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examining the country at some distance from the coast; but as the colony increases, what might we not expect from the remarks and researches of intelligent blacks? A resident of Liberia, as the influence of the colony becomes more extended, will probably give us information of the interior which
Of the two hundred recaptured Africans sent out by government, four only have died; this of course might have been expected, as it is their native land; but that they are doing well and thriving, is no small item as we view it, to the credit of the colony. Its results, too, are to be taken into consideration. In concluding, we may observe, we have no disposition to paint en beau, the appearance and prospects of the colony, or by becoming a party writer, to use language describing an African elysium. The facts mentioned are but few, but the appeal is to the judgment. Those who would wish us to take no interest in the colony, because it interferes with their own plans of exceeding philanthropy and patriotism, should visit it themselves, and we should be much deceived should they not hesitate before they would yet abandon it.
Address to the Managers and leading members of the Anti-Slavery and Abolition Societies of
the Northern and Eastern States, and to all who are opposed to the Colonization of the Colored People of the United States, in Africa.
Deep River, GUILFORD Co., N. C. Esteemed Friends,-Having observed in the African Repository, and other periodicals, that you have taken a very decided stand in oppositiou to the constitution and operations of the Colonization Society, I regret much, that you liave not kept steadily and firmly to your main purposes of universal emancipation, and the education and general improvement of the people of color; these are great and noble works for Christian philanthropists to be engaged in. Your Society has no doubt been instrumental in conciliating public opinion in favor of a general emancipation of slaves in the northern and eastern States; but remember it was gradual; and if you would let the American Colonization Society prosecute its plans without interruption, and still pursue your own proper business, you may yet be instrumental in extending gradual and universal emancipation from the north to the south, until it reaches from Maryland to New Orleans; and I am certain that the American Colonization Society will not oppose or interrupt you in any shape or form, but will be the better pleased the more you conciliate public opinion in favor of universal emancipation. I am a member of that Society, and have been a member of an auxiliary of yours for twenty years; and have generally been much pleased with the views and operations of both, until of late I have been truly sorry that the two 80cieties should come so in contact with each other as to be in danger of weakening both. However, from the best information that I can obtain it appears to me that you are the aggressors; and instead of weakening the American Colonization Society, it has gained strength and numbers by opposition; though it is in rather a depressed situation at present for the want of funds; on account of so large a number of emigrants going to the Colony recently, (about one thousand within one year;) too large a number to go to a colony that contained but about two thousand inhabitants: the same proportion of emigrants to the inhabitants of the United States, to be landed along our eastern shores, would be embarrassing even to our Gov. ernment and pumerous community.
We who profess to be Manumissionists ought also to be Colonizationists, so far as to aid in opening and preparing an asylum in Africa for our colored brethren of America, both slaves and free, who desire to go to the land of their fathers. This was the primary object of the American Colonization Society from the first institution of it, and remains so. They have succeeded in establishing a respectable colony in Africa, under apparently insurmountable difficulties; which has become an asylum for about five hundred recaptured slaves, who have been settled there at the expense of this government, and more than one thousand slaves, manumitted by their owners, and sent by the American Colonization Society, since the Colony was founded; so that one half of the three thousand colonists are manumitted slaves. Have we abolitionists and anti-slaveites been instrumental in immediately manumitting half that number? or shall we not be willing, my brethren, to contribute of our earthly wealth so much as to keep these people from suffering? or shall we endeavor to impede the operations of a benevolent society that has spent so much time and money and risked and lost so many lives of valuable men, agents of the colony, the climate being unhealthy to white men, but not so much so to the man of color; shall we let them now suffer for the necessaries of life? Shall we let the infant colony languish now when we see there is almost an overwhelming inclination of the long suffering and captivated African race to return to the land of their fathers; so great a desire they have to return from their long captivity that the number of emigrants last year was equal to one third of the inhabitants of the colony; and not only so, but there are thousands in the southern States now willing and anxious to go, if the colony was large enough to receive them, and the funds of the Society sufficient to defray the expense of their emigration. I know a number of instances of late, of owners who have sent their slaves to Liberia, not very far from my own place of residence, and I am well informed of a great many more at a distance, in different parts of the slave States, that are anxious to send theirs, and I know a number of free persons of color who would gladly go to Liberiarespectable and worthy people. Shall we trample under foot with impunity such an institution as this, which has at the risk of the lives of a number of their members, under Providence opened an highway and prepared an asylum with indefatigable labor and at great expense in Africa for all that race who desire to return there? Shall we proscribe a whole benevolent society because we think it has some evil designing men in it. We do not expect a pure and spotless perfection in any human institution, but let us remember that among the twelve Apostles there was a Judas, and the brilliant sun himself in the high firmament has his spots. Shall we let them all dwindle and suffer, both Colonists and Colonizationists, for the want of that means? No, we must not, but we will attend for a moment to the page of sacred history and hear the proclamation of King Cyrus to his people, and the long captivated children of Israel in his Persian dominions.
