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same county, are dedicated to him. None of these require any particular notice, except Caerleon, which, from its situation, might be suspected to have been the metropolitan church of Cambria. The cathedral must, however, have been some other building, as the archbishoprick was founded before the time of Cattwg, and those who filled the see must have possessed a church from which they derived their title. Geoffrey of Monmouth, who, for want of better authority, may be followed in this instance, says* the cathedral was dedicated to St. Aaron, the martyr; but it was not in existence in the time of that writer, and all traces of it have been forgotten. The epithet of Doeth, attached to the name of Cattwg, has induced certain Romish writers to confound him with St. Sophias, bishop of Beneventum in Italy, and the accumulated history of these persons may be seen in Cressy. Cattwg is commemorated in the Calendar, Feb. 24.†

The next college is Caerworgorn, the first principal of which was Illtyd or St. Iltutus, from which it was called Côr or Bangor Illtyd. The place at which it was situated is now known by the name of Llanilltyd Fawr, or Lantwit Major: but with respect to the age of Iltutus some uncertainty prevails; for while one account says that he was appointed to this college by St. Germanus, and therefore before A. D. 450, another account states that he was a soldier in the train of Arthur, and that he was persuaded by Cattwg Ddoeth to renounce the world and devote himself to religion.§ The last statement would bring down the date of his appointment to A. D. 520. The first date has been already shown to be wrong, and the last depends upon his legendary life. His

* According to the Latin copy, as quoted by Usher.

+ Mr Sharon Turner cites a Latin Life of Cattwg under the name of Cadocus, from the Cottonian MSS. Vesp. A. 14. and Titus D. 22.

Achau y Saint.

§ Johannes Tinmuthensis, apud Usher.

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position in his own genealogy, and the age of persons said to have been members of his college, would show that his appointment took place before the close of this century.* He was by birth an Armorican, being the son of Bicanys by a sister of Emyr Llydaw, whom John of Teignmouth calls Rieniguilida; and was therefore the great nephew of St. Germanus. As the Welsh authorities call him Illtyd Farchog, or the knight, he was probably distinguished for his military career before he left his native country. Like Cattwg he attended the court of Arthur, and though both of them are said in the Triads to have been knights there, the title must have had reference to their past achievements, for it is immediately added that they were devoted to the law of God and the faith in Christ. According to the Regestum Landavense,§ Iltutus, having built a church, and afterwards a monastery at Lantwit under the patronage of Meirchion, a chieftain of Glamorgan, opened a school, which was filled with a large number of disciples. But as some of those whose names are enumerated, are also known to have studied elsewhere, it may be inferred that it was not an unusual practice to migrate from one college to another. There appears to have been no appointed age at which members were admitted. Besides the youth who resorted to these institutions for instruction, old men often passed the remainder of their days in them, devoting their time to religious exercises; and these contingencies being borne in mind, much apparent contradiction will be obviated.

The name of Illtyd is connected with several churches, besides that of Llanilltyd Fawr or Lantwit; he may be consider

* The Regestum Landavense says he was appointed by St. Dubricius. + In another account it is said that his mother was Gweryla, daughter of Tewdrig, king of Glamorgan.

Triads 121 & 122, Third Series.

§ Apud Usher, Cap. XIII.

ed the founder of Penbre, Carmarthenshire,* Ilston, and Newcastle, Glamorganshire ;† and also of Llantrisaint in the latter county in conjunction with St. Tyfodwg and St. Gwynno, from which circumstance the church derives its name, implying "the church of the three saints." Ecton records Illtyd as the patron saint of Llanhary, and Llantryddid, Glamorganshire, as well as of Llanhileth, Monmouthshire, and Llantwood or Llantwyd, Pembrokeshire. The following chapels are dedicated to him,-Llanilltyd Faerdre under Llantrisaint, and Lantwit subject to Neath, Glamorganshire, Capel Illtyd subject to Dyfynog, Brecknockshire, and Llanelltyd under Llanfachraith, Merionethshire. Independently of the churches which he founded, the memory of Illtyd is honoured by the Welsh on account of his having introduced among them an improved method of ploughing: before his time they were accustomed to cultivate their grounds with the mattock and over-treading plough (aradr arsang,) implements, which, the compiler of a Triad upon husbandry observes, were still used by the Irish.§ Mr. Owen says he died about A. D. 480, but it is evident his life extended through a considerable part of the sixth century, which may more properly be said to be the age in which he flourished. According to Cressy his commemoration was held Feb. 7, but the year in which he died

* Chapels to Penbre,-Llannon (St. Non) and Llandurry. There appears also to have been a chapel dedicated to St. Non in the parish of Ilston.

