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supply of Constantinople is from streams, that raise the water of the river into conduits springs and rainfall in the forests where reser- extending through the city. Other sections are voirs impound the waters that are conducted in supplied with water drawn from wells by endaqueducts, one of which was built during the less ropes carrying, buckets and operated by reign of Constantine.

camels turning vertical spindles. Irrigation in Several rainfall maps of Europe have been its primitive form is practised in parts of Syria. made and these may be consulted for further The Romans also practised it about the Sea of information this subject. However, it Tiberias, where the remains of aqueducts may may be stated that all western and northern still be seen. The waters of the Abana rushEurope are abundantly supplied with copious ing down over wheels placed in the falls of the rains and all the mountains with heavy falls of Anti-Lebanon ranges develop power to propel snow that supply the headquarters of its large the street cars of Damascus and to light that rivers flowing to the salted seas on the north,

ancient city, which obtains its water supply west and south. They supply populous areas through conduits from the same sources. In in many parts of Europe.

Asia Minor swept by the cool winds of the Africa. In the continent of Africa pre- Black Sea there is much snow and there are cipitation ranges from 1.5 inches in Egypt to occasional heavy rains. It has many springs 20 inches on the southwestern coast and to fed by the underground flow produced by the heavy rainfall in its tropical areas. In Abys- melting snows of its high mountains. has sinia it ranges from 30 to 40 inches supplying some lakes, whose waters are somewhat desome tributaries of the Nile. Along the south- pleted during the long dry season. In 1912, eastern coast facing the Indian Ocean the rain- Dutch engineers designed and French confalls is 50 inches while in the interior of South tractors constructed irrigation works to utilize Africa it ranges from 5 to 24 inches and at the waters of Bey-Sjehir and Jaila lakes and some places on the east coast it is only 40 a canal connecting with the Tsjartpjamba River inches. At Johnannesburg, it averages 30 to irrigate 126,000 acres of Konia Plain. inches, at Paarl and Weltevreden in Cape Over the territory extending from the JorColony it averaged for 14 years 34.67 to 35.97 dan to the Persian Gulf there is slight rainfall inches. The annual rainfall at Durban is 42.46 and much of it is a desert uninhabited. inches and at East London, South Africa, it In Siberia there is much snow and little is 62.11 inches. Heavy fogs dampen some areas rainfall. The latter ranges from 8 inches from where there is but little rainfall.

Persia to Tobolsk and increases to 12 inches Asia.- In Arabia are great waterless deserts over Amur watersheds. Snow falls over vast while in some mountain areas living springs of areas in great quantities and in the mountains water are found. There is some rainfall in remains most of the year, feeding its lengthy northern and central Arabia. At Dhala in 1892 rivers and its numberless lakes. Some of these. there was over 18 inches, while at Aden it such as Baikal 400 miles long by 20 to 50 miles averaged 2.97 inches. Sir A. Houtum-Schind- wide and Lake Kossogol 120 miles long by 50 ler found the mean annual rainfall at Teheran miles, cover great areas in a basin that was once for 15 years to average 9.86 inches and reported a much longer lake. In eastern Siberia rainthat at 15 stations in Persia for various years fall averages from 15 to 20 inches. In Manit ranged from 3.24 inches at Jask to 56.45 churia and northern China between the Volga inches at Resht. The average at all these sec

and the Lena the rainfall ranges from 19 to 29 tions was about 17 inches.

inches. Asia presents so many physical formations In China it ranges from 23 inches at Peking of mountain ranges, elevated plateaus, great

to 78 inches at Canton, which is swept river basins, extensive arid regions, varying by monsoons. It is only 5 to 7 inches in the climates and oceanic influences as to cause ex- north of Mongolia. In some coastal regions it cessive preçipitation of rain and snow in some amounts to 100 inches. Over the coastal regreat mountain areas and little in some other gions of the Malay Peninsula the rainfall sections. Only a few measurements can be ranges from 75 to 200 inches and over places in given. The mean annual precipitation over

