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and pilasters on the sides. The interior | tion and moral improvement of those is almost wholly of hewn stone. The confined. principal hall is in the centre; and all The Penitentiary, on Blackwell's the departments are well arranged, with island, in the East river, is an immense ample accommodations for the numerous stone structure, on the Auburn plan, offices and clerks.
with a chapel, keepers' rooms, &c., in The City-Hall..This fine and spa- the centre, the cells for females in the cious edifice occupies the centre of the south wing, and for men in the north. park, facing the south, and presents a Each wing is more than 200 feet long. beautiful Grecian front, of 216 feet in BROOKLYN. - This city is on Long length, rising from a broad terrace. A Island, opposite New York city, with flight of wide steps leads up to arched which it is connected by ferries, upon entrances, above which is a balcony on which steamboats ply, every few minutes, the second story. The two wings have day and night. Its beautiful and elevated halls in front, devoted to the common situation has made it a favorite residence council, the superior court, &c., while of many persons doing business in New other courts and offices are accommoda- York." It contains a city-hall, thirty ted in other parts of the building. On churches, several banks and insurance the top is the great fire-bell, which in- companies, and over seventy thousand indicates, by the number of strokes, the habitants. The Lyceum is a fine building districts of the city in which fires are of granite, with a spacious lecture-idom. burning, for the direction of the fire- The City Library of 3,000 volumes, has companies. A view from the cupola a fine building and reading-room. affords one of the finest prospects of the The Navy-Yard has extensive grounds city.
enclosed, with an arse
rsenal, stores, shipTrinity Church, on Broadway, oppo- houses, docks, the naval lyceum, &c. site the head of Wall street, occupies The naval hospital, at a little distance, the site of the first episcopal church is a fine, large building. erected in the city, in 1696, except the Greenwood Cemetery is an extensive chapel in the front. It is of sandstone, tract of ground, about three miles below in the Gothic style, 137 feet long, 36 Brooklyn, and situated on the bay. It feet wide, and 67 feet high, with a tower has an undulated surface, and is laid out 30 feet square, and a steeple whose top in lots, the access to which is by pleasis 283 feet from the ground. In the ant, winding carriage-roads. The forrear is a vestry, 72 feet long. The est-trees are left standing in many places, church contains an organ, which cost shading the little lakes, or covering the $10,000. In the burial-ground surround hills, and, in others, those of various foing the church, lie interred many distin- liage are intermingled by art; while guished persons, particularly Alexander tombs and monuments, usually planned Hamilton and Captain James Lawrence. and executed with taste, are already
Prisons.- The Halls of Justice is the scattered in all parts. city prison popularly known as the Staten Island, with an elevated and “ Tonibs," and is situated a little north , varied surface, offers many fine sites for of the park. It was built, about ten villages and country-houses, and is the years ago, to obviate the evils of the resort of many citizens, access being bridewell
, which was constructed on the made frequent and convenient by nudefective principles of the old system. merous steamboats. The quarantine The building is 200 by 253 feet, of hospitals are situated on the northeastgranite, in the Egyptian style, and con- ern side ; and a little below is the “ seatains various court-rooms. The cells are men's retreat," a noble institution, supsolitary, to prevent communication be- ported by the "hospital money" paid by tween the prisoners, but provision is sailors. made for ventilation and warming the Hoboken and Weehawken, on the cells, by openings in the wall. Meas- shore of New Jersey, opposite the city, ures are taken for the religious instruc- l are pleasant retreats.
HISTORY OF THE SONS OF LIBERTY all efforts to enslave them. These bold IN THE OLDEN TIME.-The American spirits formed the nucleus of the future Revolution, which has produced such armies of the Revolution; and it is to extraordinary results both at home and the moral courage which they displayed, abroad, and which is destined to cause and the indomitable resolution with which still greater changes in the European they braved all danger, that the world world, will elevate the eighteenth cen- is indebted for the illustrious example tury beyond that of any of its predeces-set by the infant colonies to Europe, and sors in the annals of history. The suc- the foundation of a great and glorious cess of the great struggle for liberty, republic. which was by the many supposed hopeless, and which present historians deem almost miraculous, was brought about by the courage and perseverance of a few indomitable spirits, whom no labor could weary or danger appal; and it was by their moral courage, perseverance, and intrepidity, that this great Revolution was begun, continued, and ended.
