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Episcopali- , 3. Theological Seminary of the Diocess of Ohio, at {3:

} Ohio. Gambia

1828 3 1. Thomaston Theological Institute

2. Theological Institution at Newton .

Massachusetts. 1825 3
3. Hamilton Literary and Theological Institute, at

Baptists. 4. Virginia Baptist Seminary at Richmond


1832 3 5. Furman Theological Seminary at High Hills

South Carolina. 1838 2 6. Literary and Theological Seminary at Eaton


1834 2 7. Theological Department in Granville College


1832 2 .8. Alton Theological Seminary

Illinois. Ref. Dutch. Theological Seminary, New-Brunswick


3 36 (1. Hartwick Seminary


2 2. Theological Seminary at Gettysburg Lutherans.

Pennsylvania. 1826 3 3. Theological Seminary at Lexington

South Carolina. 1835 2 4. Theological Seminary at Columbus

Ohio. German Ref. Theological Seminary at Mercersberg

Pennsylvania. 1825 2 Assoc. Chur. Theological Department in Jefferson College


2 Assoc. Ref. 1. Theological Seminary at Newburgh

New-York. 1836 Church. 2. Theological Seminary at Alleghany-town

Pennsylvania. 1828 1 The Reformed Presbyterians (Covenant- siastical institutions, and 180 clerical stuers) have a theological school at Allegha- dents. At present there are 261. ny-town, and the Moravians have one at I shall conclude by stating that the enNazareth, in Pennsylvania : the former has tire number of theological schools and factwo professors and 14 or 15 students, the ulties belonging to the orthodox Protestant latter one professor and 5 or 6 students. Churches is thirty-eight,* with about 105

The reader will remark that the number professors, and nearly, if not quite, 1800 of students in the theological seminaries students at the present time. The greatcontained in the preceding table is that for er number of these institutions are in their the year 1810, which is the latest complete infancy. Where they are connected with statement I have seen. It must not be colleges, the theological professor generconsidered as a present census of these ally gives lectures in the literary departinstitutions. With the exception of the ment also, on moral philosophy, metaSeminary at Andover, and, perhaps, two or physics, logic, &c. Many of the profesthree others, the number of students at sors in the new and smaller seminaries present (the commencement of 1844) is are pastors of churches in the neighbourmuch greater than it was in 1840. In some hood, and all that are not preach much in seminaries it is almost twice as great as it vacant churches, or on extraordinary ocwas then. The whole number of students casions, such as before benevolent or litin these seminaries may fairly be put down erary societies and bodies, ecclesiastical as greater by one fourth part at esent assemblies, &c. Many of them, too, are than it was when the above-given list was expected to employ their leisure moments made.

in giving instruction through the press. The above enumeration comprises the Though the number of professors seems orthodox evangelical denominations of large when compared with that of the stuProtestants only. The Unitarians have a dents, I can assure the reader that few theological department at Harvard Univer- men have more to do, or, in point of fact, sity, which had two professors and twen- do more for the cause of Christ. There ty-seven students in 1840.

are to be found among them many of the The Roman Catholic theological semi- first ministers of the churches to which naries, according to the Catholic Almanac, they respectively belong. If not quite stood as follows in 1840 :

equal in point of science to some of the That at Philadelphia had

22 students. great professors in the Old World, they

are all, God be praised, believed to be conEmmetsburg

verted, and are devoted, faithful men. Charleston, South Carolina.....

Their grand object is to train up a pious as Parish of Assumption in Louisiana...

well as a learned ministry. I am not aware Burdstown and St. Rose, in Kentucky

that there is one of them that does not open every meeting of his class with earnest prayer, in which he is joined by his

pupils—a striking contrast to what one In all, twelve institutions and 114 students. But this list was probably incom- Connecticut

, theological lectures are given to a class

* At the Wesleyan University at Middletown, plete, as we learn from the same authority in divinity, and possibly this is done also in 'some of that in 1842 there were twenty-one eccle- the other Methodist colleges.



.... 20



St. Louis

9 12

sees, alas! at too many of the theological other seaports, to supply foreign emigrants lectures in the universities of Europe. as they arrive on our shores.

