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the Valley of Connecticut from the Dutch, situate on an island immediately below the who, having invaded it from their province present city of Albany. Hudson being of New Netherlands, had erected the fort supposed to have been the first European called Good Hope on the right bank of the that sailed up the Delaware, the Dutch river. Three years thereafter, the colony claimed the banks of that river also. But of New-Haven was planted by two Puritan their progress as colonists in America was Nonconformists, the Rev. John Davenport slow. Though Holland was nominally a and Theophilus Eaton, who had first re- republic, yet she did not abound in the matired to Holland on account of their reli- terials proper for making good colonists. gious principles, and then left that country The country presenting but a limited scope for Boston, in 1637. Thus, with the ex- for agriculture, the people were mostly enception of Vermont, which originated in a gaged in trade or in the arts. settlement of much later date, drawn Pursuing in the New World the same chiefly from Massachusetts and New- selfish principles which made the Dutch Hampshire, we see the foundation of all mercantile aristocracy the worst enemies the New-England States laid within twenty of their country in the Old, the New Nethyears from the arrival of the Pilgrim Fa- erlands colonists were allowed little or thers at Plymouth.
no share in the government, and accordMeanwhile, Maryland, so called in hon- ingly, notwithstanding the greatest natour of Henrietta Maria, daughter of Henry ural advantages, the progress of the colony IV. of France, and wife of Charles I., had was very slow. New Amsterdam, which, been colonized. The territory forming the in consequence of such advantages, might present state of that name, though inclu- have been expected even to outstrip the ded in the first charter of Virginia, upon mother-city, as she has since done under that being cancelled and the company be- the name of New York, remained but an ing dissolved, reverted to the king, and he, inconsiderable village. The vicinity of to gratify his feelings of personal regard, New England provoked comparisons that bestowed the absolute proprietorship of could not fail to make the Dutch colonists the whole upon Sir Charles Calvert, the discontented with their institutions. At first Lord Baltimore, and his legal heirs in length, in 1664, the English took possessuccession. Never was there a more lib-sion of all the Dutch colonies in North eral charter. The statutes of the colony America, which by that time, in addition were to be made with the concurrence of to their settlements on the Hudson, exthe colonists, thus securing to the people tended to the eastern part of New-Jersey, a legislative government of their own. Staten Island, and the western extremity Sir Charles was a Roman Catholic, but of Long Island, besides a detached settlehis colony was founded on principles of ment on the banks of the Delaware, with the fullest toleration; and though he died a population not exceeding in all ten thoubefore the charter in his favour had passed sand souls. New Netherlands was granted the great seal of the kingdom, yet all the by Charles II. to his brother the Duke of royal engagements being made good to his York, from whom the colony and its capson Cecil, who succeeded to the title and ital took the name of New York. The estates, the latter sent out a colony of voice of the people was now, for the first about two hundred persons, most of whom time, heard in its Legislature; it began were Roman Catholics, and many of them thenceforth to advance rapidly in populagentlemen, accompanied by his brother tion, and, notwithstanding occasional seaLeonard. Maryland, though subjected to sons of trial and depression, gave early many vicissitudes, proved prosperous upon promise of what it was one day to become. the whole. Though the Roman Catholics New Jersey was likewise granted to formed at first the decided majority, the the Duke of York, who, in 1664, handed it Protestants became by far the more nu- over to Lord Berkeley and Sir George merous body in the end, and, with shame Carteret, both proprietors of Carolina. be it said, enacted laws depriving the Ro- Difficulties, however, having arisen beman Catholics of all political influence in tween the colonists and the lords superior the colony, and tending to prevent their with regard to the quit-rents payable by increase.
the foriner, that province was gladly surThe first colony in the State of New- rendered by the latter, upon certain conYork was that planted by the Dutch, about ditions, to the crown, and was for some the year 1614, on the southern point, it is time attached to New-York, within twenty supposed, of the island where the city of years after all the Dutch possessions had New-York now stands. The illustrious fallen into the hands of the English. West English navigator Hudson, having been in Jersey was afterward purchased by a the employment of the Dutch at the time company of Friends, or Quakers, and a of his discovering the river that bears his few years later, in 1680, William Penn, name, Holland claimed the country bor- previous to his undertaking to plant a coldering upon it, and gradually formed set- ony on a larger scale in Pennsylvania, tlements there, the first of which was purchased East Jersey, with the view of making it an asylum for_his persecuted, Sir George Carteret. Their grand object co-religionists. Finally, East and West was gain, yet the celebrated John Locke, Jersey being united as one province un- at once a philosopher and a Christian, was der the direct control of the crown, ob- engaged to make “ Constitutions,” or a tained a Legislature of its own, and enjoyed form of government, for an empire that a gradual and steady prosperity down to was to stretch from the Atlantic to the Pa. the Revolution by which the colonies were cific. The result of the philosophical lawsevered from England.