The influence of these patriotic men, and the successful issue of the struggle begun by their boldness and sustained by their energies, has scattered abroad the seeds of freedom, which have borne fruit, in encouraging a spirit of inquiry throughout the civilized world, which has reformed despotic governments, and regenerated the fairest empires of the Old World.
Many of those who figured largely in the history of the times, and some even who swayed the councils of the nation after the struggle was successfully begun, were content with encouraging the revolt of others, without committing themselves, and kept within the pale of safety until they could embark without fear upon the perilous sea. But there were others who were not only the principal agitators, but actors themselves in the most daring exploits; and who threw themselves into the breach in the most dangerous conjunctures. Had it not been for these, who took upon themselves the fearful responsibility of directing and participating in overt acts of rebellion, the studied arguments of others who wished to bring on a crisis, but blenched from its dangerous concomitants would have been unavailing.
In the year 1765 ISAAC SEARS, afterward better known by the name of KING SEARS, a man of great personal intrepidity, forward in dangerous enterprises, and ready at all times to carry out the boldest measures, became the originator and leader of a patriotic band, who associated themselves together under the name of the "SONS OF LIBERTY." Their organization soon pervaded every part of the colonies, and was the germ of the Revolution. By their intrepidity the spirit of the masses was aroused, and by their persevering industry and zeal the people were excited to oppose
If the successful issue of the Revolution has solved the problem of the possible existence of a free yet powerful government, it is, first, to the devoted individuals who, despising the dangers and disgraces to which they were exposed, set at naught the penalties and disqualifications of conspiracy and treason, and entered into the contest with a full knowledge of all its hazards, and a determination to persist to the death to effect their emancipation-secondly, to those brave men who bore arms in the subsequent struggle-that the great meed of applause is due. To all these, however obscure their names or imperfect their efforts, the nation at large owes a deep and lasting debt of gratitude.
The task of perpetuating the fame of many of the great leaders of the Revolution has fallen into the hands of able historians, who have well performed that duty. To rescue from oblivion and to do justice to the founders of our liberties, whose deeds, active or passive, whose personal or moral courage was instrumental in producing great and universal benefits to mankind, is peculiarly the duty of the present age. Now, when the present race, who first opened their eyes to an emancipated country, to enjoy the blessings purchased by the blood of their fathers, are fast verging to the grave, it is incumbent on all who have the means of elucidating past trans
actions, or the power to do justice to the royal mandates influenced the assembly, actors in the scenes which have preceded and all those who subsisted by the royal them, to lend their efforts before they bounty, there was found a chosen few are called to their own exit, lest the who remained constant to the last; and deeds of their ancestors he forgotten. who, when all seemed lost, kept alive
It has often been remarked by histo- the spirit of resistance, until from a rians as a duty every true patriot owes feeble and hopeless minority they were to the public and posterity, to bring to enabled to triumph over the power
of light whatever can be collected from the the colonial government and prostrate perishing materials or former days. the royal authority for ever. There are ancient manuscripts in every The association of the “Sons of Libpart of our country, which are thrown erty" was organized in 1765, soon after aside as waste-paper in families not the passage of the stamp-act, and exaware of its value. This kind of knowl. tended throughout the colonies, from edge deals much, to be sure, in dry de. Massachusetts to South Carolina. It tail ; but facts, upon which historians appears that New York was the central can afterward enlarge and philosophize, post from which communications were are what are chiefly important. We despatched to and from the east, and to deem it a matter of such consequence the south as far as Maryland; which that, if the exertions of individuals be province was the channel of communinot sufficient for the purpose of collect- cation to and from its neighbors of Vir. ing and preserving these materials, pub- ginia and the Carolinas. lic authority should lend its aid to accom- As the postoffices were under the plish this object, which is, in a peculiar control of the government, and the riders degree, of public concern and interest. not at all times reliable, the committee In this way are preserved to posterity of New York (and probably the other the undoubted records of our early bis- provinces adopted the same course), tory.
upon extraordinary occasions, despatchThe intent of the first association of ed intelligence by special messengers; the “Sons of Liberty' was to put down and if need were, a part of their memthe stamp-act; and when this was effected bers visited in person the neighboring the objects of the society appeared to be associations to insure the perfect organaccomplished. But the acts of parlia- ization of the patriotic league. ment, simultaneous with and subsequent The New York association had a corto the repeal, gave to the more sagacious respondent in London, to whom an aca cause for alarm greater than the ob- count was given of their proceedings, noxious bill which had been rescinded. and from whom intelligence was from The billeting act, or mutiny bill, by es- time to time transmitted of their protablishing a standing army in the colo- ceedings and the supposed designs of nies at their own charge, was intended the ministry, which in its turn was disto strengthen the arm of the royal au- seminated among the people by the asthority, to overawe the assembly, and to sociation at home. A record of the coerce the people to acquiesce in the names of the most active of their leaders impositions of the parliament.
