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ful appearance that can be imagined. Oranges and lemons grow in Barbadoes in great plenty, and in their utmost perfection. The lemon juice here has a peculiar fragrancy. The citrons of Barbadoes afford the belt drams and sweetmeats of any in the world, the Barbadoes ladies excelling in the art of preserving the rind of the citron fruit. The juice of the limes, or dwarf lemons, is the most agreeable souring we know, and great quantities of it have of late been imported into Britain and Ireland. The pine apple is also a native of Barbadoes, and grows there to much greater perfection than it can be made to do in Europe by any artificial means. A vast number of different trees peculiar to the climate are also found to flourila in Barbado:s in great perfection, such as the aloe, mangrove, calabash, cedar, cotton, mastic, &c. Here likewise are produced some fensitive plants, with a good deal of garden stuff, which is common in other places. In short, a native of the finest, the richest, and most diversified country in Europe, can hardly form an idea of the variety of delicious, and at the same time nutritive vegetable productions with which the island abounds.
When Barbadoes was first discovered by the Englisli, few or no quadrupeds were found upon it, except hogs, which had been left there by the Portuguese. For convenience of carriage to the sea fide, some of the planters at first procured camels, which undoubtedly would in all respects have been preferable to horfes for their sugar and other works ; but the nature of the climate disagreeing with that animal, it was found impossible to preserve the breed. They then applied for horses to Old and New-England; from the former they had those that were fit for flow and draught; from the latter those that were proper for mounting their militia, and for the saddle. They had likewise some of an inferior breed from Curassao, and other settlements. They are reported to have had their first breed of black cattle from Bonavista, and the isle of May; they now breed upon the island, and often do the work of horses. Their asses are very serviceable in carrying burdens to and from the plantations, The hogs of Barbadoes are finer eating than those of Britain, but the few feep they have are not near so good. They likewise have goats, which, wlien young, are excellent food. Raccoons and monkeys are also found here in great abundance. A variety of birds are produced on Barbadoes, of which the humming bird is the most remarkable. Wild fowl do not often frequent this island, but soinetimes teal are found ncar their ponds. A bird which they call
the man of war, is said to meet ships at twenty leagues from land, and their return is, to the inhabitants, a fure fign of the arrival of these fhips. When the wind blows from the south and southwest, they have flocks of curlews, plovers, snipes, wild pigeons, and wild ducks. The wild pigeons are very fat and plentful at such: feasons, and rather larger than those of England. The tame pigeons, pullets, ducks, and poultry of all kinds, that are bred at Barbadoes, have also a fine flavour, and are accounted more delicious than those of Europe. Their rabbits are scarce; they have no hares, and if they have deer of any kind, they are kept as curioGties. The infects of Barbadoes are not venomous, nor do either their snakes or their scorpions ever iting. The muskettoes are troublesome, and bite, but are more tolerable in Barbadoes than on the continent. Various other insects are found on the island, some of which are troublesome, but in no greater degree than those that are produced by every warm summer in England. Barbadoes is well supplied with fish, and some caught in the sea furrounding it are almost peculiar to itself, such as the parrot fish, snappers, grey cavallos, terbums, and coney fih. The mullets, lobsters, and crabs caught here are excellent ; and the green turtle is, perhaps, the greatest delicacy that ancient or modern luxury can boast of. At Barbadoes this delicious fhell fish seldom sells for less than a fhilling a pound, and often for more. There is found in this island a kind of land crab, which eats herbs wherever it can find them, and Melters itself in houses and hollow trees. According to report, they are a fhell fish of pafage, for in March they travel to ihe sea in great numbers.
The inhabitants may be reduced to three classes, viz. the masters, the white servants, and the blacks. The former are either Englisli, Scots, or Irish ; but the great encouragement given by the government to the peopling of this and other Welt-Indian islands, induced some Dutch, French, Portuguese, and Jews, to settle among them; by which, after a certain time, they acquire the rights of naturalization in Great-Britain. The white servants, whether by covenant or purchase, lead more easy lives than the day• labourers in England, and when they come to be overseers, their wages and other allowances are considerable. The manners of the white inhabitants in general are the same as in most polite towns and countries in Europe. The capital of the island is Bridge-town.
