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British kings usually resided; and the whole Cumbrian kingdom was not unfrequently called Strath-Clyde,' from the ruling or principal state.-Many dependencies of the Cumbrian kingdom extended into modern Yorkshire, and Leeds was the frontier town between the Britons and the Angles ; but the former were always giving way, and their territory was broken and intersected by English settlements. Carlisle had been conquered by the Angles at a very early period; and Egfrith of Northumbria bestowed that city upon the see of Lindisfarne. * * * The Britons of Strath-Clyde, and Reged, and Cumbria, gradually melted away into the surrounding population; and, losing their language, ceased to be discernible as a separate race.
Yet it is most probable that this process was not wholly completed until a comparatively recent period. The “Wallenses' or Welsh, are enumerated by David the Lion amongst his subjects, (A. D. 1124—1153 ;) and the laws or usages of the Brets or Britons continued in use until abolished by Edward I. at the period when Scotland, by his command appeared, by her representatives, in the English parliament at Westminster; (A. D. 1304.) In the bishoprick of Glasgow, comprehending the greatest portion of the ancient Cumbrian kingdom, the 'barbarous' British speech generally gave way to that dialect of the Saxon English, which is usually called lowland Scottish, about the thirteenth century; but in some secluded districts the language is thought to have lingered until the Reformation, when it was possibly destroyed by the ministration of the Protestant clergy. In our English Cumberland and the adjoining Westmoreland,
few British traditions yet survive among the people. Pendragon Castle reminds the traveller of the fabled Uther. Some of the mountains which adorn the landscape retain the appellations given them by the original population; and 'Skiddaw' and 'Helvellyn' now rise, as the sepulchral monuments of a race which has passed away."
One of the chiefs of North Britain, contemporary with Urien Rheged, was Dunawd or Dunod Fyr,* the son of Pabo, of the line of Coel Godebog. He appears to have gained some distinction as a warrior, and in the Triads he is called one of the three pillars of his country in battle. It is uncertain whether he accompanied his father, whose retreat to Wales has been already described; but in this generation he is found engaged in the north, where he disgraced his arms by fighting against the sons of Urien. A reverse of fortune, however, obliged him to leave his territories, and to place himself under the protection of Cyngen ab Cadell, the prince of Powys, who had afforded his father an asylum. He afterwards embraced a life of religion; and under the patronage of Cyngen, he became the founder, in conjunction with his sons, Deiniol, Cynwyl, and Gwarthan, of the celebrated college or monastery of Bangor Iscoed on the banks of the Dee in Flintshire. This institution, over which he presided as abbot, was one of the most eminent in the island; and, according to Bede, such was the number of its monks, that when they were divided into seven classes under their respective superintendents, none of these classes contained less than three hundred persons, all of whom supported themselves by their own labour. It furnished a large proportion of the learned men, who attended the Welsh bishops in their conference with St. Augustin, at
Sometimes called “Dunawd Fawr” and “Dunawd Wr;" but it is uncertain which of the three epithets is the right one. The Latin name is “ Dinothus ;" and in Bede, “ Dinoot Abbas."
+ Poems of Llywarch Hên.
| Achau y Saint, Silurian copies. The monastery has often been styled, Bangor in Maelor, from its situation in a district of that name; and Bangor Dunod from its founder.
S“Tantus fertur fuisse numerus Monachorum, ut cum in septem portio. nes esset cum præpositis sibi Rectoribus Monasterium divisum, nulla haruin portio minus quam trecentos homines haberet, qui omnes de labore manu. um suarum vivere solebant."--Hist. Eccl. Lib. II. Cap. 2.
which time Dunawd was still its abbot, though he must have been far advanced in years, for the earliest date assigned to that event is A. D. 599. The destruction of the monastery by Ethelfrith, king of Northumbria, soon followed, and it was never afterwards restored. Dunawd is the patron saint of the present church of Bangor in Flintshire,* and his festival was held on the seventh of September. His wife, Dwywe, the daughter of Gwallog ab Llenog, has been classed with the saints, but there are no churches which bear her name.
Cyngen, the son of Cadell, in whose territories the monastery of Bangor Iscoed was situated, is said to have endowed it with lands, for which he has had the reputation of sanctity, and there was once a church, dedicated to him, at Shrewsbury. One of his sons, Mawan ab Cyngen, whose life belongs to this generation, has also been deemed a saint, but nothing further is known respecting him.