Java it is 78 inches, at Singapore it is 97 the Caspian watersheds is 7 to 8 inches, inches. Siam is occasionally swept by monsoons over the Aral Sea 6 inches, in western Syria

and the rainfall ranges from 180 inches at facing the Mediterranean a' moderate rainfall, Mergni to 240 inches at Monlmein. At some at Beirut it is 21.66 inches, at Jerusalem, 36.22 other places it averages from 42 to 54 inches. inches. The normal rainfall over Palestine is

In India there is the greatest variation in about 28 inches, while in the vicinity of the precipitation in Asia. In its western coastal Lebanon range it is copious. There is very lit- and Himalaya regions rainfall ranges from 75 tle rainfall east of Damascus and over eastern to 100 inches on the west to 250 inches at eleSyria. Between the Orontes and Euphrates vated localities, also in the west up to 610 inches some of the slight rainfall is caught and stored

in the Khasi Hills, where for a decade it averup for the water supply. The water of the aged 550 inches. If entirely caught and consprings in the vicinity of Mount Lebanon is served it would form a column of water 45 conducted into cisterns and conserved for do- feet high. At Cherrapunji for 40 years it avermestic and agricultural purposes. Hundreds of aged 426 inches. At Calcutta it averaged 65 water-wheels, operated by the current of the inches. At Ceylon from 60 to 80 inches. At Orontes, or by animal power lift its waters to Madras 55 inches. At Bombay 75 inches and in supply communities along its banks and to irri- the valley of the Ganges it falls to 25 inches gate agricultural districts. Astride the Orontes and in that of the Indus to 6 inches. At Poovah 120 miles north of Damascus is the land of it is 24 inches. North of Punjab, it ranges Hamath, supplied by six or more great under- from 70 to 80 inches and also that amount on shot water-wheels, some 80 feet in diameter, some of the lateral spurs of the Himalayas.

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There are no available records of precipita- tainable from the reports of the weather bureaus tion in countries to the north of India, but of this and other countries. Most of such they are light, cold and covered with snows, measurements are included in the general averwhich are their principal source of water supply. ages of mean annual rainfall hereinbefore In Burma on the west coast it averages from 157 stated. to 196 inches. Over the Irrawadi Valley in Disposition of Precipitation - The dispoBurma it is only 39.27 inches, but in the delta

sition of rainfall or precipitation is quite fully it averages 98.42 inches. In Japan the average considered in the article on Water Supply, rainfall over the whole country is 61.8 inches. which is to follow under that title in a succeed

Australasia and Oceanica.- In Australia ing volume of this encyclopedia. rainfall varies greatly in different sections. At

HENRY W. HILL, Brisbane it averages 50 inches, at other places President of the New York State Waterways 70 inches. At Melbourne it averages 25.6 Association; author of Waterways and Canal inches, at Port Phillip from 20 to 30 inches, at Construction in the State of New York, etc. Adelaide 20 inches and in some parts of the

RAINIER, rā'nēr', Mount. An old volcanic Eyre Peninsula only 10 inches and this average extends to more than 13 of the continent.

cone in central western Washington named

from Admiral Rainier of the British navy by In South Australia it averages from 8 to 10 inches. In 1889 the Department of Mines at

Vancouver the navigator, who saw it from

Puget Sound in 1793. It is also known by the Sydney collated rainfall data and estimated the amount at 50 or more watering places in Aus

Indian name of Tacoma Peak and rises about tralia. Those showed the weekly rainfall to

56 miles southwest of the city of Tacoma. Its

altitude is 14,408 feet or about 8,000 feet higher range from to of an inch in some localities to an inch in others and still others it ranged from

than the adjoining Cascade Mountain region. 2.25 to 3.10 inches. In most of the inhabited

It was once thought to be the highest peak in

the United States but Mount Whitney in Caliregions of New Zealand, rainfall ranges from

fornia is 93 feet higher and a few peaks in the 30 to 50 inches per annum. In New South Wales it ranges from 12 to 46 inches. At Hay

Rocky Mountains in Colorado exceed it it ranges from 10.94 to 25.84 inches.

