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arrival he had another son, named Oudoceus, who, in compliance with a promise previously made to Teilo, was, like his brothers, destined for the profession of religion. From his childhood, Oudoceus excelled in learning and eloquence, as well as in the purity and holiness of his life; and when Teilo visited Armorica, his virtues were shining as a burning light.* He attracted the especial notice of his uncle, whom he accompanied on his return to Wales; but the time when he succeeded him as bishop or archbishop of Llandaff, belongs to the next generation.†
Among the companions of St. Teilo, after his return from Armorica, are named Lunapeius, Gurmaet, Cynmur, Toulidauc, Luhil, and Fidelis. The orthography of their names is corrupt, and only three of them can be recognized. Toulidauc was the saint of a church, once called Llandeulydog, in the southern part of Pembrokeshire,§ which was bestowed by Rhydderch ab Iestin on the bishoprick of Llandaff, probably on account of the connexion subsisting between Teilo and its founder. Gurmaet was the saint of a church called, in the grant of Rhydderch, " Languruaet," which was also given to the bishoprick of Llandaff, apparently for the same reason; its situation corresponds with that of Llandeilo'r Fân, Brecknockshire. Luhil was the saint of Llywel, a parish adjoining Llandeilo'r Fân, and which had three saints; the two others being David and Teilo.
Samson was the son of Amwn Ddu ab Emyr Llydaw by Anna, daughter of Meurig ab Tewdrig. As he was born in Glamorganshire,|| his birth may be dated after the general emigration of the Armorican saints under Cadfan; and as
* "Ut candela supra candelabrum," is the Latin illustration.
§ Godwin's Bishops, and Myv. Archaiology, Vol. III. p. 359.
none of the before-mentioned children of Amwn Ddu* are described to have been children of Anna, it may be concluded that Anna was a second wife of Amwn Ddu, married to him after his arrival in Britain. The Life of this saint, in the Regestum Landavense, contains several inconsistencies; but it may be learned from Achau y Saint that he was a member of the college of Illtyd, and that upon the death of Peirio he succeeded to the presidency of that society: he afterwards went over to Armorica, where he was appointed bishop of Dole. This last circumstance, as already shown,† has been attributed to two other persons of the same name; and the confusion thence arising has thrown an appearance of doubt upon the history of the son of Amwn Ddu, for whom some writers have claimed the rank of archbishop. The existence, however, of Samson a bishop, whose age corresponds with the present, is maintained upon authentic testimony; since it is shown by Usher, from the Concilia Galliæ, that a prelate of that name subscribed the decrees of the Council of Paris in the year 557. That this was the person who held the see of Dole is generally acknowledged, and the traditions of that place agree with the Welsh authorities as to his family and connexions. But he was only a bishop, as appears by his signature, though it is probable that he was appointed without the consent of his metropolitan; for the church of Tours, which claimed a superior jurisdiction over Armorica, was in the country of the Franks, and the Armoricans were at this time struggling for political independence. Such was the view of the question given by the clergy of Tours to the Pope, at the time Giraldus demanded the restitution of the pall to Menevia ; and the explanation
* Page 218.
+ Page 229.
The statement made by the clergy of Tours was as follows:"Cum olim tota Britannia (Minor) fuisset Turonensi ecclssiæ tanquam metropoli suæ subjecta; Britannis tandem conspirantibus contra regem Francorum, et proprium sibi constituentibus regem, occasione Beati Sam
is supported by the authenticated fact that a council was held at Tours A. D. 567, in which the archbishop of Tours was acknowledged to be the metropolitan, and it was decreed that no one should presume to ordain either a Briton or a Roman to the office of a bishop in Armorica, without the consent and permission of the metropolitan or the other bishops of the province.* The independence of Armorica seems to have been asserted by Budic, who was the friend of Samson; but there appears also to have been another chieftain, named Iudual or Juthael, who was deprived of his dominions by an usurper named Commorus, and sent a prisoner to Childebert, king of the Franks, when the intercession of the bishop procured his release, and he was restored to his possessions. The Welsh accounts proceed to say, though the reason is not explained, that Samson returned from Armorica to the college of Illtyd, where he died; and in the church-yard of Lantwit Major, two large stone crosses still remain, one of them having three several inscriptions, the first purporting that it was the cross of Iltutus and Samson, the second that Samson erected the cross for his soul, and the third that one Samuel was the carver; the other cross has but one inscription, which, however, is longer and more legible than those on its neighbour,
sonis quondam Eboracensis archiepiscopi, qui dum in partibus Britanniæ pateretur exilium, in Dolensi ecclesiâ cum archiepiscopalibus insignibus ministrârat, Dolensis ecclesia contra Turonensem supercilium elationis assumpsit: Britannis volentibus sibi novum archiepiscopum, sicut novum regem creaverant, suscitare.”—Usher, from the Register of Pope Innocent III. A. D. 1199. The only error in this explanation seems to have been, that Samson was an archbishop of York.