giver's labours was such as the world had Pennsylvania, as is indicated by its never seen the like of before. The proname, was founded by the distinguished prietors were to form a close corporation; philanthropist we have just mentioned, but the territory was to be partitioned out into he was not the first to colonize it. This counties of vast extent, each of which was was done by a mixture of Swedes, Dutch, to have an Earl or Landgrave, and two Barand English, who had for years before oc- ons or Caciques, who, as lords of manors, cupied the right bank of the Delaware, both were to have judicial authority within their above the point where Philadelphia now respective estates. Tenants of ten acres stands, and many miles below. The char- were to be attached as serfs to the soil, to ter obtained by William Penn from Charles be subject to the jurisdiction of their lords II. dates from 1681. On the 27th of Octo- without appeal, and their children were to ber in the following year, the father of the continue in the same degradation forever! new colony having landed on his vast do- The possession of at least fifty acres of main in America, immediately set about land was to be required in order to the enthe framing of a constitution, and began to joyment of the elective franchise ; and of found a capital, which was destined to be- five hundred acres in order to a man's become one of the finest cities in the Western ing eligible as a member of the colonial hemisphere. The government, like that Parliament or Legislature. These “ Conestablished by the Quakers in New-Jersey, stitutions,” into the farther details of which was altogether popular. The people were we cannot enter, were attempted to be into have their own Legislature, whose acts, troduced, but were soon rejected in North however, were not to conflict with the just Carolina ; and after a few years' struggle, claims of the proprietor, and were to be were thrown aside also in South Carolina, subject to the approval of the crown alone. which had been separated from the Nora The colony soon became prosperous. The thern province. The colonists adopted for true principles of peace, principles that themselves forms of government analoform so conspicuou
nous a part of the Quaker gous to those of the other colonies ; the doctrines, distinguished every transaction proprietary company was after a while in which the Aborigines were concerned. dissolved; the Carolinas fell under the diIt is the glory of Pennsylvania that it nev- rect control of the crown, but were gover did an act of injustice to the Indians. erned by their own legislatures. Their
The territory belonging to the State of prosperity was slow, having been frequentDelaware was claimed by Penn and his ly interrupted by serious wars with the successors, as included in the domain de- native tribes, particularly the Tuscaroras, scribed in their charter, and for a time which, as it was the most powerful, was formed a part of Pennsylvania, under the for a long time also the most hostile. title of the Three Lower Counties. But Last of all the original thirteen provinthe mixed population of Swedes, Dutch, ces, in the order of time, came Georgia, and English by which it was occupied, which was settled as late as 1732, by the were never reconciled to this arrange- brave and humane Oglethorpe. The colment, and having at last obtained a gov- onists were of mixed origin, but the Engernment of its own, Delaware became a lish race predominated. Although it had separate province.
difficulties to encounter almost from the The settlement of the two Carolinas be- first, yet, notwithstanding wars with the gan with straggling emigrants from Vir- Spaniards in Florida, hostile attacks from ginia, who sought to better their fortunes the Indians, and internal divisions, Georin regions farther south, and were after-gia acquired, by degrees, a considerable ward joined by others from New-England, amount of strength. and also from Europe. At length, in 1663, Such is a brief notice of the thirteen the entire region lying between the thirty- original North American provinces, which, sixth degree of north latitude and the Riv- by the Revolution of 1775–1783, were transer St. John's in Florida, was granted to a formed into as many states. They all proprietary company in England, which touch more or less on the Atlantic, and was invested with most extraordinary pow. stretch to a greater or less distance into
The proprietors, eight in number, the interior. Virginia, Georgia, Pennsylwere Lord Ashley Cooper, better known vania, and North Carolina are the largest; as the Earl of Shaftesbury, Clarendon, Rhode Island and Delaware are the smallMonk, Lord Craven, Sir John Colleton, est. Lord John and Sir William Berkeley, and In 1803, the French colony of Louisiana,
INTERIOR COLONIZATION OF THE COUNTRY.
