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and legs. The moose deer is of two kinds, the black , with more security, than other animals of the same and the grey; both of which are, perhaps, the largest species. On the coasts of the gulf of St. Lawrence of the species. The former is said to be from 8 to is found the walrus, or sea-horse.--Among the do12 ft. high; the latter is generally taller than a mestic animals of C., which are much the same as horse; both have broad palmated horns, weighing those of Europe, there are scarcely any peculiarities from 30 to 40 pounds. They feed on herbage and worthy to be mentioned. The Canadian horse is a the young twigs of trees; and in winter are found in hardy, active animal. His best pace is a trot; and, great herds. The caribou, or rein-deer, is distin- in a light cariole, upon smooth hard roads, a single guished from other animals of this kind, by its horse has been known to draw two persons 90 m. in branching palmated horns, with brow antlers. They twelve hours. It is affirmed that he will eat dried herd together in great droves, and annually emigrate fish in the winter season; but he is most of all refrom north to south, and back again. The stag, or markable for the extraordinary operation which he red deer, is of many kinds. Of bears there are two frequently undergoes, when travelling on the frozen principal kinds, the brown and the black; the latter lakes and rivers. In these excursions, it is not unis almost peculiar to the northern parts of Europe common for the sledge and horses to sink suddenly and America. The brown bear frequents the most in the weaker parts of the ice, when the traveller retired parts of the forest, and is a solitary savage springs from his seat upon the ice, which is geneanimal." Its form is too well known to require de- rally strong enough to support his weight, and inscription. Its senses of hearing, feeling, and smell stantly proceeds to save his cattle. As their struging. are said to be exquisite. It is remarkably fond gles in the water would only tend to sink them the of honey and several' kinds of fruits. Its voice is sooner, he pulls with all his strength a rope, with a deep and surly, and its passions are easily provoked. running noose, which is previously fixed around the When taken young, however, it may be tamed. neck of each, in case of such accidents, till he sucAbout the end of autumn it retires to its den, and ceeds in strangling the animals. As soon as this lives for some time, it is said, absolutely without happens, they float upon one side, and are easily food, in a state of inactivity. At this time the fe- drawn out upon the ice. It is sometimes necessary male brings forth her young, and suckles them: she to draw blood from them before they recover; but, produces two, sometimes three at a time. Of the in general, whenever the noose loosened, respirablack bear there are two kinds; one has a thick tion recommences in a few minutes, the creatures elumsy body, and short legs, and is generally fat. start to their feet, proceed with their usual vigour, The other has long legs, is lean, and seems to par- and perhaps go through the same process two or take of the nature of the wolf. This animal is car- three times in one day. This singular fact is nivorous, the other is supposed to feed chiefly on avouched to be strictly true, both by Chattelaux fruits; the latter retires to his den, and becomes tor- (vol. i. p. 408] and Gray [p. 277].—The native dogs pid in winter, the former emigrates towards the of Canada are all of the same species, with erect south. The one is the same with the black bear of ears, and a head very much resembling that of a Europe, and is confined, in America, to the northern wolf. They are very useful to the Indians in the districts; the other corresponds to the brown bear of chase; and the colonists frequently employ them in the Alps, and is found in every part of America.- the draught. They are yoked to sledges in winter, The wolverene, called in Canada the carcajou, has proportioned to their size and strength; and in this some resemblance to the European badger; his way one of an ordinary size will frequently draw length is about li ft., and his circumference 2 ft.; more than 200 lbs. weight, with his driver, in addihis legs are short, and his paws large and strong. tion, standing behind the sledge. They are thus He follows the hunters, and destroys both their traps employed in a variety of domestic services, in dragand the game that may be in them.