[Here follows a long quotation from the book Ezra. Mr. H. next quotes from Garrison's Liberator a paragraph in which he denounces the American Colonization Society, as resting upon “persecution, falsehood, cowardice, and infidelity," and declares it to be “a creature without heart, without brains, eyeless, unnatural, hypocritical," &c. and then goes on as follows:-)
Have you considered how many thousands of respectable men both in the northern and Southern states, are condemned by these dogmatical denunciations, or do you know that it indirectly includes the whole religious Society of Friends in North Carolina, Tennessee and part of Virginia, that constitute our yearly meeting, which contains between seven and eight thousand members. We have ever been the warm friends of the American Colonization Society, and still are. Our yearly meeting has 16 the whole, at different times, contributed thousands of dollars to its aid.
We have existed as a religious Society, and in a yearly meeting capacity, nearly a century; situated about the centre of the slave states, we have borne our testimony against slavery above fifty years; we pursued a regular course of memorializing the legislature for forty years on the subject of slavery, for laws to enable conscientious persons to manumit their slaves, but without success. We have in the course of ten years past assisted our people of color, our slaves in the eye of the law, [about one thousand] to emigrate to free governments, which has cost the society near twenty thousand dollars, in which we have been generously aided by other yearly meetings of Friends upon this continent, and a considerable portion of it from London yearly meeting. After all this, by the above positive denunciation we are indirectly assailed by the colonization persecutors, as liars, cowards, infidels, without heart, without brains, eyeless, unnatural, hypocritical, unjust. Such language, my brethren, is not calculated to conquer enemies, gain friends, soften hard hearts, or convince infidels, even if it were true.
My main object is to bring to your view the trying situation of the Society of Friends in North Carolina, in regard to about five hundred people of color under our care, slaves in the eye of the law, as were the thousand we have sent away: and as some of you may not understand this subject, I will inform you in brief. When Friends first settled in America, they bought and held slaves like other people, not duly considering its inconsistency with christian principle; but about fifty years ago the society became convinced of the great evil of slavery, and formed its discipline so as to require our members to manumit their slaves; believing no doubt at that time, that the laws of North Carolina admitted of legal emancipation.Whether they did or not, I cannot say, but such was the fact, that more than a hundred of our manumitted people were taken up and sold into per. petual slavery, either by a different construction of the law or an expost facto.
In the mean time we consulted council and were advised to appoint agents in our yearly meeting, to receive the rights of slaves from our members—to hold them in a society capacity, according to a law of this state in 1776, incorporating all religious societies or congregations to hold property to any amount real or personal, except land, not to exceed two thousand acres, and worth not more than two hundred pounds a year. We then availed ourselves of the privilege of this law and acted accordingly; our members conveyed the titles in their slaves to our agents, until the society became possessed of about one thousand. We still continued to petition the legislature for a law for conscientious persons to manumit their slaves, but failed in obtaining it, until we thought it a hopeless case; the legislature becoming more and more averse to the emancipation of slaves, always give ing as their main reason the great number and low character of the free people of color already in the State. And now for about ten years past, we have been deeply engaged in assisting our people of color to free governments until about one thousand have gone, as I before observed. We have about five hundred still in possession; and I must observe, that when we commenced the work of emigration, we had but about that number, the rights of others having been conveyed to us since, and they have augmented considerably by natural increase. We sent some to the state of Ohio, others to Indiana, some to Pennsylvania, and to other free States, as they are called. We sent one hundred and pineteen to Hayti, and several hundred to Liberia, all with their own consent and choice, for we have compelled none to go any where. But now for two or three years past, the prejudices of the people of the free States have been so great against the increase of a colored population, that we cannot get homes for them any where upon
this continent (except Canada, and that we think much too cold for southern people, though we have repeatedly solicited our friends in Ohio, Indiana, Pennsylvania, New Jersey, and New York, by epistles from our meetings, for sufferance to theirs, by personal inquiry, and private correspondence.
At the present there appears to be no open door for the reception of our people except in Liberia; and we believe that to be much the most suitable place for them; and many of them would willingly go there if they could, but cannot for want of funds. Several heavy lawsuits have been commenced against us for about forty or fifty people of color within two years past, which suits we have good reason for believing would not have been commenced if we had been permitted to continue a regular course of emigration: but since that has been suspended, some avaricious heirs have come forward to our agents and told them if they would send them away to free governments they would not bring any suits for them, but seeing they did not send them away, they, the claimants, might as well hold them, as for our agents to do so. This they had not offered to do while the benevolent work of emigration continued its annual and regular course for ten years. These adverse circumstances have very much exhausted our funds. It is proper here to say, that the greater part of the expense of the besore mentioned shipment was furnished by our kind friends of Philadelphia, and all the expense of the one thousand sent away, except about two thousand dollars that we raised ourselves has been kindly furnished by the different Yearly Meetings on this continent, and Friends of England, and to the lasting credit and Christian benevolence of the Friends of Philadelphia they have furnished more than half the whole sum.
