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HISTORY OF ARIZONA.
INDIANS OF ARIZONA.
INDIANS OF ARIZONA-APACHE-FIRST MENTION
OF — TRIBAL GROUPS -- ARAVAIPA – CHIRI-
-WHITE MOUNTAIN—TSILTADEN. This volume is devoted entirely to the Indians of Arizona. Before 1866 and 1867, many of the Apache tribes were unknown and a large part of their country was a terra incognita. At the time of which we write, 1869–1870, through constant warfare, all the tribes of the Colorado River, and their habitats, had become known, and much progress had been made in the exploration of what was called Apacheria in Arizona. Many of the hostile tribes had been located and their numbers computed. The military commanders up to General Crook did a great work in this direction. They built roads through the Apache country, kept up a constant fight with the Indians, and paved the way to a great extent, as we shall see, for the subjugation of these tribes by General Crook. VII-1
The following pages will give, as far as possible, the locations of the Indians, their habits, customs, and what can be gathered of their folklore and traditions. The latter, in fifty years from now, will be lost entirely; in fact, there are few Indians now living who have any knowledge whatever of the superstitions or customs of their ancestors.
Of the Indian tribes in Arizona, the Navaho was the largest and, with the exception of occasional thefts and marauding expeditions, was at peace with the whites.
The Maricopas, the Pimas and the Papagos have always been friendly, and the Yumas, after they were conquered by General Heintzelman, in 1853, were also friendly.
Many of the Mohaves and other Yuma tribes along the Colorado river were, at this time, gathered on the reservation, but they were ali practically at war with the whites, it being said that they were fed on the reservation, and employed their spare time in robbing and killing the settlers, and the same may be said of the Wallapais, Apache-Yumas, and Apache-Mohaves or Yavapais. The Apache-Mohaves, a portion of the Mohave tribe, but affiliated with the Tonto Apaches, were among the most bloody and warlike of the Apache tribes.
The Tontos, Coyoteros, or White Mountain Apaches, the Pinaleños, what remained of the Aravaipas, the Pinals, the Chiricahuas, were all on the warpath. The Hopis and the Havasupais were always peaceable.
I give the following, compiled from Bulletin 30 of the Bureau of Ethnology of the Smith