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...23 arrobas 19 arrobas 20 libras

One thousand dollars in reales (coin) for any unexpected emergency. Besides 32 arrobas of Panocha, (domestic Sugars) 20 for the two Missions of San Diego and Monterey, one half to each, and the remaining 12 arrobas for the gratification of the Indians, and to barter with them.

16 sacks of Charcoal

1 box of Tallow Candles of 4 arrobas

1 pair of 16 lb Scales

2 lbs of Lamp Wick

The original of this simple and homely document, but which enables us to realize so clearly these obscure transactions yet so full of interest for us, was given unquestionably to Galvez, and this copy we may presume brought to California on this first voyage of the San Carlos to serve as her manifest. It is dated the 5th January 1769. Of the same date we have the instructions of Galvez to Villa and Fages, addressed to each of them separately, that is, the original is given to Villa under the signature of Galvez and a copy to Fages. They are long and minute. The first article declares that the first object of the expedition is to establish the" Catholic Religion among a nu"merous heathen people submerged in the obscure darkness of "paganism-to extend the dominion of the King our Lord "and to protect this peninsula from the ambitious views of "foreign nations." He also recites that this project had been entertained since 1606 when it was ordered to be executed by Philip III-referring to orders which were issued by that monarch in consequence of the report made by Vizcayno, but which were never carried into effect. He enjoins that no labor or fatigue be spared now for the accomplishment of such just and holy ends. San Diego he says, will be found in latitude 33 degrees, as set forth in the Royal cedula of 1606—(one hundred and sixty-three years before,)—and that it cannot fail to be recognized from the land-marks mentioned by Vizcayno. At the conclusion in his own hand-writing we have the following:

"NOTE: That to the Fort or Presidio that may be constructed "and to the Pueblo (village) of the Mission which may be es"tablished at Monterey, there shall be given the glorious name of San Carlos de Monterey.-JOSEPH DE GALVEZ."(with his rubric)"


When the San Antonio sailed she seems to have carried a letter from Galvez to Pedro Fages who had gone in advance on the San Carlos, for we have it now in the archives. It is dated cape San Lucas, Feb. 14, 1769. The body of the letter is in substance: That the San Antonio arrived at the bay (San Lucas) on the twenty fifth of last month (January); that she was discharged and cleared of barnacles; that he examined the vessel with his own eyes, and found the keel thereof as sound as when it was placed in the vessel; that the necessary repairs had been made, and her cargo again placed on board, and that to-morrow, if the weather permit, she will sail, and that he trusts in Providence she will come safely into Monterey and find him (Fages) already in possession of the country.

So far it is in the hand-writing of a clerk. He then adds a postscript with his own hand, addressed as well to Father Parron and the Engineer Constanzo as to Fages. I read it for it is pleasant to have, as it were, a personal acquaintance with the eminent personage who directed the foundation of Upper California; and to find him a gentleman of such manifest abilities, generous temper and enthusiasm.

"MY FRIENDS:-It appears that the Lord, to my confusion, desires infinitely to reward the only virtue I possess, which is my constant faith, for everything here goes on prosperously, even to the mines abounding in metals. Many people are collecting with abundance of provisions.

I hope you will sing the Te Deum in Monterey, and in order that we may repeat it here, you will not withhold the notice of the same an instant longer than is necessary.

This is also for the Reverend Father Parron.


Just as active was he in getting off the land expedition. The chief command was given to Don Gaspar de Portalá, Cap tain of Dragoons, and then Governor of Lower Californiathe second rank to Don Fernando Rivera y Moncada, Captain of a company of foot soldiers who carried leathern bucklers. And in imitation of Jacob, Galvez, in view of the dangers of the route through savages and an unknown country, divided the force into two parts-to save one if the other was lost.

