in 1778, when Unitarianism had not yet two parties more frequently to pray, sym- developed itself in the United States, though the er
rors which led to it were to be found in Boston and * Manuscript History of the Theological Semina. its neighbourhood. When it did develop itself, it Ty at Andover, from which much of the information was not strange that the Board of Phillips' Acadehere given was derived.
my should have been infected with it. L
Hebrew Scriptures, chiefly during the first years at first, but they have gradually inyear;' Christian Theology, chiefly during creased from about thirty to about 150, the second year; and Sacred Rhetoric, Ec- which has been not far from the number clesiastical History, and Pastoral Theolo- on the list for many years. Any farther gy during the third year. The instruction increase 'has been prevented by the mul. is given partly by written lectures and tiplication of kindred seminaries since its partly by the use of text-books, which are reaching that number. The whole that recited in substance by the students, and have been admitted from the first amount accompanied with remarks by the profes- to about 1500, though, partly from deaths,
partly from many having failed to comThe students are not allowed to preach, plete their course, or gone to other institunor are they required to write sermons till tions, not more than 950 of these have their senior or last year. Each may then graduated. Nearly 100 have devoted thembe called on to preach in the chapel, and is selves to foreign, and many more to doalso allowed to preach abroad for six Sab-. mestic missions. The American Board of baths in his last term, within certain limits Commissioners for Foreign Missions were as to distance, so as to avoid being absent indebted to this seminary for all their misfrom any of the lectures. The remainder sionaries but one for the first ten years ; of the preaching in the chapel is chiefly and many of its students have lived to beperformed by the professors in rotation. come presidents and professors of colleges
Most of the students are graduates of and theological schools, and secretaries colleges, and all are admitted on examina- and agents of benevolent societies. tion in regard to their attainments, evi- It possesses peculiar advantages for the dence of piety, &c. During the first year training of missionaries. The “ Society they attend two lectures a day; afterward, of Inquiry on Missions," of which almost usually but one.
all the students are members, is nearly Great attention is required of the pro- coeval with it. It has a valuable library fessors in the cultivation of piety among and museum, and exerts a very salutary the students, which has ever been regard- influence on the spirit and piety of the ined by them, as well as by the founders and stitution. The doctrine is taught at this, guardians, as a grand object of the institu- as at most of the other theological semination. For this purpose, they meet the ries in the United States, that every pastor students for a devotional exercise every should be a missionary at heart, and that Wednesday evening. The students also every student should be willing to go hold many conferences and prayer-meet- whithersoever God may call him. There ings by themselves.
are great facilities at Andover for having Indigent students, of whom there are early intelligence from the American mismany, receive half the price of their board sionaries, by constant correspondence, by in commons gratuitously. No charge is visits of returned members, and by interin any case made for tuition, and but a course with the secretaries and other offismall one for the use of the library, and cers of the American Board. for rooms and furniture.
The “Porter Rhetorical Society,” so As the design of the seminary is to named from its founder, the late Rev. Dr. furnish an able as well as a pious clergy, Porter, the first president of the seminary, and as its privileges are, to a great extent, has an excellent · library, and exercises gratuitous, each student is required, at his much influence. matriculation, to promise to complete a The library of the seminary itself is regular three years' course of study, "un- thought to be one of the best in the counless prevented by some unforeseen and try. It was selected for the purpose, unavoidable necessity,” which is to be contains 14,000 volumes, and has a fund judged of by the faculty. This is a much to provide for its constant augmentation. longer course than had commonly been Some of the large number of German pursued under the guidance of private pas, books contained in it being of a neological tors, and it has been found very difficult thus character, it was at one time feared by far to elevate the views of the community, many that these might do mischief; but and fully to reconcile the feelings of the such apprehensions have now yielded, in students to this requisition. Indeed, the the minds of those who felt them, to the rule itself was not made for a considerable consideration of the importance of having number of the first years.
such books in an institution where men As this is the oldest theological semina- are to be trained to face an enemy, not to ry in the country, it has had to make its flee from him. own way, unaided by previous experience; The institution is under strict discipline. and very many are the changes, mostly Monitors' bills are kept; all are required for the better, it is believed, which have to attend to their studies, and to be presbeen made from time to time in its ar-ent at the lectures of the professors, at rangements.
the morning and evening chapel prayers, There were not many students for some and at Divine service on the Sabbath.