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Next among the Lutherans came the mencement of the Revolutionary war. But Swedish colony that .settled on the Dela- ! it, as well as other churches, suffered much ware in 1636. It flourished for a while, from that war. Many of the German colbut receiving no new-comers from Swe- onists took up arms in defence of their den, the colonists gradually fell into the adopted country. The early wars with use of the English tongue, and as there the Indians, also, proved very prejudicial were no Lutheran clergymen who could to the Lutheran churches on the frontiers. preach in English, on losing their Swedish The rapid progress made by this Church pastors they went to the English Episco- since the Revolution, and particularly since: pal Church for religious teachers, and be the constitution of its General Synod in came ultimately merged in that deņomi- 1820, may be seen from the following sucnation. Nevertheless, by their charter cinct summary, taken from the Lutheran: they are still styled Swedish Lutheran Almanac for 1843, and fully to be relied on. churches.
The number of Ministers and Licentiates is The third Lutheran emigration to the
1,371 United States was that of the Germans.
146,303 The first settlements were in Pennsylva- Besides one General Synod, there are nia, soon after the grant of that province nineteen District Synods, twelve of which to William Penn, in 1680, whence they are united with the General Synod. There spread, by degrees, not only through Penn-are four theological seminaries, one colsylvania, but also into Maryland, Virginia, lege, and four classical schools, one or-. the interior of New York, and, since the phan house, an education society, a forRevolution, over the Western States. Em- eign missionary society, and a book esigration from Germany may be said to have tablishment. During the year 1841, the fairly commenced on a large scale in 1710. Lutheran ministry received an accession Its primary cause lay in the persecution of fifty-eight new members ; 9022 new of the Protestants in the Palatinate. It members were added to the churches by has continued from that time to this day, confirmation, and 9000 by emigration :adding tens of thousands almost every 17,776 children and adults were baptized. year to the population of the country. The Three new synods were formed in 1841, western, northern, and southern parts of seventy-six new churches built, and eighGermany, and the German parts of Swit-ty-eight new congregations organized. zerland, together with Alsace, in France, These results do, indeed, call for hearthave, from first to last, sent immense mul- felt thanks to the Giver of all good. I titudes to America in quest of homes. know not a single circumstance more
The first emigrants brought no pastors promising in regard to true religion in with them, but they had pious schoolmas- America, than its rapid progress among ters who held meetings on the Sabbath, the vast German population of the United and read the Scriptures, Arndt's True States, as exhibited in the Lutheran and Christianity, and other religious books. German Reformed Churches. Wonderful, The Swedish ministers, too, of those early indeed, has been the change during the times visited the small scattered groups of last twenty years. faithful souls, and administered to them The establishment of Pennsylvania Colthe ordinances of religion.
lege, at Gettysburg, under the auspices of Among the first German ministers in the General Synod, has been a great blessAmerica were the Rev. Messrs. Bolzius ing. This college, which has been liberand Gronau, who laboured in a colony ally assisted by the Legislature of Pennfrom Saltzburg, in the south of Germany. sylvania, and receives $1000 a year from These emigrants had been driven from that state, has a president, five able protheir native country by persecution, and fessors, and about 150 students. The Genhad settled in Georgia. Other emigrants eral Synod's theological seminary, which, from Germany settled about the same time also, is placed at Gettysburg, has three in the Carolinas, where a considerable distinguished professors, and usually from number of Lutheran churches are to be twenty-five to thirty students. It began found at this day. In 1742, the Rev. Hen- in 1826, with one professor, the Rev. Samry Melchior Muhlenberg, an eminently uel S. Schmucker, D.D., to whom, under learned, zealous, and successful minister, God, it mainly owes its existence; since arrived, and, during a course of fifty years, which time it has educated upward of was the honoured instrument of greatly 150 young men for the ministry. The inpromoting religion among the German pop-stitution is most pleasantly situated, and ulation. He was one of the founders, in has a well-selected library, great part of fact, of the Lutheran Church in America, which, together with a considerable amount which, by repeated arrivals of other dis- of funds for the founding of the seminary, tinguished men from Germany, had be- was obtained in Germany through the efcome widely extended before the com- forts of the Rev. Benjamin Kurtz, D.D.