slightly. Its upper part is mostly covered by

snow and ice, the latter in 11 main glaciers In the Philippines there is great variation in

radiating from the summit like the arms of a rainfall. At Manila it averages 76 inches and

great starfish. The glaciers are from four to ranges from 16.2 to 152 inches over different islands, At Kauai, one of the Hawaiian islands,

six miles long and equal in size and beauty

those in the Alps. The larger one extends it averaged for 4 years 518 inches. On the

down to 4,000 feet. A luxuriant forest extends island of Mauritius rainfall on the east coast has been as high as 141 inches and on the west

part way up the slopes, and the timber line is

between 7,000 and 7,500 feet.' Around the base coast at the same time it averaged only 27.95

are many natural meadows of most picturesque inches.

character with profusion of summer flowers. In Java a rainfall ranges from 70 inches The peak, “the noblest of the fire-mountains at Batavia to 174 inches at Buitenzorg. Except as otherwise stated, the foregoing fic Coast," is the remains of a huge volcano

which, like beacons, once blazed along the Paciare approximately the mean annual precipitation built up of thick layers of lava and originally over the localities mentioned, as nearly as the 2,000 feet or more higher, its top having been measurements extending in most cases over a blown off by a great explosion a few centuries period of years disclosed. They furnish some

ago. A large crater resulted from this erupdata that may be considered in estimating such tion and several small cones and craters have sources of their water supply.

since been built. The latest eruptions were Robert Lauterberg, meteorologist of Switzer- slight ones in 1843, 1854, 1858 and 1870. Now land, once suggested that most measurements the only activity is a slight emission of steam fail to give all the rainfall and that ordinary at one locality. The first ascent by a scientific measurements must be increased 25 per cent to observer was made by S. F. Emmons in 1870. arrive at the actual precipitation.

In 1897 it was ascended and thoroughly exThere are, however, many instances of well- plored by a large party. Almost 250 feet known departures from the amounts heretofore higher than Mount Shasta, its nearest rival in given, when in wet years or cycles of years, or grandeur and in mass,” they described it as localities of excessive precipitation, the maxi- overwhelmingly impressive both by the vastmum precipitation is greater than the mean an- ness of its snow-capped summit, its glacial mannual precipitation. There are also dry years tle and by the striking sculpture of its cliffs.” or cycles of years and dry localities, when the The total area of its glaciers amounts to 45 minimum precipitation is less than the mean square miles, an expanse of ice far exceeding annual precipitation. Such extremes are not that of any other single peak in the United constant, but may be considered in determining States. The region now forms the fully prothe hydrology of a given locality.

tected Mount Rainier National Park created by The foregoing records and measurements of act of Congress approved 2 March 1899. Cenrainfall are the mean annual precipitation over tred by the towering mass of Mount Rainier, periods of years. Excessive precipitation, how

the park reserve is nearly a perfect square, the ever, occurs in storms, when the hourly and sides of which are 18 miles in length and condaily rates in the localities affected may be ex- tains 324 square miles, or sections of 640 acres traordinary. Such storms are usually of short each (207,360 acres). It is completely surduration and are confined to small areas. rounded by lands embraced within the Rainier Records of some of such excessive precipitations National Forest. Every year large numbers of and of monthly tabulations in localities, where tourists visit the park to camp in its meadows, meteorological stations are maintained, are ob- and occasional ascents are made to the summit

Vol. 23-13

of the mountain. Consult Mount Rainier RAISIN INDUSTRY, The American, is National Park, and Annual Report by the confined almost wholly to California. The supervisor of the Mount Rainier National raisin crop comes from the great San Joaquin Park (Washington, D. C., Department of the Valley and from several counties in southern Interior, 1915 et seq.).