-In Canada ging children in small carriages, in bringing water wolves are numerous, and different kinds of foxes, from the river, and particularly by the butchers in as the silver-fox, the red-fox, grey-fox, cross-fox, transporting meat to their customers in different brandt-fox, and many others. A great variety of parts of the towns. the cat kind are found in the northern parts of Ame- Of the birds peculiar to C., we may particularly rica. Of these none are more dreadful to the hun specify the night - hawk, which is seen chiefly at ter than the catamount, a fierce animal, which flies twilight, and before thunder-storms; the fish-bawk, from no pursuer. The length of his body, including which frequents rivers and lakes, and is supposed to the head, is said to be about 6 ft.; his legs are one attract the fish to the surface by a peculiar oil which foot long, and body about 24 feet in circumference. he emits; the humming-bird, which sometimes ocHe leaps with amazing agility, attacks the largest curs in the neighbourhood of Quebec; cranes, with eattle, and has been known to carry away children. bills 12 inches in length; the wood - duck, which -The loup-cervier abounds in the northern parts of roosts on trees, and is remarkable for the brilliance America, and is valued for his soft warm fur. -Nei- of his plumage, and the delicate flavour of his flesh; ther North America, nor any part of the world, pro- and the snow - bird, a kind of ortolan, which andaces an animal more remarkable than the beaver, nounces the return of spring, and is the principal for the uncommon instincts displayed by it in every bird of song in Canada. The earliest travellers in part of its life. It is not a very large animal : its this country observed that large species of poultry length from the nose to the tail being only about 3 commonly supposed to be peculiar to Malabar. ft. Its fine fur constitutes a principal article of com- Of reptiles we may enumerate 9 different species merce, and is used in a variety of manufactures. of tortoises, 8 of frogs, 10 of lizards, and 46 of The most valuable kind is black; but this is scarce. snakes. The most dreadful animal of this kind is The ordinary kind is of a chestnut brown. A few the rattle-snake, so well known for the fatal effects have been found white, and some spotted; but both of its bite. It has received its name from the rattle these kinds are extremely rare.-C. abounds likewise which it has in its tail, which consists of joints in otters, weasels, ermines, martins, minks, and other loosely connected. They grow to the length of 8 animals, valuable only for their furs. -- Among a feet, and, according to some accounts, they somegreat variety of squirrels, is that little animal called times reach the length of 14 feet. They are vivithe Aying squirrel, which, by a kind of membrane parous, and, in June, bring forth generally about 12 connecting its fore and hind legs, and which it ex- young ones. It is described as having a brown tends at pleasure, can leap much farther, and alight | head; yellowish back, marked with broad transverse dentated bars of black; scales rough; belly | end. The wheels are brought to its side and canted; cinerous; the jaws furnished with small sharp teeth; the mast is fastened to the axes, and a yoke of oxen, and four fangs in the upper jaw, incurvated, large, by a vigorous pull, bring them up to their proper and pointed,--the instrument of death. At the base position. The greatest danger is in passing down a of each is a round orifice opening into a hollow, steep hill, or over a sharp ridge. In the former which near the end of the tooth appears again in case they are obliged to yoke several oxen behind it, form of a small channel; these teeth may be erected to prevent its too rapid descent. In the latter case. or compressed; when in the act of biting, they force those nearest the draught are often suspended, and out of a gland near their roots the fatal poison, sometimes are killed. The value of masts, yards, which is received into the round orifice of the teeth, and bowsprits, according to their various diameters, conveyed through the tube into the channel, and varies : masts, from 25 inches in diameter to 34 thence with unerring direction into the wound. inches, bring £13 8s. sterling to £90; yards, 17 inches These animals, it is said, seldom attack any person to 24 inches, £6 10s. to £32 sterling; bowsprits, 25 unless provoked or injured. Before they bite they inches to 37 inches, £2 10s. to £52 sterling. All give warning, by making a noise with the rattle in these are hewn into the proper shape before the ditheir tail. This warning is always given in fair mensions are taken which determine the value.weather, but in wet weather it is sometimes omitted; The hemlock - tree is a most valuable wood. It and, for this reason, the Indians as much as possible abounds in the lower province, and is worked up for avoid, in such weather, to wander in the forests. bridges, roofs, fences, barn-floors, &c. Under water, They have not the power of springing to the attack; no length of time will have the slightest effect on its so that, by the warning which they give, and the durability; and it possesses that adhesive nature, slowness of their motions, they may, in general, be that a nail, or tree-nail

