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of Montpelier, and 20 m. SE of Burlington. Its prov. of Para, on the l. bank of the Tocantins, 26 height is 4,188 ft. above sea-level.

leagues SE of Belem. Pop. of the com. 20,000; of CAMEL-WEST, a parish of Somerset, 34 m. the town 2,500. The district and adjacent region is ENE of Ichester, on the Yeo. Area 2,100 acres. chiefly devoted to the cultivation of cacao. Pop. in 1841, 344.

CAMETOURS, a commune of France, in the der. CAMEN, or KANEN, a town of Prussia, in West of the Manche, cant. of Cerisy-la-Salle, 8 m. E of phalia, regency of Arnsberg, circle and 9'm. SW of Coutances. Pop. 1,264. Hamm, on the Sesike.

CAMIGLIANO, a parish and village 10 m. NE CAMENITZA, a town of Turkey in Europe, in of Lucca. Pop. 1,108. It contains a fine villa beAlbania, in the pash. and 25 m. SW of Ochrida, on longing to the marquis of Torrigiani. the W side of Lake Malik.

CAMIGUAN, an island of the Asiatic archipelago, CAMENO, a town of Spain, in Old Castile, prov. in the Babuyane group, to the N of the island of and 23 m. NE of Burgos, and 2 m. E of Briviesca, Luzon, in N lat. 19°, and E long. 121° 50'. It is near the r. bank of the Oca.

about 10 m. in length, and 4 in average breadth, CAMENS, CAMENZ, or CAMNETZ, a town of and is generally hilly. It possesses a considerable Prussia, in Silesia, regency and

45 m. SSW of Bres- trade in gold, wax, cocoa-nuts, and cassia. lan, circle and 7 m. SE of Frankenstein, on the CAMILLUS, a township of Onondaga co., in the Neisse river.

state of New York, U. S., 7 m. W of Syracuse, and CAMERA DE LOBOS, a village in the island of 139 m. WNW of Albany. It possesses a hilly surMadeira, 5 m. W of Funchal, interesting as the spot face, drained by Nine Mile creek, and is intersected where the Portuguese first landed in 1420. The by the Erie canal. The soil consists of calcareous sides of the adjacent mountains are covered with loam. Pop. in 1840, 3,957. quistas and vineyards. To the W, Cape Giram, a CAMILPAND, a town of Hindostan, in the magnificent headland, rises to an alt. of 2,185 ft. Northern Circars district, and 45 m. SE of Guntoor.

CAMERE, or CAMERI, a town of Piedmont, in CAMINHA, a town of Portugal, in the prov. of the prov. and 4 m. NNE of Novara, between the Minho, comarca and 20 m. SW of Valenca, and 30 Teasino and Terdoppio. Pop. 3,000. It contains m. NW of Braga, near the embouchure of the Minho, several churches, and possesses some manufactories and at the confluence of the Couro with that river. of linen and damask.

Pop. 2,000. It has a port defended by a strong fort, CAMERINGHAM, a parish of Lincolnshire, 7 and contains 2 churches, 3 convents, and several m. NNW of Lincoln, near the post-road. Area hospitals and alms-houses. There are several salt4,450. Pop. in 1841, 139.

works in the vicinity. CAMERINO, a delegation, district, and town of CAMINA, a town of Peru, in the prov. of Arethe States-of-the-Church. The delegation, compris- quipa, 60 m. NNE of Tarapaca, on a small river, 30 ing a superficies of 811,847 sq. tavole, is situated on m. above its entrance into the Pacific. The pop. is the eastern side of the Appenines, by which it is sepa- chiefly Indian. Wheat, Indian corn, potatoes, and rated on the S and SW from the del. of Spoleto and other vegetables, are cultivated in the environs. Perouse. Pop. in 1833, 36,592. It is watered by the CAMINO (MIERES DEL), a town of Spain, in Tenna, Chiente, Potenza, and several other rivers; and Asturias, in the prov. and 8 m. SSE of Oviedo, near is generally fertile and salubrious. The town is situ- the r. bank of the Caudal. ated on a hill, 90 m. NNE of Rome, and 43 m. SSW CAMIRA, an island of the North Pacific, in N of Ancona. It is the seat of the archbishopric of lat. 21° 30', and E long. 160°. Camerino - e - Treja, and contains a fine cathedral CAMIRO, a town of the island of Rhodes, situadorned with several works of the old masters, an ated on the E coast, on the side of Malona bay, archiepiscopal palace, a university, and numerous 20 m. SSW of Rhodes. Considerable ruins of the monasteries and convents. It possesses several silk ancient town of Camirus still exist in the locality. manofactories, and tanneries, and two annual fairs. CAMISANO, a town of Venetian Lombardy, in -Also a river of Sicily, in the prov. of Syracuse, the gov. of Milan, delegation of Lodi and Crema, 3 dist. of Modica, which takes its rise near Mortello, m. NW of Crema. Pop. 2,500. It contains a masrans W, then S, and falls into the Mediterranean, 2 sive tower of great antiquity, and a castle of Gothic m. SE of Scoglietti, after a sinuous course of about architecture. Also a town in the del. and 8 m. ESE

