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which time Dunawd was still its abbot, though he must have been far advanced in years, for the earliest date assigned to that event is A. D. 599. The destruction of the monastery by Ethelfrith, king of Northumbria, soon followed, and it was never afterwards restored. Dunawd is the patron saint of the present church of Bangor in Flintshire,* and his festival was held on the seventh of September. His wife, Dwywe, the daughter of Gwallog ab Llenog, has been classed with the saints, but there are no churches which bear her name.
Cyngen, the son of Cadell, in whose territories the monastery of Bangor Iscoed was situated, is said to have endowed it with lands, for which he has had the reputation of sanctity, and there was once a church, dedicated to him, at Shrewsbury. One of his sons, Mawan ab Cyngen, whose life belongs to this generation, has also been deemed a saint, but nothing further is known respecting him.
Sawyl Benuchel, the brother of Dunawd, is described as an overbearing prince; and on account of his oppression, his party joined alliance with the Saxons, with whom they became one people.t He afterwards devoted himself to the service of religion, which appears to have been the common practice of the British chieftains
the loss of their dominions, and the growing superstition of the age was favourable to such a custom. He closed his life in the monastery of Bangor Iscoed, and is the patron saint of Llansawel, a chapel under Cynwyl Gaio, Carmarthenshire.
Carwyd, another brother of Dunawd, was also a saint, and an inmate of Bangor Iscoed, where he likewise ended his days.
Arddun Benasgell, the sister of Dunawd, was married to Brochwel Ysgythrog, a son of Cyngen ab Cadell. The Cam
* Chapels to Bangor,—Wortbenbury (St. Deiniol ab Dunawd,) and Overton or Orton Madoc (St. Mary.)
+ Triad 74, Third Series.
brian Biography says that some Welsh churches are dedicated to her, but it does not appear where they are situated. Her husband, Brochwel, succeeded his father in the principality of Powys, and lived till after the time of St. Augustin, when he commanded the reserve left for the protection of the monks of Bangor upon the advance of Ethelfrith. The Northumbrian, however, instead of directing his first attack against the main army of the Britons as had been expected, proceeded against the monks, who were praying at some distance; and Brochwel, unprepared with a force sufficient for such an emergency, was defeated.*
To proceed with the line of Coel; Gwenddolau, Cof, and Nudd, were the sons of Ceidio ab Garthwys, a chieftain of North Britain. They were all instructed in the Christian faith in the college of Iltutus, but no other reason is alleged why they should be enumerated among the saints. Gwenddolau was the patron of the bard, Myrddin the Caledonian, and was slain at the battle of Arderydd, A. D. 577.
Cynwyd Cynwydion, the son of Cynfelyn ab Garthwys, was a saint of the congregation of Cattwg, and is presumed to be the founder of Llangynwyd Fawr, Glamorganshire.t
Tangwn, the son of Talhaiarn ab Garthwys, was the founder of a church in Somersetshire “ which is now called Tangyn. ton.”
The saints of the line of Cunedda, besides David, archa bishop of Menevia, were :
Afan Buallt, a son of Cedig ab Ceredig, by Tegwedd, daughter of Tegid Foel of Penllyn; and, therefore, uterine brother to Teilo. He was the founder of Llanafan Fawr in the county of Brecon, and Llanafan Trawsgoed in Cardiganshire; and was buried at the former place, where his tomb
* Bedæ Historia Ecclesiastica, Lib. II. Cap. 2.
still remains, with the following inscription, from which it may be learned that he was a bishop
HIC IACET SANCTVS AVANVS EPISCOPVS
As there are reasons for extending his life into the next generation, it is not improbable that he was the third bishop of Llanbadarn; and his churches are situated in the district which may be assigned to that diocese. Llanfechan, one of the chapels under Llanafan Fawr, is dedicated to him,* and his memory has been celebrated on the sixteenth of November.
Doged, sometimes styled Doged Frenhin, or “the king ;" he was the brother of Afan, and founder of a church in Denbighshire called Llanddoged.
Tyssul, a son of Corun ab Ceredig ; the founder of a church in Cardiganshire, called Llandyssul,t and of another of the same name in Montgomeryshire. His festival is Jan. 31. Carannog, in Latin “
Carantocus," a brother of Tyssul, and the founder of the church of Llangrannog, Cardiganshire.