, once driven, can never be easily avoided. The bite, if upon a vein or artery, removed. It is not adapted to fine work, but in produces almost instantaneous death; but if in a point of strong durable timber, it has no superior.fleshy part, the effect is not so sudden nor so certain. Again, there is the curly maple, or "bird's eye,' The most effectual cure is immediately to cut or which in cabinet-ware far surpasses, in point of burn out the wounded part. Deadly as the bite of beanty, the Spanish mahogany. The wild cherry the snake is, the Indians feed on its flesh without wood is also very handsome in furniture. The sugar feeling any inconvenience; hogs will also eat it, but maple trees are more numerous here than in the no other animal has been seen to taste it. Rattle- United States; they are to be found in almost every snakes no longer abound in the settled parts of part of the country, and sometimes large tracts of North America, although they are still numerous in land are entirely covered with them. There are two the back country; they chiefly frequent woods and species: the best will yield about 1 lb. of sugar from hills. The two-headed snake is by some supposed 3 gallons of sap. It is sold at half the price of West to be a distinct species; by others it has been reck. Indian sugar. The most approved method of oboned a monstrous production.

taining the sap is by piercing a hole with an anger Vegetable productions.] The C. forests produce a in the side of the tree, of about an inch in diameter, great variety of different kinds of trees, making ex- and two or three in depth, obliquely upwards; the cellent timber; many of them of stupendous size, common method is by cutting a large gash in the and apparently coeval with the soil on which they tree with an axe. In either case, a small spout is stand. The durability of colonial timber, when em- placed at the bottom of the wound, and a vessel ployed for the purposes of shipbuilding, is only one placed underneath to receive the liquor as it falls. half that of European timber, and it is no longer A maple tree of the diameter of 20 inches will comemployed in the royal dock-yards; but of the pur-monly yield, for 30 years, sap sufficient for making poses for which timber is employed, there are some five pounds of sugar each year. The season for tapfor which American timber is peculiarly fit. Where- ping is the commencement of spring, when the sap ever a large surface and freedom from knots are re- begins to rise. The sap is boiled until it comes to a quired, this timber is superior to every other. The proper consistency.--Several other trees are used in sounding boards of musical instruments require a the manufacture of pot and pearl ashes. They yield larger and clearer surface than Baltic timber can in the following proportions: 1,000 lbs. of maplesupply. All carving is more easily performed on ashes will make 110 pounds of potash; of oak, 111; American wood; and for blinds it is also superior. of elm, 166; of hickory, 180; and of beech, 219. There are some other purposes for which it is equal In addition to the principal products of agriculture, to European: such as the inferior kinds of packing, which have been already noticed, it may here be cases, window-frames, sashes, doors, window-shut- mentioned that various other kinds of grain and pulse ters, and some parts of the inside of build g8.—The are raised in C., especially rye and beans; the last white-pine, called by way of distinction the mast- of which are of a smaller size than the European, pine, is fitter than any other tree to be made into and are much used by the Indians, who eat them masts. It is of very great size, and has a more when boiled as an accompanimeni to bear's grease and majestic appearance than any other tree in the North lard. Gourds and water-melons are cultivated as fieldAmerican forests. It is sometimes found straight crops, and are used as bread by many of the native and sound, about 8 feet diameter at the butt end, tribes. The orchards and gardens, especially in the and between 80 and 100 feet in length, without neighbourhood of Montreal, abound in a great varibranches. To fell a tree of this extraordinary size ety of fruits and vegetables of the finest quality. requires great labour; and to prevent it from being The apples are particularly good, and yield an excelhurt in the fall, requires some dexterity. When it lent cider. Peaches, plums, gooseberries, raspberhas been felled and lopped, the labour is far from ries, and currants, are found in the greatest perfecbeing completed. It is still to be conveyed to the tion and abundance; and, with the protection of nearest water-carriage; and if the distance be great, glass, grapes may be raised for the table equal to and the way rough, this conveyance is attended with any in Portugal. In a natural state are found the an immense toil, and no inconsiderable danger. Va- crab apple tree, bearing a fruit of better size and flarious contrivances have been, from time to time vour than that of Europe; the plum tree, green and adopted, to lessen the labour, and diminish the dan- purple, both greatly relished by the natives; the ger. At present they are generally transported to cherry tree, black, red, and sandy-coloured, but the water on two pair of wheels, one pair under each first only bears a fruit pleasant to the taste; the

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mulberry, red and white, resembling those of Franee | them 10 per cent. of silver, which would make its and Italy; sweet gum tree, yielding a kind of bal- commercial value between 4,000 and 5,000 dollars sam, which the Indians highly value as a salve and per ton. Veins of lead, rich in silver-ore, are refebrifuge; vines are very common, and some bear ported to exist near St. Paul's bay, 50 m. below excellent grapes; there are besides gooseberries, cur- | Quebec. rants, raspberries, strawberries, juniperberries, cran- Commerce.] At the time when C. was discovered, berries, bearberries, &c., in the utmost abundance.- the governments of Europe were so engrossed with Among the more remarkable shrubs may be noticed the supposed wealth in precious metals of Mexico and sassafras, found only in Upper C., which grows to Peru, that no country in which these were not produced the size of an apple tree, and the berry of which is was considered as deserving of attention: and when it sometimes used as a spice; a kind of willow, the was understood that no mines were to be found in this roots of which are of a fine searlet colour, and are quarter of North America, the colony of New France used by the Indians to tinge the ornamental parts of fell into disrepute, before a proper knowledge could their dress; moose wood, the bark of which makes be acquired of its soil and productions. This early neady as good cordage as hemp; and the myrtle prepossession to its disadvantage was the principal wax tree, the nut of which yields an excellent wax source of the future discouragements and obstacles of a green colour. — The most valuable roots are with which the commerce of C. had to struggle; and it spikenard, sarsaparilla, and ginseng, which last was never attained any degree of prosperity as long as it first discovered in the woods of C. in the year 1718, remained in the hands of the French. It sustained and, being exported to Canton, was pronounced to great injury, also, by the frequent alterations which be equal in quality to any that could be procured in took place in the medium of exchange; especially Corea or Tartary. Its price immediately rose in by the inconveniences which resulted from the introQuebee from 18. 6d. per lb. to £1 0s. 10d. sterling; and duction of card or paper money. In 1706, the whole the value of its export amounted, in 1752; to £20,000. trade of the colony was carried on with a fund of But the C. traders, too anxious to enrich themselves 650,000 livres, distributed among a pop. of 30,000 on a sudden, began to reap the plant too early, and inhabitants. During seven years of its most flouto dry it hastily in ovens, instead of gradually eva- rishing period, previous to its conquest by the Briporating its moisture in the shade;. by which means tish, its annual imports were valued only at £160,000, they destroyed its quality, and completely ruined its sometimes at £240,000; while its exports seldom sale among the Chinese, by whom chiefly it is used exceeded, and frequently did not reach, the sum of

