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passage leading through each, between sy, came silently across the river, in two rows of cells. The whole is sur- three divisions, nine miles above, by rounded by a stone-wall, three feet thick, pushing their way, in the best manner and twenty feet high, enclosing a square they could, through the ice. It was of four acres. Tubes pass through the morning before they reached the town, cells to warm them in winter, and flues when two bodies of troops fell upon the are made in the walls for ventilation.
enemy at once, from different quarters, The prisoners are kept at work, ma pressing immediately toward the middle king chairs and shoes, and weaving. By of the town, to prevent the enemy from judicious management, with cash sales, forming. They made no regular stand, the income has been made to defray the and some of them attempted to escape expenses, and even to leave a surplus. to Princeton, but were prevented; when All communication is prevented, and at- the whole body surrendered, amounting tention is paid to the moral improvement to twenty-three officers and eighty-six of the inmates. The prison contains a men. Only twenty or thirty were killed, library for their use, of three hundred and eight wounded, including the comvolumes.
mander. On the American side were The Battle of Trenton. This place none killed, and only two officers and was the scene of one of the most cele- one or two privates wounded. A few brated of Washington's master-strokes. of the enemy escaped by the Bordentown He excelled most commanders in stri- road, which General Ewing was to have king an unexpected and successful blow, provided against; but he was unable to just at the time when it would produce cross the river. General Cadwallader, the most important effects, by intimida- with the Pennsylvania militia, was liketing his enemies, and encouraging the wise unable to take part in the affair, country.
as only a small part of his troops could In December, 1776, the American be got over. Washington had intended || army had long been on the defensive, or to capture the other posts on the Delarather had retired, for fear of the enemy, ware; but he thought it prudent to rebeyond their reach. After the capture cross the river the same evening, and of New York, in August, Washington, thus retired to Pennsylvania. with the remains of his army, after un- The Battle of Assun pink was fought a successful attempts to make a stand at short time after that of Trenton. Washdifferent points, ħad been driven across ington, finding the enemy did not ad. New Jersey, and, barely escaping cap- vance, again crossed the Delaware, and ture, retreated into Pennsylvania. To took post on the south bank of Assunmany the war seemed already at an end. pink creek. On the 2d of January, four The British troops proceeded to occupy or five thousand British troops marched the principal points on the great road from Princeton to attack him. The enthrough the state, and three regiments emy made three charges upon the bridge, of Hessians, under General Rahi, and a but were repulsed by his cannop, with troop of light-horse, were quartered at about 150 killed. When night came on, Trenton. On the evening before Christ. Washington, knowing his force quite inmas, December 25th, there was not an sufficient, ordered the camp-fires to be American soldier on the east side of the well fed, and drew off his forces with so Delaware, and the stream was loaded little noise that the enemy did not with floating ice, so that it seemed im know of their disappearance. Washingpassable. The Hessians, in security, ton reached Princeton in the morning, engaged in their accustomed celebration which was occupied by a large British of the night with immoderate drinking; force. and about midnight the camp was in PRINCETON.—This pleasant town is such a state as Washington had calcula- distinguished as the seat of the principal ted on, at the hour of his premeditated literary institution in the state, and one assault. A large number of boats, which of the oldest and most respectable in the he had collected with all possible secre country--the college of New Jersey.
Here is also the presbyterian seminary. | Lord Carteret. It contains four churchThe country in the neighborhood is es, a bank, a courthouse, a jail, several agreeably diversified, with a good soil, public and private schools, and about peculiarly favorable to apples. It con- 3,000 inhabitants. It is situated on low, tains several churches, academies, and level ground, with a good soil. By steamschools. There are several handsome boat, it has a communication with New houses, with gardens and yards arranged York several times a day, as well as by with taste ; but the college-green, with the New Jersey railroad, which forms an its several buildings, is the principal or- important link in the great line of rail
In the rear of it, but fronting roads that now extends along almost on the street, is Nassau hall, the oldest the whole Atlantic border of the United college-building, which has a venerable States. Elizabethport, two miles from appearance. It has four low stories, the principal village, is the landing-place chiefly appropriated to the students. of the steamboats. Before the battle of Princeton, it was New BrunsWICK.— This city, the capused for barracks, and the lower story ital of Middlesex county, stands on the for stables, and was defended by a party west side of Raritan river, fourteen miles of the British troops, and stood a sharp from its mouth, twenty-six miles northfire from Washington's soldiers. A can- east from Trenton, and twenty-nine from non-ball entered the chapel, and tore New York. It lies partly in Franklin, away the head of a picture of King and partly in North Brunswick, Albany George II. The library is a building a street being the dividing line. Near little west; and on the east is a building the river the streets are narrow, and the devoted to recitation-rooms, the chymi- ground low; but on the hill, which rises cal laboratory, &c. A little in its rear behind, everything is changed for the is a new college-building; and in front, better. Here are a courthouse, jail, and near the street, and near both extremi- eight churches, with near eight thousand ties of the grounds, are the houses of the inhabitants. Steamboats ply daily to president and the professors.