of Vicenza. Pop. 4,000. CAMERON, a parish and village in the St. An- CAMLAPUR, a town of Hindostan, in the prov. drews district of Fife. Area of p., 7,300 Scotch acres, of Bijapur, near the l. bank of the Tungabudra, 3 of which nearly 4.700 are under tillage. The v. is m. SW of Anagundy. It is supposed to occupy the about 4 m. SW of St. Andrews. Pop. in 1801, 1,095; site of the ancient city of Bijanagur, the ruins of in 1831, 1,207; in 1841, 1,167.

which still exist in the locality. About 2 m. to the CAMERON, a township of Stenben co., in the S is a fortified pass which formed the barrier of B. state of New York, U. S., 7 m. S of Bath. It pos- In the vicinity are a mud fort, with a ditch and sesses a hilly surface, and is watered by Canieteo glacis, now falling into decay, and two magnificent river. The soil, consisting of calcareous loam and Hindu temples. clay, is generally fertile. Pop. in 1840, 1,359.

CAMLEZ, a commune of France, in the dep. of CAMEROON. See CAMAROON.

Cotes-de-Nord, cant. of Treguier. Pop. 1,108. CAMEROTA, a town of Naples, cap. of a circon- CAMLIN, a river of co. Longford, rising in two daria, in the prov. of Principato Citra, dist. and 15 head-streams on the skirts of the Clonhugh mounm. SSE of n Vallo, on a small stream about 4 m. tains, which flow to a confluence in a small lake, 14 from the coast of the Mediterranean.

m. m. NNE of St. Johnstown. The united stream, CAMERTON, a parish of Somerset, 6} m. SW of issuing from the lake, flows 8 m. SW to Longford, Path, intersected by the Somerset coal canal. Area and 34 m. W by N to the Shannon at Richmond 2,020 acres. Pop. in 1841, 1,647.

harbour. CAMES FORT, a fort of Peru, in the prov. and CAMLIN, or Crumlin, a parish 1} m. N of 40 m. E of Jauja, or Xauxa, on an affluent of the Glenavy, in co. Antrim. Area 6,417 acres. Pop. Mantaro, 80 m. WNW of the junction of the latter 2,157.–Also a rivulet of co. Antrim, rising on the with the Apurimac.

W side of Devis mountain, and flowing about 7 or 8 CAMETA', a comarca and town of Brazil, in the m. W to the E side of Lough Neagh.

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CAMLOUGH, a lake and rivulet of co. Armagh. try. This valley is one of the principal routes of The lake lies near the N base of Slievegullion, 31 communication between Italy and Tyrol. Its anm. W of Newry. The rivulet issues from the lake, cient inhabitants were named Camuni. and has a course of 4 m. NE to the Newry canal. CAMORA, a town of Portugal, in the prov. of

CAMMA, a parish 8 m. NNW of the town of Estremadura, comarca of Setuval, on the l. bank of Athlone, co. Roscommon. Area 12,403 acres. Pop. the Tagus, at the confluence of the Almansor, 20 m. 3,830.

NE of Lisbon. CAMMA, a district of Lower Guinea, to the NNW CAMORAN, or CAMARAN, an island in the Red of Loango. It stretches along the coast of the At- sea, opposite Massena on the Abyssinian coast, 200 lantic; and is watered by a small river of the same m. from Mocha, and 835 m. from Bombay. It is 11 name, at the mouth of which is the port of St. Ca- m. in length, and from 2 m. to 4 m. broad; and pretherine. It produces little of commercial import- sents an excellent harbour, with a narrow entrance

but safe anchorage, near its SE extremity. Its pop. CAMMARATA, a town of Sicily, cap. of a cir- is from 100 to 200, chiefly fishermen, who find emcondario, in the prov. and 27 m. NNE of Girgenti, ployment on the pearl-banks and turtle-islands in dist. and 12 m. È of Bivona. Pop. 5,133. Jasper its neighbourhood. and agate are found in the environs.