as a stomachic.--Besides the flowers usually found £80,000. The balance was supplied by the sums ! in the more northern countries of Europe, the woods which the French government expended in paying

of C. are universally adorned by the fragrant blos- the troops, building ships, raising fortifications, &c.; soms of the Syrian'asclepias; and; amidst a variety and the bills drawn upon the treasury of France on of curious and useful herbs, we can only notice the these accounts were not long very punctually paid. rattlesnake plantain, the leaves of which are consi- For a few years after the reduction of the colony, dered as the most effectual cure for the bite of the the British traders derived considerable assistance reptile from which it takes its name, and which is from the quantity of furs which had been previously said to be most luxuriant in its growth during those collected, and from the sums of money which were months of the year when the bite of that creature is regularly remitted for the payment of the large mimost venomous. Canada abounds in natural grass; litary force then supported in the country; yet the and cattle fatten easily, upon the wild growth during commerce of C. was still rather in a declining than sammer. A particular species, very long and rank, increasing state; and, in 1769, the quantity of procalled Therbe au lien, grows upon some of the islands, duce exported amounted only, according to Heriot, and forms a most durable covering for stables, barns, to £163,105; hut, aceording to Lambert, to £345,000; &c. A graminaceous vegetable, nearly allied to the and was shipped in 70 vessels belonging to Great rice, zizania aquatica, grows abundantly in all the Britain and her colonies. During almost thirty stiallow streams, in situations that refuse all other years longer, its commerce continued in a state of culture, and forms a principal article of support to great fluctuation, according to the varying degree of the wandering Indians.

demand in Europe for its produetions; but, in the Minerals.] It has been reported that silver-mines year 1795, it was considerably augmented by the exist in c., but if they do exist, they have never scarcity of grain which prevailed about that time in been wroughs, nor anything extracted from them Great Britain and most of the European countries; that can entitle them to become a national concern. and not less than 128 vessels, 19,953 tons, arrived Several metals, however, have been found here, that year in the river of St. Lawrence. At that pewhich are essentially useful to the human race. Ofriod, also, the construction of vessels at Quebec was this kind are copper, iron, and lead: in the two lat- begun by a company of London, and considerable ter articles C. abounds. Coal is found in many profits were drawn from that branch of employment. parts; but wood is still so abundant that coals are İn 1799, 1800, 1801, and 1802, an immense quanlittle sought after. Fine specimens of marble have tity of grain was exported; and, in the last of these been recently quarried, and black lead ore seems to years, it amounted to 100,000 bushels of wheat, abound in the lower province. There is reason to 38,000 barrels of flour, and 32,000 casks of biscuit. believe that a vast mass of rich iron ore extends During the five years ending in 1805, the average easterly, and westerly from Lake Kamitehigamog, in amount of exports from c. to Great Britain and the Newcastle district, to the Utawa river, in Lower British settlements

, according to Gray, was £767,705 C., with occasional breaks and intermixture of other 17s. 3d., conveyed in 193 vessels, = 33,996 tons. strata, for a distance of nearly 300 m. Extensive They consisted chiefly of wheat and other kinds of copper mines bave been recently discovered on Lake grain; beef, pork, and fish of various sorts; timber Superior. These mines, so far as yet worked, are in the form of planks, staves, masts, oars, &c.; pot within the first degree of latitude north of the en- and pearl ashes; flax-seed, apples, and essence of trance of that lake. The range of rocks within which spruce; butter and tallow, soap, beer, and castorethe metallic veins are found, or rather the width of um; horses, cattle, and hides ; stoves, manufactured that zone within which they have been detected, is

