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The following pages will give, as far as possible, the locations of the Indians, their habits, customs, and what can be gathered of their folklore. and traditions. The latter, in fifty years from now, will be lost entirely; in fact, there are few Indians now living who have any knowledge whatever of the superstitions or customs of their ancestors.

Of the Indian tribes in Arizona, the Navaho was the largest and, with the exception of occasional thefts and marauding expeditions, was at peace with the whites.

The Maricopas, the Pimas and the Papagos have always been friendly, and the Yumas, after they were conquered by General Heintzelman, in 1853, were also friendly.

Many of the Mohaves and other Yuma tribes along the Colorado river were, at this time, gathered on the reservation, but they were all practically at war with the whites, it being said that they were fed on the reservation, and employed their spare time in robbing and killing the settlers, and the same may be said of the Wallapais, Apache-Yumas, and Apache-Mohaves or Yavapais. The Apache-Mohaves, a portion of the Mohave tribe, but affiliated with the Tonto Apaches, were among the most bloody and warlike of the Apache tribes.

The Tontos, Coyoteros, or White Mountain Apaches, the Pinaleños, what remained of the Aravaipas, the Pinals, the Chiricahuas, were all on the warpath. The Hopis and the Havasupais were always peaceable.

I give the following, compiled from Bulletin 30 of the Bureau of Ethnology of the Smith

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sonian Institution, and the works of Captain John G. Bourke, J. Ross Browne, and the manuscript of Mike Burns, relating to the ranges of the Indians of Arizona in 1868 and 1869, and what is known of their previous history, legends and folklore:

APACHE (probably from apachu, “enemy,' the Zuni name for the Navaho, who were designated “Apaches de Nabaju” by the early Spaniards in New Mexico). A number of tribes forming the most southerly group of the Athapascan family. The name has been applied also to some unrelated Yuman tribes, as the Apache-Mohave (Yavapai) and Apache-Yuma. The Apache call themselves N'de, Dine, Tinde or Inde, “people.”

They were evidently not so numerous about the beginning of the 17th century as in recent times, their numbers apparently having been increased by captives from other tribes, particularly the Pueblo, Pima, Papago, and other peaceful Indians, as well as from the settlements of northern Mexico that were gradually established within the territory raided by them, although recent measurements by Hrdlicka seem to indicate unusual freedom from foreign admixtures. They were first mentioned as Apaches by Oñate in 1598, although Coronado, in 1541, met the Querechos (the Vaqueros of Benavides, and probably the Jicarillas and Mescaleros of modern times) on the plains of eastern New Mexico, and western Texas; but there is no evidence that the Apache reached as far west as Arizona until after the middle of the 16th century. From the time of the Spanish coloniza

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tion of New Mexico until within twenty years they have been noted for their warlike disposition, raiding white and Indian settlements alike, extending their depredations as far southward as Jalisco, Mexico. No group of tribes has caused greater confusion to writers, from the fact that the popular names of the tribes are derived from some local or temporary habitat, owing to their shifting propensities, or were given by the Spaniards on account of some tribal characteristic; hence some of the common names of apparently different Apache tribes or bands are synonymous, or practically so; again, as employed by some writers, a name may include much more or much less than when employed by others. Although most of the Apache have been hostile since they have been known to history, the most serious modern outbreaks have been attributed to mismanagement on the part of civil authorities.

Being a nomadic people, the Apache practiced agriculture only to a limited extent before their permanent establishment on reservations. They subsisted chiefly on the products of the chase and on roots (especially that of the maguey) and berries. Although fish and bear were found in abundance in their country, they were not eaten, being rejected as food. They had few arts, but the women attained high skill in making baskets. Their dwellings were shelters of brush, which were easily erected by the women and were well adapted to their arid environment and constant shifting. In physical appearance the Apache vary greatly, but are rather above the medium height. They are good talkers, are not readily

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