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This state, one of the largest of the original thirteen, lies between New York and Virginia, two of the other most extensive of that number, with Ohio on the west, the most populous and flourishing of the younger members of the Union; while its eastern boundary divides it from New Jersey, and it adjoins Maryland for a short distance on the southeast. Lake Erie touches it on the northwest. The Allegany ranges divide it into two parts :
forming three distinct, though unequal sections, counting the mountainous part as the central one. These mountains deviate considerably from their general line in the interior of Pennsylvania. They cross the boundary of Virginia with a course nearly northeast, soon incline northeasterly, and at length run for some distance eastwardly; then stretching again more northwardly, cross the New York line in the usual course, northeast. The most easterly ridge enters the state in York county, and is cut through by the Susquehannah, a river which, instead of conforming its direction to that of the mountains, crosses the entire range nearly at right-angles.
The Delaware river, which forms the whole eastern boundary, rises in the state of New York. A system of canals forms an important line of navigation for boats and arks from the Lehigh river to Philadelphia, by which the productive coal-minos at Mauch-Chunk send thousands of tons to that city. The Delawere communicates, also, at different points, with the Delaware and Hudson canal, the Morris canal, and the Delaware and Chesapeake canal, and, through the Sc!ıuylkill, by the improved navigation of that river, and the great Western canal line, to the Ohio. At the same time, the numerous and long lines of railroads, crossing the country in different directions, meet the Delaware at Philadelphia; while the navigation of that noble stream by often been declared to be destitute. A steamboats, coasting and foreign vessels, characteristic anecdote is told, by iradi. adds another very important branch to tion, of the sagacity and Christian liberthe extensive commerce of the state. ality of William Penn, which forcibly
The Susquehannah, though flowing illustrates the truth, that the way which through regions abounding in various is right is usually that which is most products, is naturally so much broken profitable in the end. The Indians once by the irregularity of the surface, that it came to him with a complaint that they was naviyable only for boats, and at had been under some misapprehension great risk; and, at the same time, the in the terms of a bargain they had made more important agricultural portion of with the white men, who had purchased the state, west of the mountains, offered of them a large tract of land. The colstrong inducements to the opening of a onists at the same time represented that channel of communication between it the bargain, though hard for the Indians, and the commercial capital. The ex- was a fair one, and that they were ready ample of New York encouraged the un- to fight for it.
to fight for it. Penn, however, in condertaking; and Pennsylvania embarked sistency with the principles of the gosmore extensively than any other state in pel, which he professed, inquired of the the construction of canals. Immense Indians how much more they cousidered labors were performed. Railroads were the land worth than they were to rein some places connected with them. ceive; and, on being informed, made But the first results proved unfavorable, such an addition of the articles used in and a general depression for a time suc- trade as fully satisfied them, though receeded, so great that the legislature at ally of trifling value, and thus not only length resorted to a temporary suspen- prevented immediate bloodshed, and sion of payment; but arrears are now other evils attendant on 'war, but conpaid, and prospects improving.
firmed the grateful wildmen in their pa: The History of the settlement of cific spirit and friendly attachment to the Pennsylvania, and the early years of its colonists, most favorable to the permacolonial existence, have ever been re- nency of a good understanding and free garded with peculiar interest, on account trade for the future. of the professions and character of the The relations between Pennsylvania people, and especially their founder. and Connecticut were disturbed for a The earliest European colony was plant- number of years, after the settlement of ed in this state by Swedes, in 1627, or a colony from the latter in the valley of 1628, and conquered by the Dutch, from Wyoming, which was claimed under the New York, in 1655. But the English patent of King Charles, as it lay in her having taken possession, in 1681, Wil- territory, as marked out by the two liam Penn obtained a grant of land on parallels extending to the South sea. the Delaware, landed at New Castle, The encroachments of the French in and entered upon the government of the west, on the Ohio river, threatened about 3,000 inhabitants---Swedes, Eng- Pennsylvania, as well as Virginia ; but, lish, Dutch, and Finlanders.
until the Revolutionary war, her inland A place called by the Indians Coa- position, and the obstacles presented by quanock, was chosen• for the site of a her mountains, contributed to secure city, and named Philadelphia, a name her from most of the trials through which corresponding with the pacific principles many of the other colonies had to pass, of the society of Friends, of which Penn in the early stages of their history. was so distinguished a member. By his Having no internal enemies, in consemild, just, and humane treatment of the quence of the just and pacific policy Indians, he set an example wortry of pursued by Penn, she had little to disimitation, and gave the poor savages, so turb the peaceful lives of her inhabitoften misunderstood, abused, and mis- ants, until the Revolutionary war inrepresented, opportunities to display some volved her in a full share of the public of the virtues of which they have too ! sufferings and losses. Her capital, after