It is a remarkable fact that what has been done by Bible societies seems not to

have interfered with the business of the CHAPTER XIX.

booksellers; for these sell more copies of

the Holy Scriptures than they did before the EFFORTS TO DIFFUSE THE SACRED SCRIPTURES.

Bible societies existed. The more the Bi

ble is known, the more it is appreciated; in Much has been done in the United States many a family the entrance of a single copy to place the Sacred Scriptures in the begets a desire to possess several ; besides hands of all who can read them, and in which, the Bible Society distributions greatthis endeavour there is a delightful co-op- ly augment the demand for Biblical comeration of good men of every name. Even mentaries and expositions, and thus augstatesmen, though they may not be deci- ment the trade of the booksellers, who pubdedly religious, or, by outward profession, lish and put into circulation immense edimembers of any church, lend their aid in tions of such works. There is a great dethis endeavour; and it is not uncommon mand for the Scriptures, also, both in weekto hear men of the first rank in the political day and Sabbath-schools, and great numcircles, some occupying high places in the bers of these are furnished by the book-trade. council of the nation, advocate at Bible Nor does the American Bible Society Society anniversaries the claims of the confine its efforts to the United States. It Word of God. The impression prevails has for many years associated itself with among our statesmen that the Bible is em- those societies which, by prosecuting the phatically the foundation of our hopes as same work in foreign lands, are labouring a people. Nothing but the Bible can make to hasten the coming of that day when men the willing subjects of law; they must “ the knowledge of the Lord shall fill the first acquiesce with submission in the gov- earth.” The receipts of the society for ernment of God, before they can yield a the last year amounted to 126,348 dollars, willing obedience to the requirements of of which 15,516 were appropriated to the human governments, however just these work abroad. may be. It is the religion of the Bible only The society has published the New Testhat can render the population of any coun- tament and some parts of the Old in “ raised try honest, industrious, peaceable, quiet, characters,” for the use of the blind, and contented, happy.

is now engaged in printing the remainder It is twenty-six years since the Ameri- for that unfortunate class of the population. can Bible Society was instituted, and it In the year 1837, a Bible society was now has branches in all parts of the coun- formed among the members of the Baptry. It has sent out, in all, 3,269,678 cop-tist churches, entitled the “American and ies of the Bible, or of the New Testament, Foreign Bible Society.” It was formed from its depository.* Last year alone with special reference to the circulation 216,605 copies went forth to bless the na- of translations in the course of being made tion. In the years 1829 and 1830, great by that body of Christians. Some, at least, and systematic efforts were made to place of these translations the American Bible a Bible in every family that was without Society thought it could not, consistently one throughout the whole land. Much with its constitution, aid in publishing, bewas accomplished, yet so rapid is the in- cause the original words baptize and bapcrease of the population, that these efforts tism have been translated into words must be repeated from year to year; and equivalent to immerse and immersion. Howthe work can only be done by dividing the ever much it may be regretted that these country into small districts, and engaging words, about the meaning of which there active and zealous persons to visit every has been so much philological disputation, house from time to time, ascertain what are not permitted to remain untranslated, families are destitute of the Scriptures, so that all denominations might be put and supply them by selling or giving away upon the same footing, and be enabled to copies, according to circumstances. Great continue united in the work of Bible circuefforts are also made at New-York, and lation, the issue will, it is likely, prove that

in this, as in many similar cases, God is * As some Bible societies are not auxiliary to the about to make an apparent obstacle mightAmerican Bible Society-such was until lately the ily subserve the advancement of his kingPhiladelphia Bible Society, and such is at present dom. The new society has taken up the the American and Foreign Bible Society-we must not suppose that the number of copies of the Scrip work of foreign publication with great tures mentioned as having left the depository of the zeal, and doubtless it will serve to develAmerican Bible Society includes the whole which op the energies of the large and powerful Besides, the American Sunday-school Union, and body of Christians who sustain it, to an the Methodist Book Concern, for a time published extent to which they never would have the Bible.

gone but for its formation. The receipts last year, being the sixth of its existence, gelical Family Library, of fifteen volumes were 20,691 dollars; the expenditure 21,068 each, and of the Christian Library, of fordollars. Meanwhile, the resources of the ty-five volumes each. Many thousands of American Bible Society have increased in- separate volumès, also, of these sets were stead of having diminished.