Now, my brethren, I appeal to your good sense and Christian feelings. I am prompted to it for the melioriation of the condition of the African race, and more especially and immediately for the deliverance of the five hundred people of color under our care from a state of legal bondage, for although we do not hold them as slaves, yet they are so according to law. I propose to your serious consideration the propriety of your endeavoring to conciliate public opinion in the free states, so far at least, that they may be willing to aid our people of color who desire to emigrate to Africa.
Now a few additional lines on the subject of reformation in our Abolition and Anti-slavery societies—there surely, is need of it my friends, especially as it respects the style and manner of some of our distinguished members in treating this subject. They have been too harsh, and in some instances apparently vindictive, so much so, that some of the friends of humanity have mourned, and believed that these have not acted in accordance with the precepts of the Gospel, or under the influence of the good spirit of Jesus Christ our Saviour.
We ought to be true and candid in all our expressions and yet gentle; if in this manner we fail to make powerful impressions even on the most inveterate enemies to the good cause, in vain may we expect to assail them with satire and vituperation. The American Colonization Society have had cause to complain of this harshness, and some have acknowledged they are faulty and they have set out for a reformation; let us follow their example and let there be no jarring sound heard between these benevolent institutions, nor among the friends of this great cause throughout the world. Let all the philanthropic societies and all the Christian denominations keep in view the grand object, which ought to be that of cancelling the mighty debt which we owe them for the long, long and grievous captivity and degradation that they have suffered under us and our fathers, which cannot be done without their emancipation from a state of slavery, and the restoring as many of them to the land of their native habitation as desire to go. And let it be
done consistently with the peaceable principles of Christianity, and as much in accordance with the harmony and happiness of the various politics of the world as the nature of so important and complicated a subject will possibly admit of. Let us not be so solicitous about the organ or organs through which we think it will principally be effected, as about the object itself; and be sure that we be faithful and generous in furnishing the
I am your friend,
0 Colonization Reports. --The 1st, 2nd, earliest opportunity of carrying into effect 3rd, 4th, 5th, 12th and 15th Annual Reports the wishes of this Board (intimated in their of the American Colonization Society being Resolution passed February 20, 1834, pubnow out of print, it has been the intention lished in the African Repository for March, of the Board of Managers to reprint them, and particularly referred to in the Supplebut the state of their funds has not hitherto mental Report of this Board contained in the permitted the expense. This, they, much number for the present month of the same regret, as they are solicitous to comply with work) to obtain, if practicable, a more healmany pressing calls, both from Great Bri- thy and suitable tract of country, at a distain and the United States, for complete sets tance from the sea-coast, than our present of the Reports. The Officers of the Society settlements at Monrovia and its vicinity are therefore, take this method of requesting the found to be, in order that agricultural pur. several Auxiliary Societies and other friends suits, which are deemed more important to whom the Reports have been sent for dis- than any other, may be pursued with untribution, to forward to the Colonization of- ceasing, effective industry and intelligence. fice at Washington, as many copies of those first enumerated, as they can spare or pro
COLONIAL PRESS. cure; for which, if desired, any other of the Annual Reports will be given in exchange.
In the African Repository for JuIt is supposed that many of the Reports ly last, were announced the contriwanted, may be lying idle in various places, butions of kind friends of the Socieand may be discovered by a little exertion. ty in New York, for supplying the
A compliance with the request now made, colonial printing press with the newill, it is believed, be of essential service to the cause of Colonization.
cessary apparatus. The following
additional intelligence on that subject EMIGRATION AND PROPOSED EXPLORATION. is extracted from the New York Extract from the Journal of the Board of Spectator of August 20th:Managers of the American Colonization
"All the materials were contributed in Society. August 1st, 1834.
this city, and thirty dollars towards the press, It being a well-established fact, that emi- by the manufacturers-Messrs. Hoe & Co. grants arriving in Liberia during the rainy There was a balance due to those gentle
men of two hundred dollars, and a small and sickly season, suffer inuch more severe attacks of fever, (which more frequently sum for a keg of Printing-ink-in all about prove fatal) than those do who arrive in two hundred and ten dollars. This amount, the dry and healthy season; and it being as
we have the pleasure to state, has been recertained that the middle of the month of mitted to us by Rev. Cortlandt Van Renssel. November is the best time to sail from this aer-being a donation from the State Sociecountry to the colony
ty at Albany." Resolved, That, in future, this Society
The aid thus furnished to the cowill endeavour, as far as practicable, to send lonial press, by the benevolent citiout their emigrants to Liberia in the month of November annually, that they may expect and judiciously bestowed." The Li
zens of New York, is opportunely rience the seasoning sickness of the climate as lightly as possible.
beria Herald, though conducted with August 7th, 1834.
ability and in an interesting mapper, Resolved, That instructions be sent to Mr. has not hitherto received a degree of Pinney, our Colonial Agent at Liberia, by the vessel expected to sail from New York patronage which would enable the about the middle of this month, to take the Proprietor to give to it an external