, at Trois Rivieres; vessels, built at Quebec; and furs at the greatest, so far as known, 6 m., and in the and peltry, equal'in value to more than one-third of narrowest 1 m. Some of the copper ores carry with the whole. The imports from Britain and British settlements, which paid duty, amounted to £204,105 | elm, 901,900 in 1849 against 955,093 in 1848, and 1,668,995 in 17s. 6d., consisting principally of wines, spirits, su

1847; ash, 58,106 in 1849, against 34,250 in 1848, and 117,580 in

1847; basswood 4,119, against 4,355 in 1848, and 11,061 in 1847; gar, molasses, salt, coffee, tobacco, cards; while butternut, 1,255, against 2,188 in 1848, and 5,733 in 1847; tamathose which paid no duty were calculated to have rac, 114,803, against 400,755 in 1848, and 553,523 in 1847; birch nearly equalled the difference between the above and maple, 103,474, against 28,185 in 1848, and 87,434 in 1847. sum and the value of the exports, namely, £563,600. amounted to 554,018 tons; in 1848, to 407,816 tons; in 1849, 10

In 1845, the ships loaded at Quebec with timber for British ports In 1806, the tonnage of the shipping employed in the 436,600 tons. The winter of C.-during which the timber is felled trade of the colony amounted to 33,996; in 1811, to

and hewn--is a season of the most intense and piercing cold. The 223,762 tons. The number and tonnage of the ves

rivers down which it has to be conveyed are broad, in many places

rapid, and throughout dangerous for the navigation of timbersels that belonged to C. in 1846 was 604 vessels = rafts. On the opening of spring, the timber is immediately 67,523 tons; in 1849, 723 = 87,464 tons. The num- launched into the water, and there bound together in separate ber of steamers belonging to all the ports in 1849 was

portions, or cribs as they are called;

the separate cribs bound

together form what are called rafts. These huge masses of tim103=16,169 tons. In 1848, 1,346 vessels =506,899 ber float down the St. Lawrence and the Utawa, at the mercy of tons, entered the ports of Montreal and Quebec in the winds and waves, which often in one half-hour irrecoverably wards; in 1849, 1,332 vessels = 489,861 tons.

disperse the labour of a whole year. The St. Lawrence and the The chief articles of the Canadian trade at pre- den and great falls in their beds; and are also constantly spread.

Utawa are continually interrupted by rapids occasioned by sudsent are furs, peltries, timber, wheat, flour, biscuit, ing out into small lakes of from 80 to 40 m. in breadth, which, flax-seed, and lumber of various kinds, fish, potash, even during a slight breeze, are extremely hazardous to so unoil, lard, hides, bacon, hams, and beef, In return it quently so dangerous as to make the safe arrival of a raft at receives rum, coarse cloth, linen, muslins, silks, fur- Quebec a matter of equal ancertainty with a prize in the lottery: niture, wrought iron, brandy, molasses, coffee, sugar, and it is estimated that one-third of the timber annually rafted wines, tobacco, salt, chocolate, dry goods, and pro

is lost. The master lumber-man is usually a small farmer, who visions for the troops; and for trading with the In- having stores and money advanced by the merchants of Mont

real, or the storekeepers of Quebec, neglects and mortgages his dians, guns, powder, balls, flints, kettles, hatchets, farm to try his fortune in a timber-speculation. The sufferings toys, and trinkets of various kinds. In 1843, the that this man and his fellow-labourers undergo in their occupation collective imports of the whole British N American intense cold, the therm. generally ranging between 109 and 80® colonies were £3,038,415, of which £1,126,536 be- below zero, in a rudely-constructed hut made of logs and bark, longed to C. as distinct from the other provinces. through which every breath of wind penetrates, do these men In 1845, they amounted to £5,024,053, of which pass the whole of the winter; while

, the moment that spring

arrives, and the rivers have thawed, they have to pass whole £2,599,966 belonged to C. Of the total exports from days in the water, employed in binding the timber together. the British N American colonies in 1843, amounting when the raft is prepared, and the

rivers are open, it has to be to £3,228,542, £1,381,159 were from C.; and of those navigated to Quebec and now another mode of life begins, and

a new course of evils follows; one of which is the almost invariable in 1845, amounting to £4,254,522, £2,185,469 were

loss of health: no one ever yet saw an aged raftsman. The intenfrom C. From C. in 1848, the exports from sity of the cold, the long immersions in the water, the excessive Montreal and Quebec amounted to £1,749,167; use of ardent spirits, and the burning sun of a C. summer, would and from the inland ports to £772,432: making a destroy the hardiest constitution that ever existed. Another evil is total of £2,521,599, or £1 13s, 4d. for each head of ness. A raft may be wind-bound for weeks, and the men cannot pop., while the rate per head for Great Britain, in be dismissed. Accustomed at one time to strong excitement, the 1848, was £1 10s. 7d. The exports in 1849 amounted

lumber-man cannot pass a state of listlessness and inactivity; he in value to 9,955,095 dollars, of which 5,593,696 d. becomes a gambler.