sold, and 77,000 copies of the Christian Almanac for the United States. From 100,000 to 150,000 of some of the smaller tracts

were distributed ; and the total sent into CHAPTER XX.

circulation during eighteen years has been

1,300,896,847 pages, or about 80,806,460 of ASSOCIATIONS FOR THE PUBLICATION AND CIR

tracts and volumes. The receipts for the CULATION OF RELIGIOUS TRACTS AND BOOKS.

year 1843 amounted to 42,433 dollars from No branch of religious enterprise has donations, and 49,904 from sales ; in all, been more vigorously prosecuted in the 96,240 dollars. Fifteen thousand dollars United States than that of preparing, pub- were sent to foreign countries in aid of the lishing, and circulating moral and religious tract cause abroad. writings in various forms. The wide dif- The Society is assisted by auxiliary asfusion of education, at least among the sociations in all parts of the United States, white part of the population, makes it ob- both in the collection of sunds, and in disvious that powerful advantage may be ta- seminating its publications. Some of these ken of the press in promoting the truth. local societies, such as those at New-York,

Associations of various kinds are enga- Boston, and Philadelphia, are large and efged in this good work. We have seen that ficient. the Sunday-school societies are doing The Society is zealously prosecuting much for supplying the youth of the coun- two grand measures, into which I shall try with moral and religious reading; we enter the more fully, inasmuch as they have now to speak of other societies which are of the utmost importance to the reliaim at benefiting adults, not, however, to gious well-being of the country, and also the exclusion of the young:

more or less practicable in other lands. First among these associations may be The first of these is the publication of volranked the American Tract Society, which, umes of approved excellence, such as Bunlike most others of a general and national yan's Pilgrim's Progress, and Doddridge's character, has its seat in the city of New-Rise and Progress of Religion in the Soul,

York. It was instituted in 1825, and hence and their distribution throughout the counhas been eighteen years in existence. It try. It proposes to place not only one is founded on the broad principle of uniting volume at least, as was resolved some in its support Christians of all evangelical years ago, but even a whole copy of its denominations of Protestants, so far as Evangelical Family Library, of fifteen volthey may be disposed to co-operate in its umes, or its Christian Library, of fortyobjects; its Committee of Publication is five volumes, in as many households as composed of ministers of the Gospel of the are willing to buy them; and in seeking different orthodox communions; and its to accomplish this end, it employs able publications themselves convey those great men, ministers of the Gospel and laymen, truths and doctrines in which all of these as agents. These visit towns and cities, communions can agree.

preach in the churches, raise funds to supThe operations of no society in Ameri- ply the poor with books, organize commitca seem to have been prosecuted with tees who are to visit all the families in greater vigour or more wisdom. Its Re- their respective districts, and engage all port for 1843 states that, since its com- who are able to buy .one book or more, mencement, it has sent forth 1069 different and to supply such as are too poor to purpublications, of which 131 form volumes chase. Another set of agents consists of of various sizes by themselves, and the plain, but sensible, pious, and zealous colremainder are, with few exceptions, what porteurs, or hawkers, generally laymen, are called tracts, each consisting of four who are sent into the “Far West” to carpages and upward, but requiring more ry books and tracts to the frontier people, than one to make a volume. It has pub- engaged in felling the forests on their everlished some broad-sheets and hand bills for onward course towards the setting sun, às posting up in public places or otherwise. well as into the mountainous districts, and And besides these 1069 publications issued the thinly-settled belt of sandy country at home, it has aided in the publication of which stretches along the ocean in the 1850 in foreign lands. The copies of its Middle and Southern States. The numpublications printed last year amounted ber of these colporteurs is at present sixty. to 4,156,500, of which 174,500 were vol- Though in operation but a few years, umes. During the same period 4,155,806, this enterprise had in 1842 placed 1,800,000 including 157,478 volumes, actually issued volumes in the hands of families, comprifrom its depository. Among the volumes sing at least 4,000,000 of souls. Who can were several thousand sets of the Evan- calculate the amount of good which such

