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“I intended to stop here, but as I ah. most sincerely rejoice that you are now her the least appearance of art, I think armed in the common cause again it the ir will be better to lay open my whole most dangerous fanatics that have ever scheme at once. The unhappy war invaded the peace of Europe ; against which now desolates Europe will oblige the new barbarians, who labour to cons mie to defer seeing France till a peace. found the order and happiness of for But that reason can have no influence ciety ; and wbo, in the opinion of thinkupon Italy, a country which any scho- ing men, are not leis the enemies of fub. Jar must long to fee : Tould you grant jects than of kings. The hopes of the my request, and not disapprove of my wife and good are now fixed on the suce manner of employing your bounty, I cess of England; and I am persuaded, would leave England this autumn, and that my personal attachment to your pass the winter at Lausanne with M. de Lurdship will be amply gratified by the Voltaire and my old friends. The are important share which your counsels mies no longer obftruet my passage, and will assume in that success. I could with it must be indifferent to you whether I that some of your former associates por. amat Lausanne or at London during the sessed sufficient strength of mind to exWinter, since I shall not be at Beriton tricate themselves from the toils of pre. In the spring I would cross the Alps ; judice and party; but I grieve that a and, after fome stay in Italy, as the war man, whom it is impossible for me noč molt then be terminated, return home to love and adınire, should refuse to through France, to live happily with obey the voice of his country, and I you and my dear mother. I am now begin to fear, that the powerful genius two-and-twenty: a tour must take up of Mr. ***, instead of being useful, a confiderable time ; and though I bea will be adverse to the public service. lieve you have no thoughts of settling At this momentous crisis we hould en. me foon (and I am sure I have not), yet lift our whole force of virtue, ability, so many things may intervene, that he and spirit; and without any view to his man who does not travel early runs a private advantage, I could with that great risk of not travelling at all. But ****** might be properly starioned this part of my scheme, as well as the in some part of the line. whole, I submit entirely to you.
“Mr. Neckar, in whofe house I am " Permit me, dear Sir, to add, that now refiding on a visit of fome days, I do not know whether the complete wishes me to express the fentiments of compliance with my wishes could in. esteem and confideration which he encreate my love and gratitude ; but that tertains for your Lordlhip's character. I am very sure, no refusal could dimi. As a friend to the interest of mankind, with those fentiments with which I fall he is warmly attached to the welfare of always remain, dear Sir,
Great Britain, which he has long re* Your most dutiful and obedient vered as the first, and perhaps as the " Son and Servant,
laft asylum of general liberty. His late " E. GIBBON, Jun." eloquent work, Du Pouvoir Executif,
which your Lord thip has assuredly read, The other Letter we thall select is is a valuable reftimony of his esteem for addressed to an eminent and a very efi- our constitution ; and the testimony of mable personage ; and, though of a very a fagacious and impartial stranger may
, different nature from the preceding, dis. have taught some of our countrymen to plays an equal energy of lentiment, and value the political blessings which they å fill superior felicity of language. have been tempted to dcfpise.
“ I cherish a lively hope of being in
England, and of paying my respets to “Rolle*, February 23, 1793. summer; but the events of the year are
your Lordihip before the end of the MY LORD,
so uncertain, and the sea and land are " I do not merely contragulate your encompassed with so many difficulties Lordship's promotion to an office which and dangers, that I am doubtful wheyour abilities have long deserved. Myther it will be pra&icable for me to fatisfaction does not arise from an affu. execute my purpose. I am, my Lord, rance of the wisdom and vigour which most respectfully, and your Lordship Adminiftration will derive from the fup. will permit me to add, most affection. more of fo respectat,'e an ally.
Bu: as ately, your most faithful humble ser. a friend to government in general, I A town between Lausanne and Geneva, where M. Neckar chen refided.
