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Can the foregoing question be discreetly answered without a thorough knowledge of this country? And can such thorough knowledge be obtained without a thorough exploration? I affirm that it cannot be done; and without an additional number of mounted troops, such an exploration cannot be made at an early day.
If I had authority to do so, I could make treaties with all these tribes; and they would comply with every stipulation, just so long as you have an arm raised to strike them, and no longer-provided they are permitted to roam as heretofore. But confine them to certain limits, restrict intercourse with them, and instruct them, and compel them to cultivate the soil: when you have thus subjugated them, and caused them to feel and appreciate your power, then the proper time will have arrived when presents, to a hmited extent, will have a salutary influence, in awakening their pride of person, and creating a love, a desire, for some of the luxuries of life; for, until a man has reached that point, he has made but a slight advance in civilization.
Let it be remembered, the Navajoes have all the necessaries of life, and grow large quantities of corn and wheat, raise immense flocks of sheep and goats, and a great number of fine horses and mules; and rob and murder, and seize captives, because it is a business of life in which they delight.
In reference to the number of Pueblo Indians east of the Mochies, which includes the Pueblos named in No. 5, I have come to the conclusion it cannot be put down at less than twelve thousand, and it would not surprise me if it should reach fifteen thousand. We ventured to guess, while at Zunia, at the number of its people; and no one supposed it to exceed six hundred, all told. It now appears they have five hundred and fiftyfive warriors, which does not include boys under sixteen years of age, or old men. If this be true—and I do not question the fact—the aggregate: number of inhabitants in Zunia will reach two thousand; and I have no reason to believe the estimates as to other pueblos are more correct than was the estimate for Zunia.
I do not feel at liberty, at present, to disturb the estimates as forwarded to your office by the late Governor Bent. I will remark, however, it is advisable to reduce the number of tribes, in any general classification which may be made by authority of the government of the United States; for there are a number of fragments of tribes, being the product of amalgamations, who are not entitled to the consideration of distinct tribes, and they should be compelled to an association with one or the other of the amalgamating parties, and located and considered accordingly. Without alluding to the Indians of the Arkansas, I would reduce all the roving tribes of New Mexico to four—the Comanches, Apaches, Navajoes, and Utahs.
It would ill become me to venture an opinion as to the proper disposition of the United States military force now in this country: that duty is confided to an abler head. Bui, as preventive measures, and as measures, too, of a defensive character, allow me to submit, with all due respect, the following suggestions and recommendations:
I repeat the suggestions to be found in my previous letters:
1st. The presence of agents in various places in the Indian country is indispensably necessary. Their presence is demanded by every principle of humanity, by every generous obligation of kindness, of protection, and
of good government, throughout this vast Territory. $* These agents should be intrusted with ordnance and ordnance stores, to be used as emergencies might require, under the direction of a general superintendent; and should be selected, not only with regard to their prudence and discretion, but with a view to the proper training of the Pueblo Indians in the efficient use of our arms.
I design preparing, to accompany this communication, a diagram ex. hibiting my views of the Indian localities, and pointing out the most appropriate places for the residence of agents; and from which you will perceive how easily the depredations of Utahs, Navajoes, and a portion of the Apaches, may be checked, by a proper use of the arms which I have recommended to be placed in charge of Indian agents.
By keeping up a proper line of communication between the pueblos and other places in this Territory, it will be no difficult matter to intercept roving bands of robbers, no matter what their color may be, so soon as it is ascertained from what quarter they proceed; and that may be done unerringly by an examination of their irail.
That I may be distinctly understood upon this point, look at the locations of Laguna, Zunia, Jemez, and other places. Now the ordnance and ordnance stores, under the control as before suggested, would enable these people effectually to protect themselves against their implacable eneinies, and at the same time a vigorous and rapid movement along the line of communication between the pueblos and other points would give them the additional and important power of intercepting those who should dare to penetrate towards the heart of New Mexico.