now the state of that name, together with the days of fine packets, or of large and the territories since comprised in the well-appointed merchant vessels, the voyStates of Arkansas and Missouri, and an ages had to be made in small and crowded almost indefinite tract lying westward of ships. The inconveniences, to say nothing these last two, was purchased by the Uni- of the sickness that attended them, were ted States for fifteen millions of dollars. but ill calculated to nerve the heart for And in 1821, the Spanish colony of Flori- coming trials ; and as the colonists apda, comprising the peninsula which used proached the coast, the boundless and solto be called East Florida, and a narrow emn forests that stretched before them, strip of land on the Gulf of Mexico, called the strangeness of every object that filled West Florida, was purchased by the same the scene, the absence of all tillage and government for five millions of dollars. cultivation, and of a village or house to Both purchases now form, of course, part give them shelter, and the uncouth and of the great North American Republic. even frightful aspect of the savage inhabi
tants, must have damped the boldest spirits. In the case of Plymouth and some
others, the settlers arrived during winter, CHAPTER V.
when all nature wore her gloomiest attire. The rudest hovels were the only abodes
that could be immediately prepared for After the short account we have given their reception, and for weeks together of the first planting of the thirteen original there might only be a few days of such provinces, by successive arrivals of colo- weather as would permit their proceeding nists from Europe, on the seacoast and with the operations required for their comthe banks of the larger streams, we pro- fort. Not only conveniences and luxuries, ceed to say something of the progress of such as the poorest in the mother-country colonization in the interior of the country. enjoyed, but even the necessaries of life,
A hundred and twenty-five years, it will were often wanting. Years had to be be observed, elapsed between the found- passed before any considerable part of the ation of the first and the last of these forest could be cleared, comfortable dwellprovinces; also, that, with the exception ings erected, and pleasant gardens plantof New-York and Delaware, which receiv- ed. Meanwhile, disease and death would ed their first European inhabitants from enter every family ; dear friends and comHolland and Sweden, they were all origi- panions in the toils and cares of the enternally English ; but that, eventually, these prise would be borne, one after another, to two were likewise included in English pat- the grave. To these causes of depression ents, and their Dutch and Swedish inhabi- there were often added the horrors of say. tants merged among the English.
age warfare, by which some of the coloAll these colonies were of slow growth, nies were repeatedly decimated, and duten, and even twenty years being required, ring which the poor settler, for weeks and in several instances, before they could be months together, could not know, on retiregarded as permanently established. That ring to rest, whether he should not be of Virginia, the earliest, was more than once awakened by the heart-quailing war-whoop on the point of being broken up. Indeed, of the savages around his house, or by findwe may well be surprised that, when the ing the house itself in flames. Ah, what colonists that survived the ravages of dis- pen can describe the horror that fell upon ease and attacks from the Indians were many a family, in almost all the colonies, still farther reduced in their number by the not once, but often, when aroused by false return of a part of them to England, the or real alarms! Who can depict the scenes remainder did not become disheartened in which a father, before he received the and abandon the country in despair. The fatal blow himself, was compelled to see Plymouth colonists lost, upon the very his wife and children fall by the tomahawk spot where they settled, half their number before his eyes, or be dragged into a capwithin six months after their arrival; and tivity worse than death? With such deterrible, indeed, must have been the sor- pressing circumstances to try the hearts rows of the dreary winter of 1620–21, as of the colonists-circumstances that can endured by those desolate yet persevering be fully understood by those only who exiles. · But they had a firm faith in God's have passed through them, or who have goodness; they looked to the future; they heard them related with the minute fidelifelt that they had a great and a glorious ty of an eyewitness — who can wonder task to accomplish, and that, although they that the colonists advanced but slowly? themselves might perish in attempting it, Still, as I have said, they gradually gainyet their children would enjoy the prom- ed strength. At the Revolution in England ised land.
of 1688, that is, eighty-one years after the Stout hearts were required for such en- first settlement of Virginia, and sixty-eight terprises. Few of the colonists were after that of Plymouth, the population of wealthy persons, and as those were not the colonies, then twelve in number, was estimated at about two hundred thousand, provinces that reach thus far, and their which might be distributed thus : Massa- whole population was confined to the strip chusetts, including Plymouth and Maine, of land interposed between those mountmay have had forty-four thousand ; New- ains and the Atlantic Ocean.