California. The California raisin grape culture RAINS, George Washington, American

began to be of commercial importance in 1874, military officer and scientist: b. Craven County, pounds of raisins. The industry advanced "by

when the output was 9,000 boxes, or 180,000 N. C., 1817; d. Newburgh, N. Y., 21 March

leaps and bounds up to 1894, when the crop 1898. He was graduated from West Point in 1842, served in the engineering corps, was

amounted to 103,000,000 pounds. The markets

Ubroke) under this great output, and the crop transferred to the artillery, and in 1844 46 was

sold for less than two cents per pound. As a assistant professor of chemistry, mineralogy and

result there was a sharp decline both in the geology at West Point. He served on the staffs of Generals Scott and Pillar in the Mexican War,

acreage and in the output of raisins during the and received brevet rank of major, was active

next four or five years. However, the growers in the Seminole War, and in 1856 he resigned

protected themselves and their market by formfrom the army and engaged in business. At

ing. in 1898, a Raisin Growers' Association, the outbreak of the Civil War he entered the

which controlled about 90 per cent of the yield. Confederate service, was commissioned a colonel

It had under contract in 1917, 155,000 acres of and placed in charge of the building and equip

grapes. This association still continues to ment of a powder mill at Augusta, Ga., where

handle the bulk of the raisin crop, and has been he remained until the end of the war, receiving

quite successful in distributing to the best adpromotion to the rank of brigadier-general.

vantage the large output in the different mar

kets. As a result the California raisin indusÎn 1867 he became professor of chemistry and pharmacy in the University of Georgia, and

try has had a phenomenal growth. It prospered

because of the war since raisins are such a conwas dean of the faculty there till 1884. He was interested in mechanics, and secured several

venient and satisfactory fruit for shipping.

Nearly all the raisins of the United States patents on his inventions for improvements for steam-engines. He wrote (Steam Portable

come from 11 counties of California. and 60 Engines) (1860); Rudimentary Course of

per cent of the product is from Fresno. The Analytical and Applied Chemistry) (1872);

California product of raisins was : 1913, 130,History of the Confederate Powder Works)

000,000 pounds; 1914, 182,000,000 pounds; 1915, (1882), etc.

256,000,000 pounds; 1916, 264,000,000 pounds.

Of the 1916 product 178,000,000 pounds were RAINSFORD, William Stephen, Ameri- Muscats, and 47,000,000 Thompson's Seedless. can Episcopal clergyman: b. Dublin, Ireland, Before 1896 the United States was a large im30 Oct. 1850. He was graduated from Saint porter of raisins. From 1887 to 1891 the averJohn's College, Cambridge, in 1872, took orders age importation was 38,500,000 pounds; from in the English Church, and in 1873–76 was 1892 to 1896 the average was 17,746,000 pounds; curate at Saint Giles', Norwich, England. In it is now negligible, and a large export trade is 1876 he came to the United States and engaged developing. In 1914 the exports were 14,766,in evangelistic services in New York. He was 000 pounds of the value of $998,000; in 1915 assistant rector at Saint James Cathedral, To- the export was 24,895,000 pounds valued at ronto, 1876-83, and in the last-named year be- $1,719,000; and in 1916, 75,014 pounds, of the came rector of Saint George's Church, New value of $5,407,000. The raisins are packed and York, from which he resigned in 1906. Under graded into layers, and one, two and three his management the work of the parish was

crown loose. The processes of curing, seeding greatly extended and many societies and mis

and packing raisins have been improved from sions were established in connection with it.

time to time, and to-day machines do much of He became widely known as an earnest, fearless the work formerly done by hand. The first and eloquent preacher. He published (Sermons great device was a patent seeder, and the latest Preached in Saint George's; Reasonableness one is a raisin-packing machine, by which the of Faith) (1902); A Preacher's Story of His

packages, or cartons, are filled, weighed and Work) (1904); Reasonableness of the Re- sealed. ligion of Jesus (1913), etc.

The leading varieties of grapes used for RAINY LAKE, Canada, between Lakes raisins are the Muscat and Thompson's Seedless. Superior and Winnipeg, forms part of the Grapes are ripe by the middle of August, and boundary between Canada and the United the season often lasts into November. The States. It is very irregular in form, but about average time of drying and curing a tray of 55 miles in northeast by southwest dimensions, raisins is about three weeks, all depending on and mostly three to five miles wide. It receives

the weather. The earliest picked grapes dry in the waters of numerous small lakes from the 10 days, and the later ones often take four east and northeast, and empties itself by Rainy weeks and even more. The method of drying River, about 90 miles long, into the Lake of is very simple. The bunches are cut from the the Woods.