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a work must, with God's blessing, accom- blessed results. According to municipal

regulations, the city, which now has above
I ought to add, that not only is care taken 320,000 inhabitants, is divided into wards,
that both books and tracts shall be printed and to each of these, when practicable,
with good type, and on excellent paper, there is appointed what is called a super-
but that the books are substantially bound, intendent, generally a minister of the Gos-
and the tracts covered, for the most part, pel, a young man who devotes himself
with handsome paper coverings. In these wholly to the work. The superintendents
respects they form a marked contrast with divide their wards into districts, find a dis-
the publications of some societies of the tributer of either sex for each, hold fre-
same kind on the Continent of Europe. It quent meetings with their distributers, pro-
is rightly thought to be a false economy vide them with tracts for distribution, re-
which, for the sake of saving a few hun-ceive their reports, draw up a general one
dred dollars, would fail to render attractive for the monthly meeting of the City Tract
in appearance, as well as readable and du- Society, under whose auspices the work
rable, publications which are intended to proceeds, and read their reports at those
interest, instruct, and save men, many of meetings. Withal, they hold prayer meet-
whom are wholly indifferent to religion, ings in their respective wards almost every
and might be repelled from reading them night in the week, and engage competent
were they to appear in a mean and shabby persons to hold others which they cannot

themselves attend. The distributers la-
Besides its publications in English, the bour gratuitously. The superintendents
Society has sent out a considerable num- receive usually 600 dollars each as his sal-
ber of tracts in French, German, Spanish, ary. A few years ago these sixteen su-
and other languages, for the various emi-perintendents were supported by the same
grants that arrive in the United States. number of liberal Christian merchants and

The other measure referred to is the mechanics in that city, who rejoiced to be
systematic periodical distribution of tracts instrumental in maintaining this good work.
in cities, towns, villages, and even rural I shall conclude by giving the summary
districts, though this cannot be done di- of what was accomplished in New York
rectly by the Society, so much as by the during the year ending on the 1st of De-
numerous auxiliaries which it endeavours cember 1843, as presented at the regular
heartily to engage in carrying it through. annual public meeting, held in one of the
The object is to place a tract, at least once churches of that city.
in the month, in every family willing to

1,050 average number of visiters (or distributers).
receive one, and, where practicable, to ac- 732,155 tracts distributed, containing 3,425,781 pages.
company it with religious conversation, 936 Bibles and 558 Testaments received from the New-

York Bible Society, and supplied to the destitute.
especially where ignorance of the Gospel 4,496 volumes lent from the ward libraries.
or family affliction renders it peculiarly 2,200 children gathered into Sabbath-schools.
called for. In pursuing this design, the

315 children gathered into public schools.

131 persons gathered into Bible-classes. city, town, or village is divided into small

904 persons induced to attend church. geographical districts, each containing a 705 temperance pledges obtained. certain number of families, and assigning

1,433 district prayer-meetings held.
to each a sufficiency of zealous, intelligent, 396 persons hopefully converted.
and prudent Christians to make monthly

342 converts united with evangelical churches.
visits to every family, and leave the tract Such is the tabular view presented by
selected for the month. Some will require one year's labour in the field of Tract dis-
more than one visit, particularly the sick tribution in one city.
and the destitute; but houses where the Besides the American Tract Society,
inmates persist in refusing tracts, in spite which may be regarded as a vast reservoir
of every effort to overcome their reluc- of common truth-of doctrines about which
tance, are passed by.

all evangelical Protestants are agreed -
This plan, wherever justice has been done there are other societies that publish reli-
to it in practice, has been found eminently gious tracts and books; and among these I
beneficial. Cases of poverty and disease may mention, as distinguished for the ener-
are discovered and made known to associ- gy of its management and the extent of its
ations and individuals likely to attend to operations, the “Book Concern” of the
them. Many persons, living in the con- Methodist Episcopal Church. This institu-
stant neglect of public worship, are in-tion is situated in New-York, under the con-
duced to attend the preaching of the Gos- trolof the General Conference, which, every
pel. The churches in the neighbourhood four years, appoints a committee to direct
inted out to them, and they are ex- its operations. Two able agents are intrust-

to such as they may prefer. ed with the management, and are required
procedure in many places to make full returns to the Bishops and to
United States. In the city the General Conference. It must not be

nas been in operation for thought that all its numerous publications
Is, and with abundance of are stamped with the peculiarities of the