CAMORIN, or JACARE'PAGUA', a lake of Brazil, in CAMMERSWALDAU, or KUMMERSWALD, a vil- the prov. of Rio Janeiro, 12 m. SW of that eity. It lage of Prussia, in Silesia, regency of Liegnitz, circle is a brackish mere, surrounded by thickets of manand 7 m. S of Shönau. Pop. 1,157. It possesses groves and marsh-plants; and discharges its waters manufactories of linen, and bleacheries.--In the vi- | into the sea by a small stream. cinity is the great cavern of Kuzelloch.

CAMORS, à commune of France, in the dep. of CĂMMERTON, a parish and township of Cum- Morbihan, cant. of Pluvigner, 20 m. ENE of Lorient, berland, 3 m. ENE of Workington, on the Derwent, Pop. 1,832. near St. George's channel. Area 2,880 acres. Pop. ČAMORTA, or NICAVARI, an island in the bay in 1841, 941, of township, 154.

of Bengal, in the Nicobar group, in N lat. 8° 7', É CAMMIN, or CAMERON, a rivulet of co. Tyrone, long. 93° 45'. It is about 32 m. in length, and 6 m. which rises close on the mountain water-shed be- in breadth, and rises to a considerable height. It is tween Tyrone and Fermanagh, 54 m. W of Clogher; covered with thick forests, and has a good harbour, flows 11 m. N to Omagh; and then runs 1 m. NW enclosed on the S and SE by the island of Nonto a confluence with the Poe, and the formation of cowery. A settlement was formed on this island at the Strule river.

an early period by the Danes; and in 1778 an atCAMMINITZ, a village of Prussia, in Silesia, re-tempt at its colonization was made by the Austrians. gency of Oppeln, circle and 16 m. ESE of Lublinitz. In 1785 the former removed to Noncowery. Pop. 293. It possesses some iron-works.

CAMORUPIM, a lake of Brazil, in the prov. of ČAMOCHEIRO, a town of New Granada, in As- Ceará, at the foot of the Serra Hibiappaba. "It supsuay, on the S bank of the Amazon, 60 m. WNW plies a small canal communicating with the sea. of 'Tabatinga.

CAMOSACK, or CAMMUSAN, a port in the Send CAMOGHE, a mountain of Switzerland, in the of Vancouver's island, near which the Hudson's Bay cant. of Tessin, at the head of the Val d'Agno, on company have their principal station on the island, the confines of Venetian Lombardy, 11 m. ESE of called Fort Victoria. As a barbour, it is said to be Bellinzona. Alt. 9,288 ft. above sea level. It rises safe and accessible, and well calculated to become a dein a pyramidal form above all the surrounding sum-sirable port-of-refuge and refreshment for vessels fremits, commanding a magnificent view of the adja- quenting those seas. There is abundance of valnable cent Alps and into Lombardy. Several of the oak and pine timber; and the tide rushes through a narsmaller affluents of the lakes Maggiore and Como row channel communicating with the harbour with a take their rise in this mountain.

degree of force capable of driving powerful machinery. CAMOGLI, a village and port in the prov. of Ge- Unlike other parts of the coast, there is in the neighnoa, in the vicinity of the town and on the gulf of bourhood a range of plains nearly 6 m. square, conthat name.

taining a great extent of valuable tillage and pasCAMOLALO, a town of Mexico, in the province ture land, equally well adapted for the plough or of Sonora, 70 m. SSE of Sinaloa, and 60 m. W of for feeding stock. The soil of the best land is a Culiacan.

dark vegetable-mould about 12 inches in depth, overCAMOLIN, a small post-town in the parish of laying a substratum of greyish clayey loam, and proTomb, co. Wexford, on the river Bann, 51 m. SW ducing abundance of grass and several luxuriant vaof Gorey. Pop. in 1831, 639; in 1841, 561.

rieties of red clover. The climate is mild, pleasant, CAMOL POINT, a headland of Nubia, on the and salubrious, and apparently such as to favour the Red sea, in N lat. 22° 48'.