vines and placed on shallow trays two feet

wide, three feet long, and one inch high, on RAISED BEACHES. See BEACHES,

which the grapes are allowed to sun-dry, being Raised

turned from time to time by simply placing an RAISIN, the commercial name for the dried empty tray top side down on the full one, then or cured grape. In Europe the raisin product turning both over, and taking off the top tray. comes largely from Italy and France, and in After the raisins are dried they are stored away the United States almost wholly from Cali- in the sweat boxes until they are packed and fornia. See RAISIN INDUSTRY, THE.

prepared for shipment. Some of the larger RAISIN RIVER - RAJPUTS

195

growers, in order not to run so much risk in RAJON, rå-zhon, Paul Adolphe, French drying on account of rain, and also to enable etcher: b. Dijon C. 1842; d. Anvers, 8 June them to handle the crop fast enough. have cur- 1888. He was trained at the École des Beaux ing houses, where the curing is finished after Arts at Paris, and in 1865 produced his first having been partially done outside. The seed- etching after Meissonnier Rembrandt' at ing, grading, packing and shipping have be- Work. His many subsequent works won for come separate branches.

him the leading position among French etchers, RAISIN RIVER, Battle of. See FRENCH- and on visiting England in 1872 he found his TOWN, MICHIGAN, BATTLE OF.

reputation had preceded him and was com

missioned to make an etched copy of John RAJA, rä'jä, or RAJAH, a title of hereditary princes of the Hindus. The Hindustani

Stuart Mill's portrait by George Frederick form is rai, and it has also been rendered ras,

Watts and of Tennyson's portrait by the same rana and rawal. Before the subjugation of

painter. He was eminently successful in these the country by the Moguls the various countries

and other portrait etchings, but his most am

bitious and brilliant work was "The Emperor of Hindustan were governed by rajas, who

Claudis) after Alma Tadema. belonged to the Kshatriyas or military caste. They were sometimes independent rulers and RAJPUTANA, räj-poo-ta'ną, India, a westagain feudatory, and the highest title, «Maha- ern political division, lying between 18 native raja," was given to those who controlled other controlled states and two chiefships. It consovereigns. The title is now usually merely sists of Sind and the Junjab; together with honorary and is not confined to any caste, while the British enclave of Ajmir-Merwara. The those retaining some degree of actual authority total area of the native states is 127,541 English under the British are now designated Maha- square miles; or including the British district raja,” Consult Foy, Die königliche Gewalt of Ajmir-Merwara, 130,462 square miles. The nach den altindischen Rechtsbüchern? (1895); maharajas and rajas are supreme in their own Jolly, Recht und Sitte! (1896).

states, and settle disputes among themselves in RAJAMANDRY, rä-jä-măn'drē, or RAJA

courts of their own. A great portion of the MAHENDRI, India, a town of the Godayari

surface of Rajputana is desert, and part of it district, Madras, on the east bank of the God- wholly destitute of inhabitants, water and vegeavari (here three miles wide), 30 miles from the

tation. The whole of the soil is remarkably sea. Among buildings and institutions are the saline, containing many salt lakes, and much courthouse and judge's residence, churches, mis

of the well-water is brackish. The rainfall is sion of the American Evangelical Lutheran scanty, and the region frequently suffers from Church, provincial college, several schools, mu

famine. In many places it is covered with the seum, dispensary, public garden and large cactus and other prickly shrubs; except in the prison. Pop. 30,408.

Aravalli Hills which traverse the region from RĀJATARANGINĪ,

southwest to northeast, the territory is almost rä'ją-tạ-rän'ge-nē

destitute of trees. Where practicable, pastoral (Sanskrit “Stream of Kings”), a Sanskrit

and agricultural pursuits occupy the people. chronicle of the kings of Kashmir, written by Kalhana about the middle of the 12th century.