MR. GIBBON TO LORD
On the second volume of this work thousand years, all orders of men ap. we fall not long detain the reader, as plied Chemlelves to letters with an coits contents are generally neither ro in. ihufiafin which produced in them the teresting nor lo original as those of the highest efteem and veneration for one first.
of their principal rektorers. Besides, as The following character of Erasmus the general attention, from piety, froin from Les Extraiis raiones de mes Leco curiosity, from vanity, and from interest, tures, is judicious and neat :
was directed cawanis the religious dir. " If we consider the character of
putes, a great divine was the fashion. Erasın us, we thall be iminediately struck able character, and all parties epdea. with his extensive erudirion ; and that, youred to attract or to preserve him. heightened by two circumftancos. But to which of those parties did Eras.
« First, That he was scarcely ever mus adhere. His writings, and even fixed six months in a place (excepring his conduct, were often equivocal. The ar Baht); that to this wandering lite, Cabulics claim him, though they ac. which deprived hiin both of books and knowledge that he was often indiscreet. leiture, must be added, a continucd bad Le Clero challenges him for the Prote. state of health, and the constant avoca- Sants, though he blames him for not tion of a vast correspondence. Second. profeínog what he knew to have been ly, That his learning was all real, and the irutn ; and artributes his referre founded on the accurate perutal of the solely to timidity and self-interest
. ancient authors. "Tho numerous eui. Erasmus has certainly exposest all the tions be published sufficiently evince it; gruiser superstitions of the Romißh wor, and besides, those convenient compila- Thip to the ridicule of the public ; and tions of all sorts, where a modern au. had his free opinion been taken, I be. thor can learn to be a profound scholar, lieve that he was a Proiettant upon most at a very sinall expence, did not then of the contested points. But many other exist ; every thing was to be fought for morives might restrain him from a de. in the originals themselves. But herides claration. He was always persuadeda this learning, which was common to that any 'speculative truths were deariy many, Erafinus pofleed a genius, with purchased at the expence of practical out which no writer will ever descend virtue and public peace. Bilides, many to pofterity; a genius which could fie confiderations might often make him through the pain subileties of the balance as to those truths : prejudices of Schools, revive the laws of criticilm, education, the authority of this fathers, treat every lubject with eloquence and and a natural inclination to scepticism. delicacy; sometimes emulaie the an- Add to all this, that really disapproying çients, often imitate thein, and never many things in the Proteftant commu. copy thein. As to his morais, they had nion, though more in the Romith, by the poor merit of being regular. In remaining in the loose ituation of a the vobler part of his character I find in an who was unwilling tu.quit the re. hio very deficient. A partire of all ligion of his anceitors, ne could blame the great men of his time, he was nei. many things in it with freedoni ; where. ther alhamed to magnify their char:c- as, hid he dcfcrred it, he must either ters by the lowest adulatior, nor to de- have set up a standard himlelf, or elle base his own by the most impudent foui. have enlisted blindly under that of Lu. citations, to obtain presents wbich veryther or Æclainpadius. It is surprizoften he did not wani, The adventure ing that Erasmus, who could see of Eppendorf is another proof how inuch through much more plauable fables, bee dearer his inuory was to him than his lieved finnly in witchcraft." ch-racter. Notwithstanding thefefaults, The bort differtation on T Wan never man enjoyed a greater personal ruitborbe Iron Majk, has, we believe, ale Cunlideration. All the linolars, and all seady appeared in fome of the periodie the princes of Europe, looked upon him cal publications. Our author conjecas an oracle. Even Charles the Fifth tures tharrnis unforrunate prisuper,who and Francis the First agreed in this. It was known in the Baltile by the name we enquire why this happened to him of via:chiali, was the natural con of the racher tilan to lomc other great nen of Queen Mother of France and Cardi. a merit equal, and pornaps tuperior to al Mazaria ; and the bypothesis is Eraimus, we mutt say that it was ow. certainly noore probable than that of ing to the time when he lived; when Mons. D'Anquenl. Indeed, it it be the world, awakır; froin a loop of a only adricted that Marchiali was a pr!.