must have some other excitement, and hence he almost certainly

Another and a most serious evil is, that went to Great Britain; 3,429,769 d. to the United they may commit crime with almost absolute impunity. Con States; and 466,326 d. to British N America. Among tinually passing from one part of the country to another, and the exports of 1849, lumber was the largest item; among 40 or 50 persons, all perhaps equally guilty; they cannot ashes amounted in value to 848,980 d.; furs 129,528 be made amenable to the laws. It is besides now pretty gene. d. The quantity of wheat exported in 1849 was rally acknowledged that the protection long given to colonial 1,002,269 bushels; of oats 348,773 b.; of beans and place, it cost Britain not less than £1,000,000 per annum.

timber by the mother - country was injudicious. In the first pease 190, 990 b.; of four 490,335 barrels. The fol

the second place, it compelled us to use timber of an inferior lowing table shows the official value of goods im- quality. Thirdly, it is not true that the encouragement of this ported at the twelve principal ports of entry, with trade was a means of clearing the country; for pine and oak the duties paid to government thereon in 1849:

form but a fractional part of a C. forest. And, lastly, it has been

justly observed that the great misfortune of these and the Port. Value. Duties collected.

neighbouring British provinces has been the originally granting

of what is generally termed 'protection;' but of which the inMontreal,

4,946,133 dol. 767,556 dol justice to the many is now beginning to be generally seen, and Quebec,

1,576,101 259, 605 the ultimate advantage to the few doubted; particularly when Toronto,

1,307,456

209,346 carried to such an extent as in the case of C. Having but one St. John's,

1,218,640

108,758

object of industry, and one market for disposing of its proHamilton, 1,123,025 180,022

dace, they were constantly subject to revulsions, every depresKingston,

884,046

51,833 sion in the trade of the mother country being immediately and Brockville,

160,504

22,596 fatally extended to the colony." (Times) The C. annexationists Stanley,

156.221

27,071 represent the duties levied on their corn and lumber when imChippews,

119,618

11,724 ported into the United States as likewise narrowing their market. Belleville,

85,185

13,869 * To some extent this may be true; the frontier C. farmer might Cobourg,

68,426

8,776

occasionally find it for his advantage to dispose of his produce on Dover,

57,234

8,060 the American side, and may be prevented by the protection

which the American farmer derives from the import duty. Great Total, 11,197,589 1,668,716 Britain, however, can offer a strong inducement to the Americans

to repeal their import duties. C. timber is at present protected Timber Trade. There are annually about 600 timber-freights in the British market by a differential duty on all foreign timber. from C. to Great Britain. A ship performs about two voyages The American states from which lumber is shipped would gladly annually, and, consequently, this trade occupies about 300 ships, be relieved from this differential duty in the British markets; and of a burden ranging from 150 to 1,000 tons. The quantity of on the other hand, many of the states of the Union would gladly squared timber of all kinds brought down to the port of Quebec have the importation of C. timber into them made duty free. in 1846 exceeded former periods, being 37,404,409 cubic feet, The removal of the remnant of protection on C. timber in the against 27,749,094 cubic feet in 1845, and 17,850,891 cubic feet in British market, and the abolition of all duties on timber and corn 1844. According to returns issued from the supervisor of Cul imported from C. into the United States, would be alike beneficial ler's office, the following is the number of feet of the various de- to that republic, to Great Britain, and to C. Here is a lever in scriptions of timber measured at Quebec up to the 28th of August the hand of the British government by which the disadvantage 1849, as compared with the corresponding date in the two pre- under which the C. annexationists say they labour may be receding years, viz.: white pine, in 1849, 9,518,114 feet, against moved at no distant date; whereas in the present temper of the 5,663,782 in 1848, and 7,836,019 in 1847; red pine, in 1849, southern states, C. has no chance of being received into the 1,698,721, against 3,211,944 in 1848, and 8,235,924 in 1847; oak, Union. It is by remaining part of the British empire that the 514,599 in 1849, against 901,015 in 1848, and 1,372,993 in 1847; | Canadians are most likely to be relieved from the burdens to