It is true, Hampshire and Rhode Island, including that immcdiately after the treaty of Paris, Providence, six thousand each; Connecti- in 1763, by which England acquired the cut, from seventeen to twenty thousand; Canadas and the Valley of the Mississippimaking up seventy-five thousand for all excepting Louisiana, which remained with New-England : New-York, not less than France, or, rather, was temporarily ceded twenty thousand; New-Jersey, ten thou- to Spain-a few adventurers began to pass sand ; Pennsylvania and Delaware, twelve beyond the mountains, and this emigration thousand ; Maryland, twenty-five thou- westward continued during the war of the sand; Virginia, fifty thousand ; and the Revolution. But when peace came, in two Carolinas, which then included Geor- 1783, I much doubt if there were twengia, probably not fewer than eight thou- ty thousand Anglo-Americans in Westsand souls,
ern Pennsylvania, Western Virginia, KenAfter having confined their settlements tucky, and Tennessee. These were but the for many years within a short distance, advanced posts of the immense host about comparatively speaking, from the coast, to follow, and, for many years after the the colonists began to penetrate the inland peace, the colonization of the interior was forests, and to settle at different points in slower than might be supposed. The popthe interior of the country, in proportion ulation of the thirteen provinces at the as they considered themselves strong commencement of the Revolution is not enough to occupy them safely. Where positively known, but it certainly did not hostility on the part of the Aborigines was exceed three millions and a half, slaves indreaded, these settlers kept together as cluded. No doubt the population of the much as possible, and established them- seaboard increased with considerable raselves in villages. This was particularly pidity, and Vermont was not long in bethe case in New-England, where, from the ing added to the original thirteen states, soil being less favourable to agriculture, making fourteen in all upon the Atlancolonization naturally assumed the com- tic slope. They amount now to fifteen, pact form required for the pursuits of trade Maine, which was long a sort of province and the useful arts, as well as for mutual to Massachusetts, having become a sepassistance when exposed to attack. As arate state in 1820. After the establishthe New-England colonists had all along ment of Independence, danger from the devoted themselves much to the fisheries Aborigines ceased to be apprehended and other branches of commerce, their set-throughout the whole country situated betlements were for a long time to be found tween the Alleghany Mountains and the chiefly on the coast, and at points affording Atlantic Ocean. The remains of the nuconvenient harbours. But it was much merous tribes, its former inhabitants, had, otherwise in the South. In Virginia, in with some exceptions in New-England, particular, the colonists were induced to New-York, and the Carolinas, retired to settle along the banks of rivers to very the West, and there they either existed considerable distances, their main occu- apart, or had become merged in other and pation being the planting of tobacco and kindred tribes. trading to some extent with the Indians. But it was far otherwise in the great reIn the Carolinas, again, most hands being gion to the west of the Appalachian range. employed in the manufacture of tar, tur- There, many of the Indian tribes occupied pentine, and rosin, or in the cultivation of the country in all their pristine force, and rice, indigo, and, eventually, of cotton, the were the more to be dreaded by settlers colonial settlements took a considerable from the Eastern States, inasmuch as range whenever there was peace with the they were supposed to be greatly under Indians in their vicinity. Where there the influence of the British government in was little or no commerce, and agricultu- Canada, and as unkindly feelings long subral pursuits of different kinds were the chief sisted between the Americans and their occupation of the people, there could be English neighbours, each charging the othfew towns of much importance; and so er, probably not without justice, with excimuch does this hold at the present day, ting the Indians, by means of their respectthat there is not a city of twenty-five ive agents and hunters, to commit acts of thousand inhabitants in all the five South- violence. Excepting in some parts of ern Atlantic States, with the exception of Western Pennsylvania and Eastern TenBaltimore, in Maryland, and Charleston, in nessee, there was little security for AmerSouth Carolina.