+ Chapels to Newcastle,-Bettws (St. David,) Laleston (St. David,) and Tithegston (St. Tudwg ab Tyfodwg.)

Chapels to Llantrisaint,-Llanilltyd or Lantwit Faerdre (St. Illtyd,) Ystrad Dyfodwg (St. Tyfodwg,) Llanwonno (St. Gwynno,) Aberdâr (St. John the Baptist,) and St. John's chapel (St. John the Baptist.) In the dedications of the foregoing chapels, some historical allusions may be traced. Four of them seem to refer to the fact, that St. David, who was the son of Non, was a pupil of St. Iltutus, and three others have reference to the founders of the mother church.

§ Triad 56, Third Series.

was uncertain. Tradition affirms that he was buried near the chapel that bears his name in Brecknockshire, where there is a place called Bedd Gwyl Illtyd, or the grave of St. Illtyd's eve, from its having been a custom to watch there during the night previous to the saint's day. In the church-yard of Lantwit Major a large stone may be seen with three several inscriptions, one of them purporting that it was the cross of Iltutus and Samson, another that Samson raised the cross for his soul, and the third that one Samuel was the carver.†


The last college, the foundation of which may be attributed to Dubricius, was at Caerleon; and, according to some copies of Geoffrey of Monmouth, it contained two hundred philosophers who studied astronomy and other sciences.

The British monastic institutions require further notice. Little is known respecting their internal regulations, but it would appear that choral service formed an important part of their arrangements. The Welsh terms, which have been generally rendered "college or congregation," and by Latin writers invariably "monasterium," are Côr, choir; and Bangor, high choir. According to the Triads, the three societies of the first class, of which Bangor Illtyd was one,§ contained no less than two thousand four hundred members; one hundred being employed every hour, in order that the praise and service of God might be continued day and night without intermission. The number, however, in other establishments varied exceedingly; and the magnificent scale of those alluded

* Jones's Brecknockshire, Vol. II. p. 683.

+ Gibson's Camden, Vol. II.-There is a Life of St. Illtut, abbot, in the Cottonian MSS. Vespasian A. XIV.

Sixteen communities in Wales, which bore these appellations, are enumerated by the intelligent author of the Horæ Britannicæ, Vol. II. Chap. VII.

§ The other two were Cor Emrys yng Nghaer Caradawg, probably at Old Sarum; and Bangor Wydrin at Glastonbury. Triad 80, First Series, and 84 Third Series.

to would be thought incredible, if it were not for the authentic testimony of Bede, who flourished about a century after the destruction of the monastery of Bangor Iscoed. That author, whose accuracy is universally admitted, says that the number of its monks was two thousand one hundred, who were divided into classes, of three hundred each, under their respective superintendents; and, that his readers might not be ignorant as to the manner in which so vast a society was supported, he adds that they all lived by the labour of their own hands.* Compared with this, the assertion that Dubricius had upwards of a thousand pupils at Henllan,† will will not appear strange; and it is said that Cattwg, who retained a part of his father's territories for the purpose, was wont to maintain a hundred ecclesiastics, as many paupers, and the same number of widows, besides strangers and guests, at his own expense. The traces of extensive ranges of buildings still observable at Bangor Iscoed and Lantwit Major confirm the asseverations of ancient writers; and an old manuscript, extant in the reign of Elizabeth, affirmed that the saints at the latter place had for their habitations seven halls and four hundred houses. § The abbots of these institutions are sometimes styled bishops, and it is not improbable that they exercised chorepiscopal authority in their respective societies; but it is agreed that they were all of them subject to the bishop of the diocese; and there is an instance on record of St. Dubricius interfering to correct certain abuses and jealousies which had broken out at Lantwit Major.|| Some of these

Eccl. Hist. Lib. II. Cap. 2.

+ Johannes Tinmuthensis, apud Usher. + Ibid.

§ Horæ Britannica, Vol. II. p. 355.

"Vir beatæ memoriæ Dubricius visitavit locum Sti. Ilduti tempore quadragesimali, ut quæ emendanda erant corrigeret, et servanda consolidet, ibidem enim conversabantur multi sanctissimi viri, quodam livore decepti."-Liber Landavensis, as quoted in the Hora Britannicæ.

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