growth of every kind of grain raised in England, the CAMON, a commune of France, in the dep. of results of the farming at the Hudson's Bay comthe Somme, cant. of Amiens. Pop. 1,409.

pany's station, Fort Victoria, having hitherto realised CAMONDES, a village of Spain, in Galicia, in the most sanguine expectations. In Upper Califorthe prov. and 20 m. ESE of Vigo, near Puente nia the fogs occasionally blight and deteriorate the Areas. It has some mineral springs.

crops near the sea-coast, but at Vancouver's island CAMONICA (VAL), a district of Venetian Lom- no destructive local influences have yet been ascerbardy, in the gov. of Milan, prov. of Bergamo, stretch- tained. Potatoes flourish and grow to a large size, ing SSW to Lake Iseo, between two branches of the and the Indians have many fields in cultivation. Rhætian Alps, and forming the upper basin of the Fish, especially salmon and sturgeon, and venison, Oglio. Its length is about 40 m., and the number abound, and domestic cattle also thrive. The port of its inhabitants is estimated at 50,000. It is gene- of C. is nearer the fishing-grounds than either Calirally well-cultivated; and produces wheat, maize, fornia or the Sandwich islands, and it is therefore rye, barley, chestnuts, wine, and timber. It contains calculated that an advantageous business might be iron in great abundance; and affords also copper, carried on by supplying whale-ships with clothing, lead, pyrites, vitriol, &c., marble of different colours, stores, and refreshments. Fort Victoria is a square lime, gypsum, and slate. The rearing of cattle and enclosure of 100 yards surrounded by pickets 20 ft. silk-worms forms an important branch of local indus- in height, and having two octagonal bastions cach

containing 6 guns. The buildings are of squared | another. The Teverone deposits a fresh-water limetimber, and form 3 sides of an oblong.

stone on its banks at this day, called travertine; and CAMOTES, a group of islets in the Philippine thin beds of the same limestone, sometimes in the archipelago, near the W coast of the island of Leyti. form of a spongy tufa, are found intermixed with the

CAMOU-SOULE, a commune of France, in the upper strata of the granular tufa. At several points dep. of the Basses-Pyrenees, cant. of Tardets, 9 m. in the C. sulphurous springs exist; and at others S of Mauleon. Pop. 363. Salt is wrought in the beds of basalt are found, showing that the submarine environs.

craters threw out coulées of lava as well as fragmenCAMOURASKA. See KAMOURASKA.

tary matter. The C. shows little wood, little cultiCAMP HARBOUR, a bay of the Arctic ocean, vated land, and few habitations, and has everywhere on the N coast of Siberia, to the Sof Cape Daruigin, a desolate aspect. In the midst of this great plain, in N lat. 72° 30', E long. 140°.

the Alban mountains, 16 m. long, rise up, offering to CAMPAGNA, a town of Naples, cap. of a dist. of the eye, as well as the intellect, the perfect image of the same name, in the prov. of Principato Citra, in an island in the ocean, which they probably were at a mountainous locality, 20 m. E of Salerno and 50 a remote epoch. They contain two extinct craters, m. ESE of Naples. Pop. 8,192. It is the seat of a which now form the lakes of Albano and Nemi.” bishopric; and contains a fine cathedral, 3 parish [Maclaren.] The soil of the C. is generally dry; churches, several convents, a college, an hospital, but in its shallow valleys, and wherever there is &c. An annual fair is held in this town, but its moisture, the vegetation is luxuriant. There is little trade is unimportant. The district comprises 9 can- large timber upon the C. A few ilexes and pines tons.

only are seen here and there upon knolls, but underCAMPAGNA, a town of Venetian Lombardy, in wood is thickly scattered through the hollows. Mr. the gov. of Venice, prov. and 12 m. ESE of Padua, Dickens has described the scenery of the C. in his on the Brenta canal.

usual graphic style: “One day we walked out, a litCAMPAGNAC, a canton and commune of France, tle party of three, to Albano, 14 m. distant; posin the dep. of Aveyron, arrond. of Millau. The cant. sessed by a great desire to go there by the ancient comprises 3 com., and in 1831 contained a pop. of Appian way, long since ruined and overgrown. We 5,546. The town is 27 m. N of Millau. Pop. 11,267. started at half-past seven in the morning, and within