When the English, some time after the year 1625, first landed here, they found it the most destitute place they had hitherto visited. It had not the least appearance of ever having been peopled even by savages. There was no kind of beasts of pasture or of prey, no fruit, no herb, no root fit for supporting the life of man. Yet, as the climate was so good, and the soil appeared fertile, fome gentlemen of small fortune in England refolved to become adventurers thither. The trees were so large, and of a wood so hard and stubborn, that it was with great difficulty they could clear as much ground as was necessary for their subsistence. By unremitting perseverance, however, they brought it to yield them a to. lerable support; and they found that cotton and indigo agreed well with the foil, and that tobacco, which was beginning to come into repute in England, answered tolerably. These profpe&ts, together with the storm between king and parliament, which was beginning to break out in England, induced many new adventurers to transport themselves into this island. And what is extremely remarkable, so great was the increase of people in Barbadoes, twentyfive years after its first settlement, that in 1630, it contained more than fifty thoufand whites, and a much greates number of negro and Indian flaves. The latter they acquired by means not at all to their honour ; for they feized upon a!l those unhappy men, with. out any pretence, in the neighbouring iflands, and carried them into flavery ; a practice which has rendered the Caribbee Indians irrecon. cileable to us ever fince. They had begun a little before this to cultivate fugar, which foon rendered them extremely wealthy. The number of slaves therefore was still augmented; and in 1676 it is fupposed that their number amounted to one hundred thousand, which, together with fifty thousand whites, make one hundred and fifty thousand on this small spot; a degree of population unknown in Holland, in China, or any other part of the world most renowned for numbers. At the above period, Barbadoes employed four hundred fail of mips, one with another, of one hundred and fifiy tons, in their trade, Their annual exports in sugar, indigo, ginger, cotton, and citronwater, were above thirty-five thousand pounds, and their circulating cash at home was two hundred thoufard pounds. Such was the increase of population, trade, and wealth, in the course of fifty years, But fince that time this island has been much on the decline, which is to be attributed partly to the growth of the French sugar colonies, and partly to our own establishments in the neighbouring itles. Their 5
numbers at present are said to be twenty thousand whites, and one hundred thousand Naves. Their commerce consists of the fame ar. ticles as formerly, though they deal in them to less extent.
Barbadoes is divided into five districts and eleven parillies, and contains four towns, viz. Bridge-town, Ostins, or Charles-town, St. James's, formerly called the Hole, and Speight's-town. Bridge-town, the capital, before it was destroyed by the fires of 1766, consisted of about fifteen hundred houses, which were mostly built of brick; and it is still the feat of government, and may be called the chief residence of the governor, who is provided with a country villa called Pilgrims, fituated within a mile of it; his salary was raised by Queen Anne from twelve hundred to two thousand pounds per ann. the whole of which is paid out of the exchequer, and charged to the account of the four and a half per cent. duty. The form of the government of this iland so very nearly resembles that of Jamaica, which has already been described, that it is unnecetiary to enter into detail, except to observe that the council is composed of twelve members, and the assembly of twenty-two. The most important variation respects the court of chancery, which in Barbadoes is constituted of the governor and council, whereas in Jamaica the governor is fole chancellor. On the other hand, in Barbadoes, the governor fits in council, even when the latter are acting in a legislative capacity : this in Jamaica would be confidered improper and unconstitutional. It may also be observed, shat the courts of grand feffions, common pleas and exchequer in Barbadoes, are distinct from each other, and not as in Jamaica, united and blended in one supreme court of judicature.
We shall close our account of Barbadoes with the following authentic document,
An ACCOUNT of the Number of Veisels, their Tonnage and Number of Men, including their repeated Voyages, that
cleared Outwards from the land of BARBADOES to all parts of the World, between the 5th of January, 1787, and the
& so del
11,521 15 10 54 6,416 379 2,668 0 0 213,400 700
5 2 3,2 17 13 4 41 3,182 237 2,742 0 o 145,100 11,700
69 16 18,080 601 78 5,694 2,000
Br. Am. Colonies