* In Turonensis II. hisce temporibus (anno videlicet DLXVII.) habiti Canone IX. Metropolitani nomine non alium quam Turonensem archiepiscopum designatum constet; ubi cautum est, nequis Britannum aut Romanum in Armorico, sine metropolitani aut comprovincialium voluntate aut literis, episcopum ordinare præsumat. Usher, page 1011. + Usher, pp. 1013, 1141.
and state that it was prepared by Samson for his soul, and for the souls of Juthael the king, and Arthmael.*
Tathan, in Latin Tathæus, another son of Amwn Ddu and Anna, was a member of the college of Illtyd, after which he settled at a place in Glamorganshire where he founded a church, since called Llandathan or St. Athan's. From hence he was called away to be the first president of a college or monastery at Caer-Went in Monmouthshire, under the patronage of Ynyr Gwent, to whom he became confessor. In his old age he returned to the church which he had founded, and was buried there. From the "Life of St. Tathæus" by John of Teignmouth it appears that he was patronized, not by Ynyr Gwent, but by Caradog, the son of Ynyr, which is more consistent with the chronological arrangement here adopted.
Armorica, from whence a large number of saints had emigrated in the past generation, seems now to have received a supply from Wales. The successor of Samson in the bishoprick of Dole was St. Maglorius, whose parents were Umbrafel a brother of Amwn Ddu, and Afrella a sister of Anna; he was therefore doubly related to his predecessor, whom he accompanied to that country, after having been brought up together with him in the school of Iltutus. In like manner, Machutus or Maclovius, a son of Caradog ab Ynyr Gwent by Derwela a sister of Amwn Ddu, is recorded to have passed over, and become bishop of Aletha, now St. Malo's. To the number may be added, Paulus and Leonorius, members of the college of Iltutus, the former of whom was appointed bishop of Leon. Their lives have been written by the biographers of the Gallican saints, a reference to whose works may be of service in authenticating Welsh traditions.†
* A facsimile of the last inscription, with an interesting account of the manner in which the cross was discovered by the late Mr. Edward Williams, may be seen in Turner's Vindication of the Ancient British Poems.
The names of the four saints in this paragraph are in their Latin orthography.
Isan, a saint of the college of Illtyd; his genealogy is not given, but as he was a contemporary of Samson, his date may be assigned to this period. He was the founder of Llanishen, Glamorganshire, and Llanishen, Monmouthshire.
Cennydd, a son of Gildas ab Caw, was at first a member of the college of Cattwg, and afterwards the founder of a religious society, called Côr Cennydd, at a place in Gower, Glamorganshire, where the church of Llangennydd is now situated. It is said that he founded a church above Cardiff, which gave name to the district of Seinghennydd,* but it has not been identified with any of the churches at present existing in that neighbourhood.
Madog ab Gildas was a saint of the college of Cennydd, and the founder of Llanfadog, a church in the vicinity of Llangennydd.
Dolgan ab Gildas, a saint of the college of Cattwg.
Nwython, or Noethon ab Gildas, a member of the society of Cattwg. It is said that there were formerly chapels dedicated to him and his brother, Gwynnog, under Llangwm Dinmael, Denbighshire.t
Gwynno, or Gwynnog ab Gildas, a member of the society of Cattwg, and the patron saint of Y Faenor, Brecknockshire. Under the name of Gwynno, he is considered to have been one of the three founders of Llantrisaint, Glamorganshire; and Llanwynno, a chapel under Llantrisaint, is dedicated to him. Llanwnog in the county of Montgomery claims him for its founder under the name of Gwynnog; and in the chancel window of this church he is delineated in painted glass in episcopal habits, with a mitre on his head, and a crosier in his hand; underneath is an inscription in old English characters, "Sanctus Gwinocus, cujus animæ propitietur Deus. Amen.”‡
* Cambrian Biography.
+ Myvyrian Archaiology, Vol. II. Cambrian Quarterly Magazine, Vol. I.