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Methodist doctrines ; not a few of them |cussion as to the value and extent of the are the same in character with those pub- general literature of the United States, it is lished by the American Tract Society- not out of place to say something respectsuch, for instance, as the "Saints' Rest." ing that part of it which falls under the The sales are not confined to the main de- head of Religion. pository at New-York, and the branches And first, let me advert to that which, established at some other great centres of without reference to its origin, includes all trade; its publications are retailed by all the literature of a religious kind now cirthe travelling ministers of that extensive culating through the country. In this sense, body, and thus find their way into the our religious literature is by far the most most remote log-cabins of the West. And extensive in the world, with the single exwho can calculate the good that may re- ception of that of Great Britain. We have sult from reading the biographical and di- a population of 18,500,000; and, even includactic volumes thus put into circulation ? ding the African race among us, and regardWho can tell what triumphs over sin, what ing the country as a whole, we have a larpenitential tears, what hopes made to spring ger proportion of readers than can be found up in despairing hearts, what holy resolu- in most other nations. Indeed, I am not tions, owe their existence, under God, to aware of any whole kingdom or nation that these books ? The amount of the sales of has more. Deducting the coloured poputhis institution and its branches was, last lation, we have 15,500,000 of people who, year, fully 125,000 dollars.

whatever may have been their origin, are The Old School Presbyterians have also Anglo-American in character, and to a a Board of Publication, which has put forth great extent speak and read the English not only a considerable number of doctri- language. Not only so, but of these a very nal tracts in which the distinctive views of large proportion are religious in their charthat body are ably maintained, but many acters and habits, as we shall show in anbooks also of solid worth, which are gain- other place; and, among the rest, there ing an extensive circulation among its own is a widely prevalent respect for Christimembers, and the professors of the Calvin- anity, and a disposition to make themselves istic system generally. The receipts of acquainted with it. this Board were, last year, 18,160 dollars, To meet the demand created by so large and its expenditures 18,409 dollars. a body of religious and serious readers, we

The regular Baptists, too, have their have a vast number of publications in Tract and Book Society earnestly engaged every department of Christian theology, in the good work of supplying their people and these are derived from various sources: with publications addressed both to the con- Some have been translated from German verted and the unconverted. The receipts of and French; some from the Latin of more that Board were last year 9906 dollars, and or less ancient times ; some from the its expenditures 9869. The Episcopalians, Greek; while many of our learned men, Free-Will Baptists, the Quakers or Friends, and particularly of our divines, read some the Lutherans, and the Protestant Metho- or all these languages, and would think dists, have all their own Tract Societies; their libraries very deficient in the literathe last two have their “ Publication Com- ture with which they ought to be familiar, mittees” and their Book Establishments. did they not contain a good stock of such Other denominations, also, may possibly books imported from distant Europe. have theirs. The amount of evangelical Again, we have either republished or imtracts and books put into circulation by all ported a great many of the best English these “societies,” “ boards,” and “ com- religious works, both of the present times mittees,” put together, cannot be exactly and of two or three centuries back. Such ascertained. Their value in money, I mean as seem adapted for popular use, and as for what they are sold, can hardly be less many of a more learned cast as seem likely than 300,000 dollars. They all help to to justify their republication, are reprinted; swell the great stream of Truth, as it rolls while not a few copies of many more are its health-giving waters through the land. ordered from Europe through the bookMay God grant that these efforts may go sellers. on continually increasing from year to Some American reprints of English reliyear, until every family shall be blessed gious books, particularly of works of a with a well-stored library of sound reli- practical character, have had an immense gious books.

circulation. The commentaries of Scott, Henry, Doddridge, Adam Clarke, and Gill,

have been extensively sold, and some CHAPTER XXI.

booksellers owe a large part of their fortunes to the success of the American editions. All the sterling English writers on

religious subjects, of the seventeenth cenWhile it would be very foreign to the tury, as well as of later times, are familiar object of this work to enter upon any dis- to our Christian readers; and the smaller



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