frner from the firê moment of his existe to communicate to the reader, by extace, Mr. Gibbon's may be considered tracts, by epitome, and by occasional as a fufficient tulution of an hitherton- remarks, are induced to conciute, in explicable hittorical problem.
oppofition to the generally received opiThe Antiquities of ide House of Brunf. nion, that Mr. Giobon was a icholar not wick contiitot about ninety pages, write leis profound than elegant ; more proten with care and Iparit. The decrip- found, probably, than any of his antation of the Naprials of Boniface, Marquis gonists; that his defects as a writer, of Tuscary, and of the Character of Al. whether critical, moral, or religious, beri Axo ibe Second, are portraits diawn were the consequence of his foreign prein our aurhor's best manner.
judices and his foreign manners; and We have now finished our survey of that his excelencies were exclusively this voluminous and amuting work ; his own; the rich fruits of indefatigable and, from the judgment we have formed indufry and of inventive genius, of it, which we have allo endeavoured
R.R. The Rural Economy of the West of England; including Devonshire, and Parts of Somersetshire, Dorsettire, and Cornwall. Together with Minutes in Practice. By Mr. Marihall. 2 Vols. 8vo. 12$. Boards. Robinsons, &c.
( Coniinued from Page 100.) HAVING, in curial Number, given “ Buc (thanks to the Disposer of Cir:
an analysis of these volumes, we cumftances), - now, when I am acwill, in resuming the subject, begin by quainted with the several Districts of conveying to our readers tonne account this Department of the Island, I am of their rise, and the claim they have to convinced, that there is no other situapublic attention. This we are enabled rion, which could have been made to do in the writer's own words, as he equally favorable to my views, as chat has given in this, as in his former re- in which I was placed-as it were proporis, a brief detail of the circumstances videntially. There is no other indi. that attended his lurvey.
sidual ftition, in which I could have "Tomy valuable and lamentedfriend, commanded, io well, the two Counthe late Sir FRANCIS DRAKE, whose ties of Devon and CORA WALL, and, at fitues were beat known to those who the saine vime, the fertile District of the were beft acquainted with his private South HAMS," the Girden of De. character, I ain chiefly indebted tor the vonthire,"--of which distinguished Di. opportunity oj forming the Register, strict the Valley of the Tamer forms, in which is now under publication.
reality, a part. “ lo the Summer of 1791,I made my “ Befide, in the Valley of the Ta. first journey into the WEST of DEVON. mer, and on the magnificent Farm on SHIRE, :0 examine into the itate of his which I resided, -he very first in the Kurai concerns, in that part, of the Country, -I potlessed the most favora county; and, in the Autumn of the abic opportunity, thac eiiner circumfame year, returned, to endeavour to faces or choice had to give, of Audyretrieve them from the disgraceful state ing the DaNMONIAN PRACTICE, in in which I had found thein. In the all its branches, and in its almolt pris. succeeding Autumn, I made a third tine purity *. journev, to the samt quarter; and, in " A few particulars of modern prac. the summer of 1794, I went over the tice, that have been recently introduced whole of the DRAKE ESTATE, lying into this part of the land, especially in different parts of Devon ihire. into the South Hams, have not de
" It will perhaps be faid, that the ranged the LONG-ESTABLISHED SYSVALLEY OF THE CAMER, is too con- TEM O? DANMONTAN HUSBANDRY; boed, and is of eco little importance as which is fill firmly rooted, in the sevea Diftrict, to be suitable for a PRINCI- ral Difras nf this Department; and PAL STATION. Indeed, it is more than remains as diftinguishable from the orprobable, that had I cbofin my fiation, dinary management of the body of the it would not have been that which cir: Mand, as if ihe Peninsula, they form, cumfances aligned me.
had been recently attached to it. anmonian,- an epithet derived from Danmonia, the ansient name of part, or the whole, of this Western Peninsula of Britain
tures, or HAMS.