The day of his commemoration is May 16. John of Teignmouth makes him to be a son, instead of a grandson of Ceredig, and the following extracts from that author, as translated by Cressy, may be taken as a fair specimen of the manner in which the lives of saints were written in the middle ages. After stating that St. Carantac was "by descent and countrey a Brittain, son of Keredic, Prince of the Province of Cardigan, Cereticæ Regionis ;” the translator proceeds:-A certain prince, named Keredic, had many children; among which, one was called Carantac, a child of a good disposition, who began early
* For the other chapels, see page 22.
+ Chapels to Llandyssul, all in ruins,—Llandyssulfed (St. Sylvester, qu.) Llanfair (St. Mary,) Faerdre, Capel Dewi (St. David,) Capel Ffraid (St. Bridget,) and Capel Borthin.
# There is a Life of St. Carantoc in the British Museum, Cottonian MSS. Vesp. A. XIV.
to do those things which he thought would be pleasing to God. Now in those days the Scotts did grievously vex Brittany,* so that his father, unable to sustain the weight and troubles of government, would have resigned the province to Carantac. But he, who loved the celestial King far more than an earthly kingdom, fled
away ; and having bought of a poor man a wallet and a staff, by God's conduct was brought to a certain pleasant place, where he, reposing, built an oratory, and there spent his time in the praises of God. From his childhood he embraced purity and innocence. At last he passed over into Ireland, invited by his affection to St. Patrick. Whither being come, by common advice they determined to separate themselves, and that one of them should travel in preaching the Gospel toward the right hand, the other toward the left. In their company there were many Ecclesiastical persons attending them; and they agreed once every year to meet together at an appointed place. Whithersoever this holy man went, an angel of our Lord, in the likeness of a dove, accompanied him, who changed his name from Carantac into Cernach, which was an Irish appellation. All along his voyage he wrought great miracles for the confirmation of the faith preached by him, and healed many thousand. The wonderful Gests of this holy man, Cernach or Carantac, are to be read in Irish historians, and how the grace at first given to the Apostles was plentifully given to him. He was an admirable soldier and champion of Christ, a spiritual and devout abbot, and a patient teacher, not refusing to preach saving truth to every one. During many years spent by him at that Island, he brought an incredible number to wash away their sins by Penance, and both day and night he offered innumerable prayers to God. After he had converted much people to our Lord, who wrought many miracles by him, he at last returned to his own native country in Brittany, where he retired to his former
* Cressy invariably uses the words—"Brittain” for Briton, and “Brittany” for Great Britain. He styles Armorica “Lesser Brittany."
cave, accompanied by many disciples. There having built a church he determined to abide. But not long after, being again admonished by a voice from heaven, he returned to Ireland, where in a good old age, and full of holy works, he rested in peace on the seventeenth of the Calends of June, * and was buried in his own city, which from him was called Chernach.
Pedrwn, brother of Tyssul, enrolled among the saints, but there is no church at present called after his name.
Pedr, brother of Tyssul ; his churches, if he founded any, cannot be distinguished from those which are dedicated to St. Peter, the Apostle.
Tyrnog, or Teyrnog, brother of Tyssul, a saint, but there are no churches ascribed to him. Llandyrnog, Denbighshire, is attributed to another person of the same name.
Cyndeyrn, a son of Arthog ab Ceredig; a saint to whom Llangyndeyrn, formerly subject to Llandyfaelog, Carmarthenshire is dedicated. His festival occurs on the twenty fifth of July.
Cyngar, the brother of Cyndeyrn; it is said that he “established a congregation in Glamorgan, at a place now called Llangenys;"+ but perhaps the statement is an error, arising from confounding this person with another Cyngar, who is said to have founded the college of Cungarus in the diocese of Llandaff.
Dogfael, the son of Ithel ab Ceredig, was the founder of St. Dogmael's in Cemmaes, St. Dogwels in Pebidiog, Monachlog Ddu, and Melinau, all in Pembrokeshire ; and has been accounted the patron saint of Llanddog wel under Llanrhyddlad, Anglesey, Festival, June 14.
* Corresponding to May 16; eleven days after which, or on the twentyseventh of the same month, being the festival of St. Carantoc, Old Style, a fair is held at Llangranuog in Cardiganshire.
+ Cambrian Biography.