The rough diagram which will be hereto appended will show why it is, with the views herein expressed, I recommend, 1st. The establishing of a full agency at Taos, or near that place, for the Utahs and Pueblos of that neighborhood.
2d. Also a full agency at and for Zunia, and the Navajoes.
3d. A full agency at Socoro, a military post south of Albuquerque, now being established. The agent of this place to look after the Apaches and Comanches, and the pueblo of Isletta, north.
Sub-agents should be sent to San Ildefonso, or near there; to Jemez, Laguna, and at the military post near El Paso.
These agents and sub-agents are absolutely necessary to an economical administration of our Indian affairs in this Territory. It is my honest opinion, that for the ensuing year, at least, a sub-agent should be in every pueblo, the whole to be under the direction of a general superintendent, who would be compelled to have one or more clerks.
I am aware that, possibly, I may be iwitted concerning my notions of economy in these recommendations, but it will be by no one who has maturely coosidered the subject in all its various bearings. Adopt my suggestions in all their breadth, especially those in reference to the appointing of agents and depositing with them ordnance and ordnance stores, and properly stimulating and directing the industry of the pueblos, and it will give quiet and tranquillity to this entire Territory, and materially reduce the now necessary expenditures of the government here. The labor of the country will be protected, the quantity of subsistence stores will be annually inoreased and the prices greatly diminished, and millions will be saved to the government that must be expended as at present conducted; and this I say after due deliberation, and without intending the slightest disrespect to any human being.
The powers here have neither the authority nor the means to reduce to order the chaotic mass in this Territory, and the government at Washington has not thoroughly comprehended the diversity and the magnitude of the difficulties to be overcome.
In conelusion, I still think it important to allow a few of the Pueblo Indians to visit Washington city-some of them are extremely anxious to do so.
Commending this communication to your indulgent criticisms, and referring you to the appendix, I have the honor to be, your very obedient servant,
JAMES S. CALHOUN,
Indian Agent, Santa Fe, New Mexico. Colonel W. MEDILL,
Commissioner of Indian Affairs, Washingļon city.
Santa Fe, New Mexico, October 25, 1849. Sir: My communication, No. 5, of the 4th of this month, stated in a postscript, that“ the Pueblo Indians who accompanied Governor Washington in his late Navajo expedition” had been satisfied for their services by an arrangement with a merchant.
When the foregoing statement was made to you, I supposed it was an arrangement effected by the government chief in this Territory. To-day I have learned otherwise; and further, that all had not become parties to the mercantile arrangement into which some of their associates had voluntarily entered. But it is said, all of said Indians will after a while come into terms.
The complainings of these Indians are exceedingly unpleasant to me; but they are not unjust, and such wrongs should be remedied. I am, with great respect, your obedient servant,
J. S. CALHOUN,
Indion Agent. Col. MEDILL, Washington City, D. C.
Santa Fe, New Mexico, October 27, 1849. Sir: Colonel Monroe, our new governor, came into this city a few days ago, and assumed the command of this military department. By him I had hoped to receive some additional light-such additional instructions as my earlier communications might have suggested as necessary.
I am yet without the slightest intelligence from the States; and I must repeat, the mail facilities are not such as we are entitled to, and that it is infinitely of more importance to the government at Washington than to us. The controlling powers should be advised more promptly in reference to the various sinuosities daily perpetrated in this far off region.
The truth in relation to governmental affairs here is not understood at Washington; and until we are brought more immediately under the proper supervisory eye, nothing of a highly reputable character may be expected to transpire in this Territory; and how can a proper supervision be had without certain means of receiving early intelligence, and promptly transmitting orders? I am, very respectfully, your obedient servant,
J. S. CALHOUN, Indian Agent. Colonel MEDILL,
Commissioner Indian Affairs, Washington city, D. C.
Santa Fe, New Mexico, October 28, 1849. Sır: The quartermaster having arranged to despatch a mail for the States on to-morrow, my agent at Jemez was directed to advise me as to the compliance of the Navajoes with their promise to be at San Isadora on the 27th, (yesterday,) in time to give you by the mail whatever might have transpired.