ican settlers in the West from 1783 until Even at the commencement of the war 1795. The first emigrants to Ohio suffered of the Revolution, in 1775, the colonies greatly from the Indians; two armies sent had scarcely penetrated to the Alleghany against them, in the western part of that or Appalachian Mountains in any of the state, under Generals Harmer and St. Clair,
were defeated and shockingly cut to pie- was laborious and tedious beyond concepces; and not until they had received a tion. dreadful defeat from General Wayne, on Far different are the circumstances of the River Miami-of-the-lake,* was there those colonists now! The mountains, at anything like permanent peace established. various points, are traversed by substanBut, as a prelude to the war between the tial highways; and, still farther to augUnited States and Great Britain, which ment the facilities for intercourse with the commenced in 1812 and ended in 1815, the vast Western Valley, canals and railroads Indian tribes again became troublesome, are in progress. It is accessible, also, from particularly in Indiana and in the southeast- the south, by vessels from the Gulf of ern part of the Valley of the Mississippi, Mexico, as well as from the north by the forming now the State of Alabama. The lakes, on whose waters from fifty to a hunCreeks, a powerful tribe of the Muskho- dred steamboats now pursue their foaming gee race, then occupied that country, and way.* As for the navigable streams of the it was not until defeated in many battles Valley itself, besides boats of all kinds of and skirmishes that they were reduced ordinary construction, nearly, if not quite, to peace. In point of fact, perfect secu- four hundred steamboats ply upon their rity from Indian hostilities has prevailed waters. And now, instead of being a throughout the West only since 1815 ; boundless forest uninhabited by civilized since that there have been the insignifi- men, as it was sixty years ago, the West cant war with Black Hawk, a Sioux chief, contains no fewer than eleven regularwhich took place a few years ago, and the ly-constituted states, and two territories still more recent war with the Seminoles which will soon be admitted as states into in Florida-exceptions not worth special the Union, the population having, meannotice, as they in nowise affected the coun- while, advanced from ten or twenty thoutry at large.
sand Anglo-American inhabitants to above It is now (1844) about sixty years since six millions. the tide of emigration from the Atlantic Generally speaking, the various sections States set fairly into the Valley of the of the Valley of the Mississippi may be said Mississippi, and though no great influx to have been colonized from the parts of took place in any one year during the first the Atlantic coast which correspond with thirty-five of that period, it has wonder- them as nearly as possible in point of latifully increased during the last twenty-five. tude. This is easily accounted for: emiWhen this emigration westward first com- grants from the East to the West naturally menced, all the necessaries that the emi- wish to keep as much as they can within grants required to take with them from the the climate which birth and early life have East had to be carried on horseback, no roads for wheeled carriages having been the Mississippi, Ohio, or any other river in that reopened through the mountains. On arri- gion, when the water is very high. It is this : inving at the last ridge overlooking the boat is made to go along close to one of the banks,
stead of keeping in the middle of the stream, the plains to the west, a boundless forest lay and the men who guide it, by catching hold of the stretched out before those pioneers of civ- boughs of the trees which overhang the water, are alization, like an ocean of living green. enabled to drag the boat along; It is an expedient Into the depths of that forest they had to resorted to more by way of change than anything
else. Sometimes it is possible, at certain stages of plunge. Often long years of toil and suf- the rivers, to go along for miles in this way. Even fering rolled away before they could es- to this day the greater portion of the banks of the tablish themselves in comfortable abodes.rivers of the West are covered with almost uninterThe climate and the diseases peculiar to rupted forests. the different localities were unknown.
* There are more than sixty on Lake Erie alone.
† It may be worth while to give the names of Hence, fevers of a stubborn type cut many these states and territories, their extent in English of them off. They were but partially ac- square miles, and their population according to the quainted with the mighty rivers of that census of 1840. They are as follows: vast region, beyond knowing that their common outlet was in the possession of
Sq. miles. Pop. in 1840.
Ohio foreigners, who imposed vexatious reg
40,260 1,519,467 Indiana
36,500 685,868 ulations upon their infant trade. The
59,700 212,267 navigation of those rivers could be car- Illinois
57,900 476,183 ried on only in flat-bottomed boats, keels, Kentucky
40,500 779,828 and barges. To descend them was not
40,200 829,210 Missouri
63,800 383,702 unattended with danger, but to ascend by
60,700 97,574 means of sweeps and oars, by poling, Alabama
52,900 590,756 warping, bush-whacking, and so forth, Mississippi
47,680 375,651 Louisiana
49,300 352,411 * Or the River Miami which flows into Lake
TERRITORIES. Erie, and so called to distinguish it from the Miami that falls into the Ohio.
30,945 + The word bush-whacking is of Western origin,
43,112 and signifies a peculiar mode of propelling a boat up