would be a desirable document, but as History is full of the resistance to the this would be difficult to be obtained enormous assumptions of the mother- without great labor, and, perhaps, by a country by New England and at the single individual impossible, a list of south; but little is said of the attitude the committees in the different provinces, of New York in that dangerous crisis. so far as they can be ascertained, from And yet in that colony, where the power the remaining papers of the committer of the sovereign was almost omnipo- of New York, might be the means of tent, notwithstanding the exertions of initiating inquiry in other quarters towthe most wealthy inhabitants whose large ard producing the desired result. estates were held by grants from the Those from Maryland will appear crown and whose subservience to the from the following extract from the proceedings of the “Sons of Liberty," | Brush, Cornelius Conklin, and NathanMarch 1, 1766.
iel Williams, Huntington, Long Island. “ The Sons of Liberty of Baltimore George Townsend, Barack Sneething, county, and Anne Arundel county, met Benjamin Townsend, George Weeks, at the courthouse of the city of Annap- Michael Weeks, and Rowland Chamolis, the first day of March, 1766. bers, Oyster Bay, Long Island.
“On motion of a Son of Liberty to The first organization of the Sons of appoint a moderator and secretary, the Liberty was dissolved at the repeal of Rev. Andrew Londrum was chosen the stamp-act; and while the hope was moderator, and William Paca, secre- strong that similar associations would tary.
no longer be necessary, the committee * Joseph Nicholson, of Kent county, received a letter from their faithful corpresented an address from that county, respondent in London, of the following signed William Ringgold, William Ste- import:phenson, Thomas Ringgold, jr., Joseph M‘Hard, Gideon M'Cauley, Daniel Fox,
LONDON, 28th July, 1766. Benjamin Binning, William Bordley, Gentlemen : I flattered myself to have Jarvis James, William Stukely, Joseph heard from you by the last ships, but Nicholson, jr., James Porter, Thomas am informed your society is dissolved, Ringgold, James Anderson, Thomas which I am glad to hear, as the cause Smyth, William Murray, Joseph Nichol- of your complaint is removed. But I son, George Garnet, S. Boardley, jr., think it necessary to assure you that Peroy. Frishy, Henry Vandike, and the continual account we had of the John Bolton."
Sons of Liberty, through all North William Paca, Samuel Chase, and America, had its proper weight and efThomas B. Hands, were the Anne fect. Arundel county committee.
As our gracious sovereign rules over John Hall, Robert Alexander, Corbin none but free men, and in which he Lee, James Heath, John Moale, and glories, it therefore can not offend him William Lux, were the Baltimore county that his numerous and faithful subcommittee.
jects in America claim the appellation Thomas Chase, D. Chemier, Robert of Sons of Liberty. Permit me, thereAdair, Patrick Allison, and W. Smith, fore, to recommend ten or twenty of the were the Baltimore town committee.
principal of you, to form yourselves Pennsylvania.—William Bradford and into a club, to meet once a week, under Isaac Howell were the correspondents the name of Liberty Club; and for ever, at Philadelphia.
on the 18th of March, or first day of Nero Jersey. - Daniel Hendrickson, May, give notice to the whole body to minister, Peter Imlay, jr., Jos. Holmes, commemorate your deliverance, spendjr., Peter Covenhoven, jr., and Elisha ing such day in festivity and joy. I beg Lawrence, jr., were the committee of
pardon for taking the liberty to advise Upper Freehold - Richard Smith, of Burlingtoa, and Henry Bickers of New you; but I am firmly of opinion it will
have such effect as you wish. Brunswick.
I have the honor to be, gentlemen, Connecticut.-Jo. Burrowes; Jonathan Sturgis, Fairfield; John Burker, your most humble servant,
NICHOLAS RaY. Norwich; Hugh Leollie, Windham.
New York.- Isaac Sears, John Lamb, P. S.-The commercial acts and free
To the Sons of Liberty, New York.
To this letter the committee returned John S. Hobart, Gilbert Potter, Thos. the following reply