CAMPAGNAC-LES-QUERCY, a commune of an hour or so, were out upon the open C. For 12 France, in the dep. of Dordogne, cant. of Ville- m. we went climbing on, over an unbroken succesfranche-de-Belves, and 15 m. S of Sarlat. Pop. 1,166. sion of mounds, and heaps, and hills, of ruin. Tombs

CAMPA'GNA-DI-ROʻMA, the most southern and temples, overthrown and prostrate; small fragterritory of the States-of-the-Church, comprehending ments of columns, friezes, pediments; great blocks

the greater part of ancient Latium. It is bounded of granite and marble; mouldering arches, grass? on the N by the Teverone, dividing it from Sabina; grown and decayed; ruins enough to build a spacious

on the E and SE by an offset of the Apennines, run- city from lay strewn about us. Sometimes, loose walls, ning parallel to the main chain, and dividing it from built up from these fragments by the shepherds, Abruzzo Ultra, and Lavoro, in Naples; on the SW came across our path; sometimes a ditch between by the Mediterranean; on the NW it may be regarded two mounds of broken stones, obstructed our proas extending to 3 or 4 m. beyond Civita Vecchia, gress; sometimes the fragments themselves, rolling which is 36 m. NW of Rome. Its extreme length from beneath our feet, made it a toilsome matter to from Civita Vecchia to Terracina is 85 m. It is advance; but it was always ruin. Now, we tracked about 30 m. broad from the Apennines to the sea. a piece of the old road, above the ground; now By some geographers the Tiber is taken as the traced it, underneath a grassy covering, as if that boundary on the NW; which will limit its extent were its grave; but all the way was ruin. In the along the coast to 62 m. As its name denotes, much distance, ruined aqueducts went stalking on their of the C. is a flat and level district, interspersed giant course along the plain; and every breath of with but few elevations; but it is divided into two wind that swept towards us stirred early flowers and regions, -a highland and a lowland district. The grasses, springing up, spontaneously, on miles of highland district embraces the Apennine territory, ruin. The unseen larks above us, who alone disthe Monti Lepini which divide the valley of Sacco turbed the awful silence, had their nests in ruins; from the Pontine marshes, and the Alban or Tuscu- and the fierce herdsmen, clad in sheepskins, who lan ridge. The lowlands consist of what is called now and then scowled out upon us from their sleepl'Agro Romano, or the territory of the city of Rome, ing nooks, were housed in ruin. The aspect of the and the Pontine marshes. The whole district, in its desolate Campagna, in one direction, where it was widest admeasurement, is “obviously a portion of most level, reminded me of an American prairie ; the bottom of the ancient sea laid dry by an up- but what the solitude of a region where men have heaval; and cut and furrowed while in process of never dwelt to that of a desert where a mighty race rising, by currents of the ocean, and by rivers which have left their foot-prints in the earth from which probably changed their beds, from time to time, in they have vanished; where the resting-places of their consequence of oscillatory movements during the dead have fallen like their dead; and the broken upheaval. The soil consists everywhere of volcanic hour-glass of time is but a heap of idle dust! Rematter, sand, ashes, scoriæ, fragments of lava, or turning, by the road, at sunset, and looking, from pumice; which must have been ejected from numer- the distance, on the course we had taken in the cus submarine craters; then spread out and arranged morning, I almost felt (as I had felt when I first saw in strata by the sea; and finally united into a tufa it that hour), as if the sun would never rise again, of greater or less tenacity by simple pressure, or by but looked its last, that night, upon a ruined world.” calcareous or ferruginous infiltrations. The change, [Pictures from Italy.] The elevations of the C., to --though recent, geologically speaking,-must have the S of the Tiber, have commonly the form of great been long anterior to human history. The inequali- waves, whose summits are very distant from each ties in the surface of the C. are considerable. Some other; and the intervals between these elevations of the elevations may be due to circumscribed local are valleys which drain to the Tiher or to the sea, upheavals; but in general they are merely portions and form the richest meadows. These elevations are of the surface which escaped the action of the cur- all volcanic, and have a nucleus of hard stone called rents, or they are the ridges dividing one valley from peperino, or "pepper-stone,' which appears to be vol.