Sawyl Benuchel, the brother of Dunawd, is described as an overbearing prince; and on account of his oppression, his party joined alliance with the Saxons, with whom they became one people.t He afterwards devoted himself to the service of religion, which appears to have been the common practice of the British chieftains upon the loss of their dominions, and the growing superstition of the age was favourable to such a custom. He closed his life in the monastery of Bangor Iscoed, and is the patron saint of Llansawel, a chapel under Cynwyl Gaio, Carmarthenshire.
Carwyd, another brother of Dunawd, was also a saint, and an inmate of Bangor Iscoed, where he likewise ended his days.
Arddun Benasgell, the sister of Dunawd, was married to Brochwel Ysgythrog, a son of Cyngen ab Cadell. The Cam
* Chapels to Bangor,-Worthenbury (St. Deiniol ab Dunawd,) and Overton or Orton Madoc (St. Mary.)
+ Triad 74, Third Series.
brian Biography says that some Welsh churches are dedicated to her, but it does not appear where they are situated. Her husband, Brochwel, succeeded his father in the principality of Powys, and lived till after the time of St. Augustin, when he commanded the reserve left for the protection of the monks of Bangor upon the advance of Ethelfrith. The Northumbrian, however, instead of directing his first attack against the main army of the Britons as had been expected, proceeded against the monks, who were praying at some distance; and Brochwel, unprepared with a force sufficient for such an emergency, was defeated.*
To proceed with the line of Coel; Gwenddolau, Cof, and Nudd, were the sons of Ceidio ab Garthwys, a chieftain of North Britain. They were all instructed in the Christian faith in the college of Iltutus, but no other reason is alleged why they should be enumerated among the saints. Gwenddolau was the patron of the bard, Myrddin the Caledonian, and was slain at the battle of Arderydd, A. D. 577.
Cynwyd Cynwydion, the son of Cynfelyn ab Garthwys, was a saint of the congregation of Cattwg, and is presumed to be the founder of Llangynwyd Fawr, Glamorganshire.
Tangwn, the son of Talhaiarn ab Garthwys, was the founder of a church in Somersetshire “ which is now called Tangynton.”
The saints of the line of Cunedda, besides David, archbishop of Menevia, were :
Afan Buallt, a son of Cedig ab Ceredig, by Tegwedd, daughter of Tegid Foel of Penllyn; and, therefore, uterine brother to Teilo. He was the founder of Llanafan Fawr in the county of Brecon, and Llanafan Trawsgoed in Cardiganshire; and was buried at the former place, where his tomb
* Bedæ Historia Ecclesiastica, Lib. II. Cap. 2.
still remains, with the following inscription, from which it may be learned that he was a bishop :
HIC IACET SANCTVS AVANVS EPISCOPVS
As there are reasons for extending his life into the next generation, it is not improbable that he was the third bishop of Llanbadarn; and his churches are situated in the district which may be assigned to that diocese. Llanfechan, one of the chapels under Llanafan Fawr, is dedicated to him,* and
memory has been celebrated on the sixteenth of November.
Doged, sometimes styled Doged Frenhin, or “the king ;" he was the brother of Afan, and founder of a church in Denbighshire called Llanıldoged.
Tyssul, a son of Corun ab Ceredig ; the founder of a church in Cardiganshire, called Llandyssul,t and of another of the same name in Montgomeryshire. His festival is Jan. 31.
Carannog, in Latin "Carantocus,” a brother of Tyssul, and the founder of the church of Llangrannog, Cardiganshire. The day of his commemoration is May 16. John of Teignmouth makes him to be a son, instead of a grandson of Ceredig, and the following extracts from that author, as translated by Cressy, may be taken as a fair specimen of the manner in which the lives of saints were written in the middle ages. After stating that St. Carantac was “by descent and countrey a Brittain, son of Keredic, Prince of the Province of Cardigan, Cereticæ Regionis;" the translator proceeds:-A certain prince, named Keredic, had many children; among which, one was calted Carantac, a child of a good disposition, who began early
* For the other chapels, see page 22.
+ Chapels to Llandyssul, all in ruins,-Llandyssulfed (St. Sylvester, qu.) Llanfair (St. Mary,) Faerdre, Capel Dewi (St. David,) Capel Ffraid (St. Bridget,) and Capel Rorthin.
There is a Life of St. Carantoc in the British Museum, Cottonian MSS. Vesp. A. XIV.