Conditions have slightly improved since British The history is written in eight cantos and has

enterprise has opened up the country by a transabout 8,000 verses. It is remarkable as the only

versal line of railroad, with diverging branches, work in Sanskrit literature, yet discovered, with

connecting with the rest of the Peninsular Railany historical value. The work makes use of

way system. The chief town is Jaipur (Pop. earlier writings now lost and the first six

137,000); other urban centres are Bikanir, Jodhbooks cover the period commencing with tra

pur Bhartpur, Udaipur and Tonk. While the ditional history of early times down to the

chiefs are of Rajput origin, the Rajput element reign of Sangrama Déva, 1006; two later books,

is in the minority among the population, which believed to be the work of Kalhana, bring the

consists chiefly of Hindus, with Mohammedans, history down to the reign of Singha Deva, about

Animists and Jains. Pop. 10,530,432. 1156. The existence of the work first became RAJPUTS, räj-poots', a people of India, known to Mohammedans in 1588, when during giving their name to Rajputana (q.v.), and said Akbar's invasion, a copy was given to the to be a branch of the Kshatriyas, one of the emperor. An edition was published in the San

four great castes into which the Hindus were skrit text (Calcutta 1835); the text and trans- originally divided. They are essentially a mililation by Troyer (Paris 1840, 1852); and there

tary people, and many of their institutions bear are translations by Datta (Calcutta 1898) and a strong resemblance to the feudal customs by Stein (Westminster 1900).

which prevailed in Europe in the Middle Ages. RAJMAHAL, răj-ma-häl', India, on the They are celebrated for their chivalrous spirit eminence overlooking the Ganges, 170 miles in marked contrast to the usual effeminacy and northwest of Calcutta, for many years capital duplicity of many of the Oriental nations. The of Bengal. It is now noteworthy only for its practice of female infanticide, however, at one palatial ruins, and as a station in an important time was prevalent among them, until suptransit trade. The range of hills on which it pressed by British influence; the profuse use stands bears the same name. These hills in- of opium has likewise in many cases produced clude a plateau with an area of 1,366 miles and a lamentable deterioration in their physical and support a population of hillmen or "Paharias, moral state. Notwithstanding these drawbacks numbering about 75,000. The sides of the the Rajput character contains much that is noble plateau are unusually steep and ascent is made and generous. The Rajputs became first conlargely by artificial stone steps. Consult nected with the British government under the Bradley-Bist, (Story of an Indian Upland' governorship of the Marquis of Wellesley, in (1905).

the beginning of the 19th century. They num

:

ber about 700,000. Besides Rajputana, the the English, and agreeing to furnish military Rajputs are numerous in Sind and Guzerat. assistance, should it be required.

This comRAJSHAHI, räj-shä'hë, India, a division munication, dated 25 Sept. 1721, was among or commissionership of Bengal, extending from

papers obtained by the expedition sent out from the Ganges to Sikkim and Bhutan. Area, 17,351

Boston under Colonel Westbrook to seize Rale square miles; pop. about 8,489,788. The dis- in 1721, and is now preserved in the archives of trict of Rajshahi, forming part of the division,

Massachusetts. Among these papers, also, was has an area of 2,330 square miles; a population Rale's dictionary of Abenaki, now in the Harof about 1,400,000. The capital of the division

vard library and printed in 1833, in the memoirs and district is Rámpur Beauleah.

of the American Academy of Arts and Sciences. RÁKÓCZY, rä'köt-sē, a Transylvanian

See DUMMER'S WAR. princely family now extinct in the male line.

RALEIGH, SIR Walter, English military They were for some time rulers of the princi

and naval commander, and author: b. Hayes pality of Siebenbürgen, or Transylvania, and by

Barton, a farmstead in the parish of East Buda rigorous maintenance of the civil and re- leigh, Devonshire, about 1552; beheaded, Lonligious rights of the inhabitants made their don, 29 Oct. 1618. He was the son of Walter influence over their subjects such as to render Raleigh by his third wife, Katharine, daughter them formidable to the power of the royal house of Sir Philip Champernowne of Modbury, and of Austria. The first prince of the name was

widow of Otho Gilbert of Compton. Raleigh SIGISMUND Rákóczy, who obtained the govern,

was educated at Oriel College, Oxford; served ment in 1606, but abdicated in favor of Gabriel with the Huguenot army in France in 1569; Bathori in 1608. His son, GEORGE RÁKÓCZY remained there for five years or more; and, (b. 1591, d. 24 Oct. 1648), assumed the sover

with his half-brother, Sir Humphrey Gilbert, eignty in 1629 and regained for his subjects engaged in voyages of discovery) - and piracy many lost privileges. He was succeeded by his - against the Spaniards in the West Indies. son GEORGE II (b. 1615; d. 8 July 1676), who at