canic matter in a state of higher induration. These forms the small Solfatara lake. The reeds and other hills are pierced in every direction by caverns ; plants growing on this lake are so incrusted with and M. Bonstetten, who examined this part of calcareous depositions, that they have the appearItaly with the greatest care, affirms that he never ance of stone; and islands of a considerable size, could find a rock withont numerous excavations. formed by them, float about the lake, and are capa Many of these caverns, which were inhabited by ble of carrying several people at a time. The stream robbers, have been shut up by the police; others issuing from this lake has the same property, and have been concealed by the falling of the earth. continues to smoke till it joins the Anio or Teverone. The highest eminence in the C. is Monte Albano, The Anio possesses a similar property of forming or Monte Cavo, about 6 leagues from Rome, which calcareous depositions of every shade, from the brilrises 2,920 ft.; or according to a writer in the Edin. liant crystallizations which are called confetti di TiPhil. Journ., (vol. xiv., p. 22,] 3,160 ft. above the level voli, to the darker concretions which have incrusied of the sea. It is united at its base, on one side, to a forest very near Rome. Near Subiaco the minutthe Maschio d'Arriano, or Mons Algidus of the an- est insects, and the leaves of the vine, are distinctly cients, and on the other, to Monte Velletri; and forms seen in these incrustations. After the Anio has an immense insulated mass, situated on an extensive passed the cascades of Tivoli, it forms, by deposiplain, and almost at an equal distance from the sea tions in the great plain, those immense beds of traand the calcareous mountains of Sabina. Mount So- vertino, of which St. Peter's, a part of the Colliseum, racte, an enormous mass of calcareous rock resting and all the other public edifices in Rome are built. upon a base of tufa, about 8 leagues NE of Rome, is Emanations of gas, sulphureous vapours, and sublicompletely isolated, and rises to the height of about inations of sulphur, are of common occurrence 2,270 ft. The next principal eminence in the C. is throughout the C. the Villa Millini, which is placed on the summit of The Agro Romano district of the C. contains Monte Mario, about half-a-league to the NE of | 111,400 rubbi of about 4 acres each, of which oneRome. Its height above the level of the sea is 468 half is arable. Nearly two-fifths of this land belongs ft.; and 446 ft. above that of the Tiber at Rome; to the Church; the other three-fifths, to about 215 and as it occupies the centre of the great plain, it lay proprietors

. The farms are held by leases of commands a most extensive view of this portion of nine years, and also by perpetual leases; but the latthe C. The rock of which it consists is filled with ter species of lease is annulled if the farmer neglects shells, but is slightly indurated, and the base of the for two years to pay his rent. Many of the large hill rests on volcanic matter. The volcanic ejections farms are divided and sublet in small portions to a which cover the C. seem to have had their principal poor class of tenants; and the Mezzeria system, acdirection from N to S, since Monte Cavo, the high- cording to which the landlord supplies capital, and the est elevation, is entirely enveloped; while the Villa tenant labour and implements, while the seed is paid Millini is scarcely covered; and on the calcareous for jointly, and the profits are equally divided, is unhaphills to the E the volcanic soil terminates at the pily a prevalent form of contract. The general price height of 30 or 40 toises above the plain. A ridge of a rubbio of good land is about 20 piastres, and the of hills raised about 300 or 400 ft. above the level of expense of cultivating it amounts to about 40 piastres. the sen, stretch in a direction parallel to the coast, The ground is sown every third year. During the first from the Tiber to Torre St. Lorenzo, beyond Ardea. year it lies in fallow; it is laboured the second year; The tongue of land which lies between this range and the third year it produces a crop. The soil is and the sea is entirely formed by the alluvium of the wrought six times. From the great quantity of rain Tiber and of the sea, which throws back upon the which falls, particularly in the southern part of the land the sand carried down by the river. Though C., and the rapidity with which it descends, great different travellers have pointed out craters in various care must be taken to carry it off the fields. In every parts of the C., there appear to be only three which field there are three kinds of ditches, viz., small parare characterised with sufficient distinctness. The allel ditches, called lire by the ancients, and placed first of these is the famous Lacus Regillus, near Fras- at the distance of 3 ft. These are traversed by wide cati, which is about a quarter of a league in diameter; ditches, placed at a greater distance; and large but has been drained by means of canals. It is placed canals, called colliquiæ, carry off from these the suat the bottom of an inverted cone of hard black lava, perfluous water. Excellent fruit, vegetables, and from 40 to 60 ft. high, which is entirely open on the side almost every species of grain are produced in the C. of the road where the lake is level with the plain. This Extensive plantations of Turkish wheat grow in the crater is not, like those of Albano and Nemi, covered lower grounds. This grain rises to a considerable with volcanic ejections which take from it the regu- height, and is used for various purposes. The stalks lar form of an inverted cone; but the lava is almost of it form canes for the support of the vines, and are completely uncovered in its upper part. The two also used in the construction of cottages; the leaf is other craters of Albano and Nemi are about 400 or employed for thatching them, and likewise for mat500 ft. higher than that of the lake Regillus; and trasses; and the flour composes various dishes, are covered with volcanic ejections several hundred which are eaten by all ranks, and are regarded as feet in height, which prolong the cone from the hard particularly wholesome and nutritive. The large lava which forms the basins of the lakes. These two reed, (the Arundo donar,) which rises to the height craters are of a very regular conical form, and so ex, of 20 ft., is here cultivated to great advantage; oxen tremely high that it requires half-an-hour to ascend and asses feed upon the leaves of it. It forms an adfrom the lake to the top of the higher cone. The mirable support to the vines in a country not much famous emissary made at the siege of Veii, is cut exposed to violent winds; and after having served precisely between the volcanic ejections, which are this purpose, it is still useful for burning. That part casily pierced, and the hard lava which now retains of agriculture which relates to the breeding of cattle the remaining waters of the lake. See ALBANO. is much neglected in the C. The stock consists The crater of Nemi is considerably smaller than that mainly of sheep of two breeds, the small hardy Niof Albano, but is equally regular and picturesque. gretti, and the fine white breed of Puglia. Their Its cone does not appear to have been at any time number is estimated at 600,000. The horned cattle entirely filled with the water of the lake. There are are a large greyish - white breed. Vineyards are numerous sulphureous springs in the C., but the most often planted in the most fertile and best-watered abundant of these is between Tivoli and Rome, and | land, particularly fitted for the growth of corn. Corn It appears


