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It was said that in 1865 at least three thousand placer miners were located in the various gulches around Prescott. General Rusling, in his work “Across America,” said, in 1867, that Prescott had a population of between four and five hundred. There were ten drinking-halls, but not a bank or banking-house, free school, Protestant church nor missionary in the whole of Arizona. Prescott, however, was just the reverse of Tucson in almost every particular. Tucson was composed almost entirely of adobe buildings with mud roofs and earth floors, and shutters for windows. In Prescott the houses were American; they were supplied with glass windows after the American style. The inhabitants were Americans, mostly from California and Colorado, and some of them were accompanied by their American wives who had not forgotten the lessons of diligence and thrift learned in childhood. The books in the houses were American, and the newspaper was American. Not even a Spanish advertisement could be found in its columns. In one respect only were Prescott and Tucson alike, and that was in the gambling saloons. These were open Sunday all day, night and day the game went on. Prescott was a mining town with but few comforts. Says Fish: “Of all the cities of Arizona, Prescott is the most 'Eastern' in its character; it never had an era of the 'bad man,' never a time when it was customary to serve 'a man for breakfast, or when it was a safe and popular pastime to shoot up the town.' In this northern district the facilities for obtaining supplies were limited; in early days the flour and beans were brought up from the Pima villages on pack animals, and the bacon, coffee, etc., were brought from Los Angeles by the same mode of transportation. But a little later most of the supplies were shipped in from the Colorado River, where they were brought up in boats. Before this prices were fearfully high; potatoes and onions sold at seventy-five cents to one dollar a pound, and it took a hundred dollars in greenbacks to buy a sack of flour. But notwithstanding the difficulties of obtaining supplies at enormous prices, the mines drew a large number here, and the place grew quite rapidly. There were Indian troubles and a lack of communication with the outside world. California papers were four weeks old, while those from the Atlantic coast were six weeks old."
Notwithstanding all these difficulties and drawbacks, the country began slowly to settle up, and ranches were being located in all favorable localities nearby where there was any protection given.
It will be noticed from the foregoing that many of the first buildings were used for saloons. C. B. Genung says:
"The first hotel was started and run by George W. Bernard, now of Tempe, and was known as the Juniper House, deriving the name from the tree under which the cooking and eating was done. It was very handy as a man could load up his plate with grub and go to the shady side of the tree to eat. About the time that Bernard opened his establishment, John Roundtree and Dr. Alsap opened the first saloon. That was opened under some large pine trees that grew on the lower end of Goose Flat. It was built of cloth and timber; a small wagon sheet
stretched over a pole which rested in the forks of two upright posts. The bar fixtures consisted of one ten-gallon keg of what we called whiskey;
a half dozen tin cups and a canteen of water. The cups had handles, loose at one end, and the loose end formed a hook by which they hung around the chain of the keg when they were not in use. A tenderfoot would expect that ten gallons of liquid would have soon been exhausted. On the contrary, it lasted until the company had Iumber sawed and a house built and opened up. This house was owned by the Osborn family of Phoenix."
This according to Neri Osborn was built by his father and used as a hotel. The members of the first Legislative Assembly offered Mr. Osborn their per diem pay for room rent which was declined. The following year George Lount and his partner C. Clark brought in the first sawmill which was operated just outside the town limits of Prescott.
LETTERS OF JONATHAN RICHMOND — PROS-
STATE LIBRARY. As before noted, the troops having been withdrawn from the Territory, in 1863, everything was left in chaos. Fields were abandoned, mines deserted, and towns depopulated all through the southern part of Arizona. The Indians were practically left to roam at will and murder and rob at pleasure, the only resistance being on the part of a few Mexicans and whites congregated in and around Tucson, and the Pima, Maricopa and Papago Indians. The state of affairs as it existed in Southern Arizona at that time cannot be better described than in the following series of letters from Jonathan Richmond to his relatives in Grand Rapids, Michigan, to whom we are indebted for a graphic description of the journey of the Governor's party across the plains to Prescott, and the condition of affairs in Northern Arizona. These letters are as follows:
“Tucson, Arizona Ter.
“April 2nd, 1864. “Dear Father:
"When we arrived on the 28th ult., from Fort Whipple and the mines, found Judge Howell and Ex-Gov. Bashford comfortably located in a doby building adjoining a horse corral, (aristocratic).
“My experience in the mining districts I suppose you are anxious to learn of. So, using a sea phrase, “Here you have it.' I left Fort Whipple on the morning of Jany. 25th. My companion and ever stanch friend, Moses B. (jackass) bore upon his back some of the luxuries of these wilds, i. e., a few pounds of flour, bacon, beans, and coffee together with my mining tools, consisting of a pick, shovel, and mining pan, in all about one hundred and twenty pounds, a light load for a jack, which can easily carry from two hundred and fifty to three hundred pounds. On camping at night at Forbes, Sheldon & Smith's Ranch, (one mile from Granite Creek Diggings, and twenty-five from Fort Whipple), I was joined by my friend, Wm. Thompson, who came from the States with us as Deputy Postmaster, who joined me for a prospect in the mines.
“Daylight of the 26th found us en route by a trail for Walker's Diggings some fourteen miles distant, which place we made about five p. m., having crossed five of the highest mountains in the country, besides passing through several dangerous canyons where our eyes were pretty busy reconnoitering for Mr. Tonto Apache, who very frequently gets the 'fall' on the 'honest miner.' We stopped at the first cabin on the