“ Moreover, it will appear, in the gible way of proceeding. The rough following pages, that, although the ades of the delis and dingles, with Danmonian practice has many defects, which it abounds, were most fit for the i has likewise its excellenwies, by which production of wond; the Hatter better the British Hullanman may greatly parts of the surface of the country were prokt; and very many peeuliarines, by required for corn and paßturage; and which the mind of an airçotive readie's huiv could a more ready way of prowill be enlarged, and its prejudices be çuring both have been fallen upon, than relaxed. I therefore consider it as one that of giving due portions of it to the of the most fortunate circunstances that induttricus part of the inhabitants, ca have attended the execution of my un- clear away the wood, and adjust the dertahins, that I wts led to the pure furtace; and, after having reaped a few fountain of this silloguthed prac. Grows of corn, to pay the expence of rice."
culuvation, to throw it up to grass, In making our promiled extracts, we before it had been too much exhausted will endeaviair to caten, in running to preventies becoming, in a few years, the eye over the voluines, what ive chink profitable fivard? In this manner, the will give a specimen of the work, and country would be supplied progressiveat the fame time be acceptable to the ly, as population increased, with corn. general reader. The tirnt which itrikes
and paliurage, and the forests be con. is relates to inclulures.
verted, by degrees, into common pas: This District has no traces of common fields. The culiivased lands are “ The wild or unreclaimed lands being all inciosed; mofily in yell fized in- at length gone over in this way, some clorures; generally large in propora other source of arable crops would be un inte fices of farms.
requitire. Indeed, before this could “They have every appearance of zake place, the paiture grounds would haviog been formed 'rom a liate of com- be disproportionate to the corn lands ; moo patture; in which itate, lume con and out of these circumstances, it is fiderable part of the Dittrict will re- highiy probable, rose the present in, mains; and what is observabie, che bet. CLOSURES." ter parts of thole open communs have These remarks we find corroborated evidently heretofurú deen in a ftate of by oilervations made in the eastern *ration; lying in obvious ridges and pirts of the county, where the custom furrows; witii generally the remains of ut tilling commons in a partial manner Hedgevanks, corresponding with the still remains in a degree of use. ridges; and with faint traces of build. On the fizes of Farms, a subject at pgs.
this time befure the public, we mark * From there circumstances, it is un- Lime atrictures that tend to reconcile derstood, by fome men of o:fervation, the violent, whether they are for large that these lands have formerly been in or small farms, a state of permanent inclosure, and " The fizes of farms are, as they have been thrown up again, to a state ought to be, extreme various. BAR: of commonage, through a decrease in TONS (a name which perhaps was ori. toe populacion of the country,
ginally given to demesoe lands, or md“ Bút from observauons, made in dif. nor larins, but which now seems to be ferent parts of Devonshire, thefe ap- applied to any large farm, in contra. pearances, which are coinmon, perhaps, diluindion to the more common de. to every part of the county, would ra: Scription of farms) are generally of a ther fcelli to have arison out of a cul. full fize; as from two or three to four tots, peculiar perhaps to this part of the or five hundred acres of culturable Iland, and which itill remains in use, lands. Ordinary farms run frona ten to of lords of inanors having the privilege a hundred pounds a year. of letting portions of the common lands, “The humiliating situation in which Jying within their respective precincts, this country is placed, at presene (1795). iü tunanis, for the purpose of taking one through a milguided attachment to ormve crops of corn, and then suffering SPEČULATIVECOMMERCE, and the land to revert to a lla:e of grass and through a nepleet, yot lefs to be lamento Commonage,
ed, of the PERMANENT INTE. “ In the inf.ncy of society, and RESTS of the country,-has given us whilc the country remained in che forest an opportunity of seeing the utility fuic, this Wota bocodi raw and cli- which arises from a GRADATION CE
FARMS; and from having farmers of pans over a gentle heat in generally, different degrees and conditions, to fur- over the wood embers of the ordinary nifh the markets with a regular supply hearth: but sometimes over charcoal, of grain.