* Annals of the Swedes on the Delaware," by The Lutherans have three other theological the Rev. J. C. Clay, p. 3, 4, 161, &c.
schools, one at Hartwick, in New-York, another at Lexington, in South Carolina, as the following: First, it entirely rejects the and a third at Columbus, Ohio. Sixty-one authority of the fathers in ecclesiastical controyoung men were prosecuting their studies versy. The Reformers relied too much at these in 1841, and 115 more were en- upon them. Secondly, it no longer regaged in preparatory studies at academies quires assent to the doctrine of the real or and colleges. These simple facts exhibit bodily presence of the Saviour in the Euchaan extraordinary change in the state of this rist. In other words, it has renounced the church from what it was twenty-five years doctrine of consubstantiation, and holds ago.
that of our Lord's spiritual presence, as Among its distinguished men we may understood by other evangelical Protestmention the Rev. Messrs. Bolzius, Gronau, ants. Again, it has rejected the remnant of H. M. Muhlenburg, Kunze, Schmidt, Kurtz, private confession which it at first retained. another Muhlenburg, Helmuth, Melshei- Fourth, it has abolished the remains of Pamer, Lochman, Schäffer, Shober, Geissen- pal superstition in the abjuration of evil hainer, Schmucker (father of the profes- spirits at baptism. Fifth, it has made a sor), all men of great influence in their more systematic adjustment of its docday. Several of its living ministers, also, trines. Sixth, it has adopted a more regare men of acknowledged talents, learn- ular and a stricter system of church disciing, piety, and usefulness. Many of the pline. This, as respects individual churchearlier ministers were educated at Franke's es, is essentially Presbyterian. The SynInstitute at Halle, which, indeed, may be ods, in their organization and powers, reregarded as the mother of the Lutheran semble Presbyteries, but with fewer forChurch throughout a large part of the Uni- malities, and their decisions are couched ted States.*
more in the form of recommendations; The same doctrines are held as in the while the General Synod is altogether adevangelical Lutheran churches in the vari- visory, and resembles the General Assoous countries of Europe, with some differ- ciations of the Congregational churches ences which we shall presently notice. of New England. Conferences of severThey comprehend the following points: al neighbouring ministers, and protracted “The Trinity of persons in one Godhead;" meetings, are held, with preaching, for the “ the proper and eternal divinity of the benefit of their congregations. And, lastly, Lord Jesus Christ ;" "the universal de- its ininisters are no longer bound to all the pravity of our race;" “ the vicarious na minute points of an extended human creed. ture and unlimited extent of the atone- All that is required of them is a belief in ment;"
;" " that men are justified gratuitous- the Bible, and in the Augsburg Confession ly, for Christ's sake, through faith ;" “ the as a substantially correct expression of word and sacraments means of grace ;' Bible doctrines. The American Lutheran “a future judgment, and the award of eter- Church thinks that a written creed should nal life and happiness to the righteous, and be short, comprehending, like that of the eternal misery to the wicked.” On the sub-apostles, which was for a long time the ject of election, predestination, &c., they only creed in the primitive churches, the are well known to be rather Arminian than doctrines necessary to salvation. So much Calvinistic.
for its doctrines, order, and discipline.* The Lutheran Church in America has a I have only to add, that this church short but excellent liturgy, while her min- takes a deep and increasing interest every isters are at the same time allowed a dis- year in the religious and benevolent uncretionary power with regard to its use. dertakings of our times. Sunday-schools It observes a few of the chief festivals, and Bible-classes are very generally to such as Christmas, Good Friday, Easter be found in her congregations. She has Sunday, Ascension Day, and Whitsunday. had an Education Society, with numerous Like the Episcopal and the German Re- branches, since 1835, which has assisted formed churches, it administers the rite of above 100 young men in preparing for the confirmation to baptized persons after their ministry. We shall speak hereafter of her arriving at years of discretion, and going Foreign Missionary Society, founded in through a course of catechetical and bibli- 1837. Finally, two valuable religious pacal instruction.
pers, one in English, and the other in GerIt deserves notice that the Lutheran man, extensively diffuse among the peoChurch in the United States, as those ple intelligence relating to the progress of who are intimately acquainted with it will the Redeemer's kingdom on the earth. acknowledge, differs from what it once was, and from some of its sister churches * In making this statement, I have been greatly in Europe, in regard to a few such points indebted to Professor Schmucker's “ Portraiture
," and his “ Retrospect of Lutheranism * Nor have the churches in America ceased to of the General Synod of the Church.
in the United States," both published at the request feel a warm interest in the Alma Mater of so many of their pastors. When she suffered so much from the French in 1814, collections were promptly made by them, and forwarded to the amount of $2334.