This evening at about 8 o'clock the courier came in with the intelligence, that up to the moment of his leaving San Isadora, this morning, not one word had been heard from the Navajoes. He brought to me a note from my agent, confirmatory of his statement.
The reports of robberies and murders continue to come in upon us.
J. S. CALHOUN, Indian Agent. Colonel W. MEDILL,
Commissioner Indian Affairs, Washington city, D. C.
INDIAN AGENCY, SANTA FE, NEw Mexico,
October 29, 1849. Sir: The arrival of an express during the past night, brought to us such intelligence as to cause the issuing an order by Colonel Monroe postponing the departure of the mail for the United States.
Four or five days ago, Mr. Spencer, an American merchant of this city, on his return from a recent visit to the United States, accompanied by a gentleman whose name I do not remember at this moment, in passing a well known camping ground, Points of Rocks, saw the dead bodies of Mr. White and five or six others of his party, recently from St. Louis. They also noticed a baggage wagon upset and broken into pieces; and what is yet more horrible, some Pueblo Indians were met the ensuing day, who stated they were just from the camp of the Apaches. and there saw an
American female, with her little daughter, supposed to have been the wife and daughter of Mr. White. It is known that they were of the party, and no trace of a female was discovered by Mr. Spencer or his companion at the Points of Rocks. But it is not to be presumed that these gentlemen remained long enough upon the ground to have ascertained accurately all the facts the horrible scene might have disclosed. What they saw was by the light of the moon; and the perpetration was of so recent a moment, as to admonish them that the hot breath of the Indians might be near enough to be scented; they therefore hastened on to Las Vegas, and were seventyeight hours without rest. From Las Vegas Mr. Spencer transmitted a communication by express, which I read a few moments since, announcing the facts as stated above.
As you will perceive by the examination of the schedule of distances forwarded to you in my No. 11, the Points of Rocks are one hundred and sixty-two of miles northeast of Santa Fe, eighty-nine 1 miles from Las Vegas, and about twenty miles in the same direction from Red river, and two hundred and forty in south west of the Arkansas crossing.
The cañons and valleys of Red river afford the usual route through which these Indians pass a very considerable distance in making for the Rio del Norte. When they suppose American troops are in vigorous pursuit of them, they ạt once make for the Rio del Norte, cross it, and push on to or near the boundary line between the United States and Mexico, ready to rest for a time on the discreet side of it.
Colonel Monroe has not disclosed his purposes yet; but one thing is certain—the most vigorous measures should be pushed forward without one moment's delay; and when this is done, as it doubtless will be by Colonel Monroe, the government of the United States will have sustained its ancient reputation for protecting its citizens and chastising their enemies. The military force in this country is not sufficient.
The liberation of Mrs. White and daughter is to me a matter of the deepest concern; but being entirely destitute of the means necessary to an efficient and prompt action in the premises, I am left to lament the impotency of my arm; and if the two captives are not to be liberated, it is to be hoped they are dead. An effort must and shall be made for their liberation, and I regret that I cannot put it forward at this moment. A purely military effort, in my opinion, cannot be successfully made, and I had determined to select an Indian and a Mexican trader, and send them forthwith in the supposed direction of the retreat of the Apaches-offering such inducements to them as would secure the end, if that end be attainable; but Colonel Monroe designs a move of some kind, and is unwilling to do so without further and more precise information; and that further information, I apprehend, cannot be acquired during this day, and every moment's delay lessens the probability of a successful effort. I was, a moment since, in consultation with the Colonel upon this subject, and he is determined to do all in his power to rescue the captives the moment the facts in the case are sufficiently ascertained. Conflicting efforts must not be attempted.
I have just secured the services of a Merican trader who knows the Apaches well, their haunts and trails. This man is well known to respectable people here, as a daring, fearless, and withal a discreet man. I promised to pay him one thousand dollars and other gratuities, if he succeeds in bringing in to me Mrs. White and her daughter. He goes out quietly, but rapidly, as a trader; and if he finds the objects of his search,