in ftoves fitted up for that purpose ;-* Were the whole of the cultivated and remains in that fituation until it lands of the 11and in the hands of small approaches nearly to boiling heat : the needy farmers, unable to keep back the proper degree of heat being indicated produce from the autumn and winter by pimples, or blisters, which rise on markets, it is highly probable that the the surface of the cream. The fmal. country, during the past summer, left degree of ebullition mars the prowould have experienced a scarcity, nearly cels; which is therefore properly equal to a famine ; and would, every termed “ scalding;” and the cream year, be at the mercy of dealers or mid- thus raised is termed “ (calded cream," dle men, during the Spring and summer or “ clouted cream ;” probably from months.
the tough cloth-like texture which it ac“ On the contrary, were the whole quirts by this process. in the hands of men of large capitals, a “ The cream, thus raised, remains greater scarcity might be experienced, on the inilk, which is rendered very in autumn and the early part of win- theer lean and blue by the process, -unter, than there is under the present di. til the dairy woman wanıs to make the Atribution of farin lands.
butter :” another fingular operation, in " I do not mean to convey, that the the Devonshire Dairy. The clouts or present distribution of farm lands is per- rags of cream being thrown into a fect, or precisely what it ought to be, large wooden bowl, they are stirred in a political point of view. Neverthe- about, by a circuitous motion of the less, it mighe be highly improper, in hand and arm, until the butyraceous Government, to interfere in the difpo- particles unite ; leaving a small quansal of private property. It is therefore tiry of thick creamlike matter, or seto the confideration of proprietors of rum; answering to the churn milk of estates I beg leave to offer the following the ordinary butter dairy. In “Tcald principle of management, in the te cream dairies,” no churn is in use. danting of their respective estates: " The origin of fo peculiar a practice Damely, that of not entrufting their lands may, perhaps, be traced back to the whether they lie in large or in small forest state. After the arts of produfarms, in the hands of men who have eing butter and cheese were discovered ; not capitai skill and industry, takın yet while, perhaps, each family was porjoin:ly, to cultivate them, with profit, iiffed of no greater dairy than two or to themselves and the community ; nor three cows; any process which enabled of suffering any man, let, his capital the proprietor of such a dairy to mabe what it may, to hold more land than nufacture those valuable articles, with he can personally superintend; fo as to a degree of certainty, was embraced as pay the requisite regard to the minutiæ eligible: and how could a more fortuof cultivation."
nate process have been struck out, than The practice of clouting cream, for thai of lecuring the milk and the which the West of England has long cream from their natural propensity of been celebrated, must not escape un- entering ihe different stages of fermennoticed.
tation, than the application of fire ; “ The only particular of manage. which, at once, secures the milk from ment, which requires to be noticed, in acidity, and tire cream from putrefacthe Devonshire Butter Dairy, is the tion ; until a sufficient quantity of each fingular METHOD OF RAISING THE can be laid up, for the purposes to CREAM ; a practice which is, or lately which they are particularly appro-, was, common to Devonshire and Corná priated ?". wall. This peculiarity consists in em. From the Minutes, we extract some ploying culinary heat, to aslift in fore- remarks on fallowing; another subject ing up the cream, with grcater rapidity of debate among agricultural men, ac and effect, than fimply depositing the prelent. milk in open velle's in the ordinary way, “August 27,1791. CLEARING FOUL produces.
LANDS. (See Mio. 7.) This and ano"The milk having food some hours, ther piece, Itill fouler, and in a worse in broad pans or vessels, either of brass fare of tillage, I have treated, and inof carthsa ware, it is placed in these tend to treat, in the following manner.