is sown on land which is particularly adapted for the winter it occasions severe cold. The ponente, or W vine; and wood is often planted in the finest meadows. wind, still retains the character of the Zephyrs, and On St. Lawrence day, or the 10th of August, when the Favonian breezes of the ancients. The wind the harvest is completed, and when the heat is gen- commonly blows from the E in the morning; deerally greater than at any other season of the year, the clining sometimes to the N, it becomes NE; and at inhabitants begin to burn the stubble, the ashes of other times, turning to the S it settles in scirocco. which is almost the only manure which is employed. It is generally S, however, at noon, and then declines As the crops of grain grow to a considerable height, to the E or W, but most frequently to the latter, and the reaper never stoops, but takes off the head and often becomes due W, which continues all the evenabout a foot and a half of the stalk, and thus leaves ing and part of the night. This and the northerly the stubble about 2 or 3 ft. long. It not unfrequently winds are generally accompanied with a considerable happens, that the hedges and forests are burnt down dew. The S wind, which prevails at noon, particulikewise. The small number of farm-houses which larly in summer, is a sea-breeze, and renders temexist in the C. are miserable dwellings, built as ap- perate the meridian heat of the sun. pendages to old towers and temples, and constructed from a meteorological table kept at Rome in March, out of the fragments of these ancient edifices. The April, and May 1803, that the average height of the inhabitants of these wretched hovels-with the ex- therm. exposed to the N in March, was 60°; in April, ception of a few who have become acclimatized—are 70°; and in May, 68o. The minimum height during compelled to desert them in the middle of summer, these three months was 52°, and the maximum 75°. when fevers and agues prevail in the country; and We have little information respecting the trade they then sleep either at Rome, under the porticoes of and manufactures of the C., which must be very the palaces and public buildings, or in the towns which limited. Sulphur is obtained in great quantities are nearest to their farms. In the months of July, from a mine about 4 m. from Nettuno; and at a August, and September, the great proportion of pa- place called Campo Leone, there are iron-works betients in the Roman hospitals are the peasants from the longing to Prince Doria. There are several paper, surrounding country. The usual resorts of the Ro- iron, and corn mills erected on the stream Marrana man herds are the nearest heights of the Abruzzo, or near Grotta Ferrata; and there are various manuthe glens of Norcia around the peaks of the Leonessa factures of paper, iron, and oil upon the Anio. and Sibilla. It appears from the testimony of Strabo, Gunpowder is made on the spot where the villa of Pliny, Varro, and other ancient authors, that the air Mæcenas once stood. Flax is cultivated in conof the C. was formerly very salubrious except in a siderable quantities in the Valle di Laricia; and a few places near the sea, where the soil was marshy. good deal of manna and turpentine is collected in The unwholesomeness of the climate is said to have the neighbourhood of Monte Spaccato. The culticommenced about the 6th cent, and to have arisen vation of the vine is well-understood in the C., but from the overflowing of the Tiber, in consequence of nowhere are the inhabitants so little acquainted the accumulated rains by which it was raised above with the art of making wine. Oil is made in great its former bed. It does not appear, however, from quantities, and the proprietors derive a considerable the best observations, that the bad air-cattiva ariam part of their income from this source.—The principal of the C. is owing to the stagnant water arising from towns in the C. are Rome, Velletri, Frascati, Palesthe inundations of the Tiber, for it is chiefly in trina, Terracina, Nettuno, Ostia, and Tivoli.- Pliny, spring, in the time of the greatest drought, and in lib. xviii. cap. i.-Varro, lib. ii.-Neueste Statistische the months of August and September, long after the und Moralische Uebersicht des Kirchenstaats, Lubeck, inundations of winter, that it prevails. When the 1793.-Keysler's Travels, vol. ii.-Lumsden's Remarks first rains of autumn succeed to the great droughts, the on the Antiquities of Rome, London, 1797.- Voyage pestilential air completely disappears. On the Rocca sur la scene des six derniers livres de L'Eneide, par C. di Papa, and on one side of the plain of Tivoli, it is V. de Bonstetten, Geneve, 1805.-4 description of never experienced; but at different heights below Latium or La Campagna di Roma, London, 1805. this line, it seems to be equally prevalent. In 1775, Breislac, Voyage Physique et Lithologique dans la Camthe heights of Trinita del Monte were reckoned ont pagna, 2 vols., Paris, 1803.--Geil's Topography of of its reach; but in 1802 they were completely under Rome.-Edinburgh Phil. Journ. its influence.