which they are subjected in the American markets. After all, , ducted, three principal lines present themselves for a trunkhowever, we shrewdly suspect that the complaints on this head railway from an E port in Nova Scotia, through New Brunsare a little exaggerated. In the latest Montreal papers, we see wick, to Quebec; and by combining portions of two of these lines considerable sules of Canadian wheat reported at Cleveland, together, a fourth and fifth route may be formed. The shortest Buffalo, New York, and other American markets. Mr. Boughton, of these routes is 595 m., and the longest 692 m. The one re# member of the C. legislature, and opposed to the present go- commended is the Halifax and Eastern, or Bay Chaleurs route, rerument, declares that wheat can be put on board in Quebec to Quebec, and the length of this is 635 m. It runs from Halifax for England at a lower price than in New York, and therefore to Truro; thence up to Bathurst; then along the shore of the with proper management the Canadians ought to be able to un. Bay Chaleurs to the Restigouche river; then across the valley of dereen the Americans in the English market." (Daily News.] The the Metapediac over to the

St. Lawrence; and so along the

banks advantages of an arrangement by which the agricultural produce of that river to Quebec. The principal recommendations of this o the United States and C. could be exchanged free of duty line are the prospect of its opening up a large field for provincial would be great: * though I do not perceive," says a well-in- improvements, for the settlement of emigrants, and also for dekened American citizen, “any great benefit which the United veloping the commerce and fisheries of New Brunswick. The States would derive from it, except by the alteration in the course neighbourhood of a great portion of it to the sea-coast wonld

the lamber trade, which would furnish our markets with a add to the facilities of construction, and remove the chances of valuable description of timber not to be found in any of our own interruption from the effects of climate. The extent to which easily attainable forests; but even in this trade the advantages the line will pass through Crown lands is estimated at 375 m. to Canada would be greatest, as Montreal, Quebec, and St. A single line of rails is proposed in the first instance; space being John's New Brunswick, from which the timber would come, are reserved for a double track at any future period. A substantial very much nearer to Boston, New York, Philadelphia, or Balti- and permanent mode of construction, with a good heavy rail, more than they are to any English market; and the vessels capable bearing high rates of speed, is recommended; and could make double the number of voyages annually, realizing at some facts are quoted, which, however, do not seem conclusive, the same time & greater net sum for their cargoes, Nor would against the cheap method of making railways in America. The the trade be limited to that article, as their beef and pork are of most expensive lines in the United States have been those of better quality than the produce of Missouri and the far West, Massachusetts: their cost is estimated at £7,950 per mile. The while easy attainable and large markets would be opened in our Halifax line, however, will escape the duty on iron, which is Adatie cities, not only for these articles, but for their pickled and levied in the United States, and thus save £500 per m. Labour dried fish, lime, coal, produce of dairies and various descriptions also is much cheaper than when the Massachusetts lines were desculents, thas creating a great trade and a state of prosperity constructed. The greater portion of the land will be granted free which would give them other matter for consideration than their of cost, and timber and stone can be had nearly along the whole political grievances."

distance. Under these circumstances it is considered that £7,000 Railwys.) There are at present three great projected lines of per m. may fairly be assumed as the probable limit of cost. This railway through these provinces, viz., the Quebec and Halifax for 635 m. will be £4,445,000, making, with the addition of 10 mad; one between Montreal and Portland on the seaboard of the per cent for contingencies, £4,889,500, or in round numbers state of Maine; and a great trunk-line to connect Montreal with £5,000,000. With regard to revenue, it is considered that the Lake Huron, passing through Kingston, Toronto, and London. total pop., either upon or near the line, including the two terThe completion of all these is perhaps a mere work of time. As mini, may be estimated at 250,000 persons; and that the whole Fet, however, only one has been commenced, viz., the Montreal number within the area which will be benefited by the line will and Portland road; of this 30 mn. are completed and working, the not be less than 400,000. The net earnings of the Massachusetts terminus being for the present at the French town of St. Hya- lines give a proportion of 11s. per head for the entire pop. of the cinthe, which contains about 3,000 inhabitants. The total dis- state; and, taking a nearly similar calculation in the present tance from Montreal to the boundary line (towards which point instance, that is to say, 108 per head (a rather sanguine estimate an American company is working from Portland) is 127 m., the when it is recollected that one-fourth of the people are French Bretage estimated expense of construction being £5,000 sterling Canadians), we should have a return of £200,000. The transit of B. The line passes through the rich and well-settled country timber, the great staple of New Brunswick, -the products of the of the eastern townships--a district of great natural beauty and fisheries--coals from the great Cumberland field,-flour, grain, fertility, abounding in lakes and rivers, which possess inexhausti. and other articles,---are, however, also to be taken into account;