Rivera was to lead the first and the Governor to follow after. Rivera sets out towards the north as early as September, 1768, collecting mules and muleteers, horses, dried meat, grain, flour, biscuits, etc., among the Missions; encamps on the verge of the unexplored regions, and sends word to the Visitor General that he will be ready to start for San Diego in all of March. Father Juan Crespi there joins him, and on the 24th day of March, which was Good-Friday, he begins the journey. This party consisted of the Captain Rivera, Father Crespi, a Pilot who went to keep a diary, twenty-five foot soldiers with leathern bucklers, three muleteers, and a band of Christian Indians of Lower California, to serve as pioneers, assistants to the muleteers, and for anything else that might be necessary, and who carried bows and arrows. They spent fifty-two days in the journey, and on the 14th day of May arrived, without accident, at San Diego. Father Junipero Serra, President of the Missions of Lower California, and of those that were to be founded, marched with Portalá. The season of Lent, the dispositions to be made for the regulation of the Missions during his absence, and the preparations for the expedition in its spiritual part, detained him, so that it was May before he joined Portalá at the same encampment from which Rivera had set out. The Reverend Father President came up in very bad condition. He was traveling with an escort of two soldiers, and hardly able to get on or off his mule. His foot and leg were greatly inflamed, and the more that he always wore sandals, and never used boots, shoes, or stockings. His priests and the Governor tried to dissuade him from the undertaking, but he said he would rather die on the road, yet he had faith that the Lord would carry him safely through. A letter was even sent to Galvez, but he was a kindred spirit, and agreed with Father Junipero, who, however, was far into the wilderness before the answer was received. On the second day out, his pain was so great that he could neither sit nor stand, nor sleep, and Portalá, being still unable to induce him to return, gave orders for a litter to be made. Hearing this, Father Junipero was greatly distressed on the score of the Indians, who would have to carry him. He prayed fervently, and then a happy thought occurred




to him. He called one of the muleteers and addressed him, so runs the story, in these words: "Son, don't you know some remedy for the sore on my foot and leg? But the muleteer answered: "Father, what remedy can I know? Am I a sur"geon? I am a muleteer, and have only cured the sore backs "of beasts." "Then consider me a beast," said the Father, "and this sore which has produced this swelling of my legs, "and the grievous pains I am suffering, and that neither let me stand nor sleep, to be a sore back, and give me the same treatment you would apply to a beast." The muleteer, smiling, as did all the rest who heard him, answered, "I will Father, to please you ;" and taking a small piece of tallow, mashed it between two stones, mixing with it herbs, which he found growing close by, and having heated it over the fire, anointed the foot and leg, leaving a plaster of it on the sore. God wrought in such a manner-for so wrote father Junipero himself from San Diego-that he slept all that night until daybreak, and awoke so much relieved from his pains that he got up and said Matins and Prime, and afterwards Mass, as if he had never suffered such an accident; and to the astonishment of the Governor and the troop at seeing the Father in such health and spirits for the journey, which was not delayed a moment on his account. Such a man was Father Junipero Serra, and so he journeyed when he went to conquer California. On the first of July, 1769, they reached San Diego, all well, in forty-six days after leaving the frontier. When they came in sight of the port the troops began firing for joy; those already there replied in the same manner; the vessels at anchor joined in the salute, and so they kept up the firing, until all having arrived they fell to embracing one another, and to mutual congratulations at finding all the expeditions united, and already at their longed for destination. Here, then, we have the officers and priests, soldiers and sailors, and laborers, mules, oxen and cows, seeds, tools, implements of husbandry, and vases, ornaments, and utensils for the Church, gotten together to begin the work of settlement, conversion, and civilization on the soil of California. The first day of July, ninety-one years ago, is the first day of California. The

year 1769 is our era. The obscure events that I have noticed, must yet by us be classed among its greatest occurrences, although it saw the birth of Napoleon and Wellington.

The number of souls then at San Diego should have been about two hundred and fifty, but the San Carlos had had a very hard time at sea, not reaching San Diego, which place she found with difficulty, until twenty days after the arrival of the San Antonio which sailed five weeks later. She had, of the crew, but one sailor and the cook left alive; all the rest had died of scurvy. The first thing to be done was to found a Mission and to look for Monterey, which from Vizcayno's time had been lost to the world. For founding a Mission this was the proceeding:

Formal possession of the designated spot was taken in the name of Spain; a tent, or arbor, or whatever construction was most practicable, was erected to serve as a temporary church, and adorned as well as circumstances would permit ; a Father in his robes blessed the place and the chapel, sprinkling them with water which also he had first blessed for the occasion, and immediately the Holy Cross, having first been adored by all, was mounted on a staff and planted in front of the chapel; a saint was named as a patron of the Mission, and a Father appointed as its minister; mass was said and a fervent discourse concerning the coming of the Holy Ghost delivered. That service, celebrated with such candles or other lights as they might have, being over, the Veni Creator Spiritus-an invocation to the Holy Ghost-was sung, whilst the continual firing of the soldiers during the ceremony supplied the place of an organ, and the smoke of the gunpowder that of incense if it was wanting.

The Mission being founded, the next thing was to attract the Indians. This was done in the simplest manner by presents of food and cloth to the older ones, and bits of sugar to the young ones. When they had learned enough of their language to communicate with them, they taught them the mysteries of the faith, and when they were able to say a few prayers and make in some sort a confession of faith, they were baptised and received into the fold of the Church. At the same time

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