In 1579 he established himself at court in the tempted an invasion of Poland, was defeated friendship of men of influence - Leicester, and forced to abdicate, but regained his au

Oxford, Sidney, Walsingham; he served with thority. He died after having been again forced

distinction in Ireland (1580-81); and then, reto resign. His son, Francis I, never reigned, but turning to court in December of the latter year, was implicated in various political complications he won, and for some years retained, the high and the last of the family to hold sovereign

favor of Elizabeth. Through her successive power was his grandson, Francis II (q.v.). grants of monopolies and estates he became one RÁKÓCZY, Francis II, Transylvanian

of the wealthiest of her courtiers. In 1584 he

was knighted; in 1585 he was appointed warden prince: b. 27 March 1676; d. Rodosto, Turkey,

of the stannaries (i.e., of the mines of Devon 8 April 1735. His attempts to free his country

and Cornwall), lord lieutenant of the latter from Austrian rule resulted in his being sen

county and vice-admiral of both; and in 1585– tenced to death for high treason, but he con

86 he was M.P. for Devon. He was also captrived to escape, rallied the Hungarians to his

tain of the queen's guard. support and was proclaimed protector. The alliance of certain of the Hungarian states with

From this period, while Raleigh was the

favorite of Elizabeth, dates his chief connection Austria afterward caused his defeat and he

with the exploration and settlement of North resigned his estates and went to Turkey. He wrote Mémoirs sur les revolutions de Hongrie

America. In 1584, '85, '86, '87 and '89, he sent

expeditions to Virginia; but as the Queen for(1738).

bade his personal participation, his efforts to RÁKÓCZY MARCH, the name of a Hun. colonize were unsuccessful. Raleigh's services garian military air by an unknown composer of against the Spanish Armada, 1588, were not the 17th century, said to have been the favorite

conspicuous. He assisted in organizing the land march of Francis Rákóczy II of Transylvania. forces, but there is no proof that he took any See NATIONAL HYMNS.

part in the sea-fighting. In 1591 and 1592 he RALE, räl (spelled also incorrectly, RASLE, was prominent in the preparation of squadrons Rasles, and RALLE), Sebastien, French Jesuit

for service against Spain, but was recalled from missionary in North America: b. Franche- the latter expedition because of the queen's Comté, 4 Jan. 1657; d. Norridgewock, Maine, 23

anger at Raleigh's intrigue with one of her Aug. 1724. In 1675 he became a Jesuit novice

maids of honor, Elizabeth Throgmorton. He at Dole, in 1677–84 was an instructor at Carpen

was soon set at liberty and his marriage to tras and Nimes, and in 1689 was sent to the

Elizabeth Throgmorton followed. Not until Canadian missions. For two years he was

1597, however, did Raleigh regain the queen's among the Abenakis near the mouth of the favor. Chaudière in the mission of Saint Francis. Meanwhile he was free to explore America Then he passed two years among the Illinois, in person. His objective point was Manoa, a and finally was placed in charge of the Abena- city supposedly situated in South America and kis of Kennebec. He was believed by the possessed of untold wealth. In 1595, with a English to be the cause of their difficulties Heet of five vessels, he captured the town of with the Abenakis, and was accused of insti- San Josef, Trinidad, and explored the Orinoco gating attacks on the settlements and he was for 400 miles. He did not find Manoa; but his killed during an attack on the village of Nor

brilliant service in the English attack upon ridgewock by New England militia assisted by Cadiz (June 1596) and as commander at the Mohawks. This is inferred by pro-English taking of Fayal (1597) completed his restorahistorians from a letter to Rale from Vaudreuil,

tion to favor. In 1597 he was made M.P. for governor at Quebec, expressing satisfaction at Dorset; in 1601 for Cornwall. , In 1600 he was Rale's success in uniting the savages against appointed governor of Jersey.

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