Sherbrooke, the cap. of this district, contains and as the St. Lawrence is closed during six months of the year, 1,500 inhabitants, and though distant from Montreal 90 m, over not only would the railway have a monopoly during that time, had roads, possesses saw and grist mills, woollen, cotton, and pail but it would prove of inestimable advantage to the colony in factories, a paper mill, and several machine shops; and the rapids setting articles free which are now so long locked up. Flour and of the Magog river, which falls into the St. Francis at Sherbrooke, wheat from the far west of the United States are also calculated afford accommodation and power for a hundred mills and facto- upon, since while it costs 58. 1d. to convey a barrel of flour from res in addition. The destiny of this place may be to become the Illinois and Michigan to New York, and 6s. to Boston, it could, it *Lowell' of Lower C. The district of which it is the centre is is alleged, be brought to Halifax for 4s. 2d. Under these circumcapable of supplying Great Britain with the greater part of the stances an ultimate return such as to render the line a productive food annually imported into that country. This line would also one in a commercial point of view is regarded as a reasonable derive a handsome revenue from the timber and firewood trans anticipation. But the line from Montrcal to Portland in Maine, ported by it; and in addition to this, it would be the means of now constructing, will, it is admitted, be a great competitor with conveyance from the W of all the food imported into the NE the Halifax and Quebec route, and this alone would render the States of the Union. In a political point of view the construc- returns sufficiently uncertain to deter capitalists unless the intion of this work would colonize the eastern townships with ducement were offered of a definite guarantee. To the welfare British inhabitants, thus giving them a numerical superiority of the provinces the undertaking would be a vital one, and a over the French in Lower C., and putting an end for ever to that guarantee is accordingly recommended. A loan of £3,000.000, struggle of races which has so clogged the wheels of govern. it has been suggested, could be raised upon the provincial revement, and been such a dead lock on the prosperity of the pro- nues at 4 per cent., if guaranteed by the mother country, and vince. It is ohjected by some that the railroad being in common this, with 2,000,000 of acres of land that would be brought into with the United States will tend to annex Canada to that re- value by the line, might prove sufficient. • The issue of a large public, or, if not, will, in the event of a war prove dangerous, by amount of notes' upon the credit of these lands to be paid to affording the American troops an easy approach to the C. capi- the labourers for wages, and to be receivable for taxes, is among tal "The first fear need not be entertained," says a Canadian the expedients contemplated, and a variety of reasons are given writer, whose notice of the railways projected for C. we have for it which remind us of the schemes which abounded in this spitomized, "C. will remain British, unless there be some strong country during the excitement of 1847." [Times). Meanwhile the inducernent of self-interest to become American, in which

case legislative assembly of Nova Scotia has passed a resolution to annexation will infallibly sooner or later be the result; but Great allow, in aid of the railway, £20,000 a-year for 20 years: the inBritain can legislate if she chooses to take away all such induce- habitants of Halifax have agreed to allow £4,000 a-year for the tent. Free navigation is the first step taken towards so desir- same period; the government of New Brunswick £20,000, and able a consummation, and encouragement to invest British capi- lands to the extent of 10 m. on each side of the railway; and tal in the province will complete the work. The last objection is the government of Canada, £20,000. Thus making an annual toundless. In the first place, the possession of a common rail- grant for 20 years of £60,000, with land to the extent of 5,000,000 Try would create a common interest between the two countries, of acres. - The Railway commissioners, after giving the question and would render a war much more improbable than it is even of the construction of this railway the fullest consideration, have Dow; but supposing such a calamity to happen, we have far come to the conclusion that, although in a military and political more available troops than the Americans, are more accustomed point of view the completion of a railway between Halifax and to military movements and operations, and, if an advantage to Quebec may be of great importance, yet that, as a commercial either party, the railway would be in our favour; but the truth undertaking, it is very doubtful whether it can, at least for a is that the passage of an army by railway through a hostile long time to come, prove profitable. They were disposed to country is absurd." In connexion with this line it is proposed to think that, with prudent management, a single line between run another from Quebec to Melbourne, a point on the Montreal Halifax harbour and the St. Lawrence, opposite Quebec, if graand Portland line, about 60 m. distant from Montreal.

dually constructed from each end, might, for its proposed length The Halifax and Quebec railroad, however, is the most impor- of 635 miles, be properly completed and supplied with a moderate tant to England in a military point of view, if she wishes to re- plant for £5,000,000, but fear that this would not be sufficient ir tain her North American colonies, as well as for the facilities large working parties are put on to expedite its construction. To offered by such a work of turning her starving and discontented return 34 per cent on the outlay, a net receipt of £175,000 per subjects into prosperous colonists.

annum, they estimate, will be required, or a gross weekly receipt According to Major Robinson, by whom the survey was con- of £6,500, being rather more than £10 per mile.

Ne water power

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