New York. The New Jersey railroail The college was founded in 1742, and passes through the town; and the Delaowed its origin to a division introduced ware and Raritan canal commences here, into the presbyterian church in the days which extends to Bordentown, forty-two of Whitefield; from which two synods miles. It is seventy-five feet wide, and arose—that of New York and that of seven feet deep, allowing sloops to pass Philadelphia.
of froin 75 to 100 tons. It is supplied Nassau hall, the principal edifice, was by a feeder from the Delaware, twentybuilt in 1757, and was thus named in three miles long; including which, the honor of King William III., on request cost was $2,500,000. An old bridge, of Governor Belcher, who had presented now useless, was built across the Rarihis valuable library, of 474 volumes, to tan at New Brunswick, in 1811, at an the institution, and after whom the trus- expense of $86,687. There is another tees proposed to call it. The building for the railroad. was one hundred and seventy-six feet Rutgers College stands on the high long, fifty wide, and four stories high. ground in the northwestern quarter of The governor's library suffered much the town. It was founded in 1770, with from the British and American soldiers, the name of Queen's college; but being who in turn occupied the building; and unendowed, it did not go into operation almost all the remaining volumes were until 1781. In 1810, it was connected destroyed by fire, which, March 6, 1802, with the general synod of the reformed burnt all the edifice except the walls, Dutch church, and, in 1825, the building which still remain.
was purchased by the synod, and the ELIZABETHTOWN, on a small stream present name was given to the instituwhich flows into Staten island sound, four tion, in honor of Colonel Rutgers, of miles from Newark, was named after New York, a liberal benefactor; since Lady Elizabeth, wife and executrix of which time it has flourished.
Newark, the most populous town in | able for manufacturing by water-power. the state, is situated on a fine, level tract The stream makes a perpendicular deof ground, on the west side of Passaic scent of seventy feet over a precipice, river, nine miles west from New York, in a sheet of foam, which is partly conand forty-nine northeast from Trenton. cealed by a projecting rock.
A deep Vessels of one hundred tons come up to sluice, cut through the hard bank, draws the wharves; the New Jersey railroad off the water for the numerous manufacpasses through the town, on the way from tories below, so that the river is left alNew York to Philadelphia; and here is most dry in the summer-season. the commencement of the Morris and The town contains two banks, a phiEssex railroad. The Morris canal pass- losophical society, with a library, an es through the place, which opens a chan- acaderny, fourteen churches, and twenty nel of transportation between New York two thousand inhabitants. It was choand the Delaware river.
sen for the site of a great cotton manuThe principal streets are wide, well facturing place by Alexander Hamilton. built, and shaded with trees. Two large who, with his associates, were incorporasquares, in the middle of the town, add ted, in 1791, with a capital of a million much to its beauty. It contains three of dollars. The early period at which banks, a courthouse, twenty-five church- their design was formed testifies to their es, an apprentices' and a circulating li- intelligence and foresight, as the invenbrary, a mechanics' association, and, in tions of Arkwright were almost un1850, 38,885 inhabitants. The coast- known in the United States. A board ing-trade is considerable, and a whaling of directors was appointed, consisting and sealing company was incorporated of William Duer, John Dewhurst, Benin 1833. Manufactures of several kinds jamin Walker, Nicholas Low, Royal are carried on to a great extent, espe- Flint, Elisha Boudinot, John Bayard, cially in leather, carriages, &c.
John Neilson, Archibald Mercer, ThomNewark was first settled by a colony as Lowring, George Lewis, More Furfrom Connecticut, in May, 1666, in com- man, and Archibald M.Comb; and Wilpliance with the “concessions” sent to liam Duer was made the principal officer. New England by Lord Carteret. Cap-In 1792, when this spot was selected, tain Robert Treat, John Curtis, Jasper there were not more than ten houses in Crane, and John Treat, having been sent the place, which was named in honor from Guilford, Branford, and Milton, in of Governor William Paterson. Major that state, and made a favorable report, L'Enfan was appointed engineer, and especially in favor of this place, they began to cut the race on a scale unnewere sent again, and laid out the town, cessary large and expensive, and resignwith the main streets and squares. Thir-ed in a short time. He was succeeded ty families, from those towns and New by Mr. Colt, who adopted a more ecoHaven, at length arrived; but the Hack- nomical plan; and the first factory was ensack Indians refused to let them land, completed in 1794. It was ninety by until they had satisfied their demands. forty feet, and four stories high ; and They soon made a purchase, to the sat- yarn was spun in it that year by water isfaction of the wild men, giving them The year preceding, the operation had one hundred and thirty pounds New been performed by ox-power.
In 1794, England currency, twelve Indian blan- calico-printing was done, on unbleached kets, and twelve guns, for a tract of land muslins purchased in New York. The now including the townships of Spring- society at the same time directed the field, Livingston, Orange, Caldwell, and superintendent to plant mulberry-trees; Bloomfield.
and, at the proposal of Mr. Colt, a teachPATERSON.—This town, thirteen miles er was employed to instruct the worknorth of Newark, and seventeen north- children gratuitously on the sabbath. west of New York, is situated at the This was, no doubt, the first sabbathfalls of the Passaic, at a spot abounding school in the state, if not in the Union. in romantic scenes, and peculiarly favor- It differed, however, from our common