MAN REFORMED CHURCH.
and accepted. During this period the sem
inary was removed from Carlisle to York, SMALLER PRESBYTERIAN CHURCHES : THE GER- and from that to Mercersburg in the same
state, about fifty miles from Carlisle, and This offshoot from the Church, bearing there it is now permanently established. the same name in Germany, is, like it, Marshall College was opened in connexPresbyterian in its government, and Cal- ion with it in 1837, and the Rev. Dr. Rauch, vinistic in its doctrinal standards.
who had been president of the preparatory The “Reformed” being mingled with department of the seminary at York, was the Lutherans in the early German emi- chosen president. Under that distinguishgrations, societies of the former soon ap- ed scholar and excellent minister it soon peared, particularly in Pennsylvania, and enjoyed an enviable reputation; but in the spread, ere long, to the south and west of spring of 1840 the church was called to that province. These, though long exist-lament his premature decease. The presing apart, were at last united in 1746, by ent theological professor, Dr. Nevin, is a the Rev. Mr. Schlatter, who, having been man of distinguished abilities and deep pisent from Europe for the purpose, suc-ety. There are about twenty-five students ceeded in giving a better organization as of theology, and the academical classes well as more union to their churches. have an attendance of from eighty to 100 Their increase since has given them an youths. important place among American Presby- The German Reformed Church seems terians.
to have experienced a crisis.in 1841, that It is a singular fact, that the first mission- year having been appointed to be celebraaries to the German Reformed in Ameri-ied as a centenary jubilee for all its conca were sent out by the Classis of Am
gregations. A century having elapsed sterdam and the Synod of North Holland, since its first organization in America, through which channel their churches con such an acknowledgment of God's mertinued to receive their ministerial supplies, cies was deemed eminently becoming; and and to which they were kept, down to the that the occasion might be turned to the year 1792, in the same subordination as best account, it was resolved that an efthe Dutch churches in America used to fort should be made to raise sufficient funds be. Mr. Schlatter, the pioneer in this for the endowment of the seminary and good cause, was soon followed by other college at Mercersburg. The result must men sent over by the said classis and have fully realized the expectations of synod.*
the church's most sanguine friends, for at The dependance of the Reformed Ger- a late meeting of its synod upward of man Church in the United States on the 80,000 dollars were ascertained to have Dutch Church in Europe was brought to been subscribed, and to a large amount a close in 1792, in consequence of the dif- actually collected, while the contributions ficulty of maintaining the previous rela- of more than half of the congregations had tions of America with Holland after the yet to be reported. Assurances have since conquest of the latter by the French. An been received that more than 100,000 dolindependent constitution was according- lars, the amount originally specified, will ly adopted, constituting a Synod, consist- be obtained. ing of clerical and lay delegates ; but it The field which this church has to ocwas not until 1819 that the synod was di- cupy is very extensive. Besides the large vided into classes or presbyteries, and German population in the Atlantic States, based upon a representation of the classes the Great West--the Valley of the Misby clerical and lay delegates. The church sissippi-over which German immigrants being now left to its own resources, the are now settling in vast numbers, cries training of young men for the ministry to this and to the Lutheran Church for was for many years intrusted to such pas- help; and it is hoped that in a few years a tors as were willing to receive students host of labourers from both will be raised of theology into their families ; still the up for the harvest, which is ripe for the want of proper institutions for that pur- sickle. pose was deeply felt. At length, in 1824, The German Reformed Synod has now the synod resolved that they would have in its connexion about 180 ministers, disa theological seminary, and this resolution tributed thus : 112 in Pennsylvania; thirtook effect the following year, by the open-ty-seven in Ohio ; three in Indiana and ing of an institution at Carlisle, a pleasant Illinois ; ten in Maryland ; ten in Virginia town in Central Pennsylvania. Dr. Mayer and North Carolina ; and three in Newwas appointed the first professor, and con-York. It is supposed to have about 600 tinued in the discharge of that office until congregations, and from 75,000 to 100,000 1839, when his resignation was tendered communicants. It may be said with truth * Among these were Weiber, Steiner, Otterbein,
that its congregations are rapidly increasHendel, Helfenstein, Helfrich, Gebbard, Dallicker, ing in the knowledge of Jesus Christ, and Blumer, Faber, Becker, and Herman.
from present indications, we hail the period
SMALLER GERMAN SECTS.
as not far distant when, instead of being attained a good degree of organization and reckoned, as they have long been, among efficiency. the least of the tribes of Israel, they will 2. The“ EVANGELICAL ASSOCIATION.” This be found occupying a place in the very denomination, also a sect of German Mevan of the sacramental host of the Lord. thodists, was founded in the year 1800. In home missionary, educational, and for- The founder was the Rev. Jacob Albright. eign missionary efforts, they are taking a His associates were the Rev.John Walker, deeper and deeper interest every year, George Miller, and others. With regard uniting with the Congregational and New to doctrine and church government, there School Presbyterian churches in support- is some similarity with the Methodist Epising the American Home Missionary Soci- copal Church. This Association has at ety, the American Education Society, and present two bishops and four annual conthe American Board of Commissioners for ferences, viz., those of East and West Foreign Missions.