CAMPAGNANO, a town of the States-of-theThe Pontine marshes, which lie at the boundary Church, in the comarca and 20 m. N of Rome. of the C., between the Lepini and the sea, are so ex- Also a village of Naples, in the prov. of Lavoro, distremely insalubrious that it is dangerous even to travel trict of Piedmonte, on the r. bank of the Volturno, through them in summer and autumn. Various at- 10 m. NE of Caserta. tempts have been made to drain this unwholesome CAMPAGNATICO, a town of Tuscany, 13 m. tract. “Pope Pius VI., at a great expense,” says an NNE of Grosseto, and 35 m. S of Sienna, on the r. anonymous author, “converted a very considerable bank of the Ombrone. Pop. 880. part of these pernicious marshes into pasturage, corn- CAMPAGNE, a commune of France, in the dep. fields, and rice-plantations. He made a canal 20 m. of the Landes, cant. of Mont-de-Marsan. Pop. 1,023. in length, which conveys the once stagnant waters CAMPAGNE - SUR - AUDE, a commune of into the sea; and he intersected it with many lesser France, in the dep. of the Aude, cant. and 3 m. channels, which direct them so as to fertilize the N of Quillan, on the Aude, 11 m. S of Limoux. fields, which they once rendered useless and pesti- Pop. 410. It contains thermal ferruginous springs, lential.” It appears, however, from the

observations and well-frequented baths, and has a woollen spinning of M. Bonstetten, that the insalubrity of the air has mill. rather increased than diminished since this partial CAMPAGNE-LES-BOULONNAIS, a commune draining was completed. The entire extent of this of France, in the dep. of the Pas-de-Calais, cant. of district is about 22 m. by 10 m.; but of this only Hucqueliers. Pop. 1,057. about 65,000 rubbi are really marshy.

CAMPAGNE-LES-HESDIN, or CAMPAGNE-LESThe SE and SW winds,—the scirocco and libeccio, SAINT-ANDRE', a canton and commune of France, in are extremely oppressive and insalubrious in the the dep. of the Pas-de-Calais, arrond. of MontreuilC.; though in winter the foriner contributes much to sur-Mer. The cant. comprises 23 com., and in 1831 the mildness of the climate. The tramontano, or N contained a pop. of 13,132. The village is 6 m. SE wind, is delightful in spring and autumn, but in / of Montreuil-sur-Mer. Pop. 1,378.


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