Pennsylvania, Ohio, and Illinois. It also has churches and stations in Maryland,
Virginia, New York, Indiana, Missouri, and CHAPTER XIV.
the Territory of Iowa. The annual conferences embrace districts, circuits, sta
tions, and missions. There is a General THERE are some smaller bodies of Ger- Conference, which meets once in four man Christians the United States, which years. This body has at present about may be classed, though not, perhaps, in 112 travelling, and nearly 200 local minisall cases without qualification, among the ters. The number of places of public worevangelical denominations. The Moravi- ship, including churches, schoolhouses, ans might have been placed here, but we and private houses, is about 900; and the have put them in a separate chapter, part number of communicants is about 14,000. ly because they are Episcopal, partly be- 3. The WINEBRENNARIANS, a sect of Gercause they are no longer purely German man Baptists, so called from their founder either in blood or language.
being a Mr. Winebrenner, a pious and First, then, there is a body called the zealous German, who lives at Harrisburg, “ UNITED BRETHREN IN CHRIST." This is a Pennsylvania, where his followers are Methodist sect, which began to rise as chiefly found. They form several congreearly as 1770, and gradually attained an gations, and are said to be quite evangeliorganization in the year 1800. The found- cal in their doctrines, and, as a body, irreers of it were the Rev. Messrs. Otterbein, proachable in their lives. Their minisBoehm, Geeting, and other German min- ters, though not well informed, have the isters, who had once belonged to the Ger- reputation of being devoted, laborious, and man Reformed, the Mennonists, and the useful men. Winebrenner seems to have Lutherans. Their first Annual Conference commenced his labours among the Gerwas held in the year 1800. From that mans very much in the spirit and with the epoch this denomination has continued to aim of Hans Houga in Norway. increase among the Germans and German 4. The MENNONISTS have some churches, descendants in Pennsylvania, Maryland, but the most of their little congregations Virginia, Ohio, Indiana, and other portions meet in private houses ; they probably of the Union, until they have at present have about 50 or 60 preachers, and perhaps one General Conference (which meets once some 200 small congregations.* They in four years), nine Annual Conferences, are an amiable, and, in the main, evangelifour bishops, six hundred ministers, of cal people, yet rendered somewhat lukewhom 250 are itinerant, and 350 are lo- warm, it is to be feared, by their worldly cal preachers. The number of places, prosperity. They are, for the most part, dechurches, schoolhouses, private houses, scended from Mennonist immigrants from etc., where they preach, is supposed to ex- Holland and Germany. Their confession . ceed two thousand. Many of their congre- of faith, as stated by one of their minisgations are small. The number of their ters, Mr. Gan, of Ryswick, in Holland, apmembers or communicants is reported to pears to be moderate orthodoxy.t. They be more than 50,000.
reject infant baptism, but though their This body, which is in all essential founder, Simon Menno, maintained that points the same, as it regards doctrines baptism should be by immersion, they do and modes of worship, as the Episcopal not deem it indispensable. On the contraMethodist Church, has been becoming more thoroughly organized from the first. vate houses oftener than in church edifices. Their
# The Mennonists meet for their worship in priWithin a few years successful efforts have congregations are very small, and for a long time been made to introduce discipline and or- scarcely existed out of Pennsylvania. der into their churches, and to require from t I fear that their orthodoxy is less unequivocal the preachers regular and accurate reports They are opposed to the use of the words Person
and general than it was sixty or eighty years ago. of the number of communicants, etc. This and Trinity, when speaking of the Father, Son, and looks well, and shows that this body has Holy Ghost.
ry, they sprinkle, or, rather, pour water doctrines and polity of the body from upon the head of the candidate, after which which they seceded, their dissatisfaction follow the imposition of hands and prayer. with which arose from their preachers not They have no order of preachers, but eve- being admitted into the itineracy, and, ry one in their assembly has the liberty to con
consequently, having no share in the govspeak, to expound the Scriptures, to sing, ernment of the church, nor a right to reand to pray.
ceive salaries, being only local preachers. The Mennonists of Holland, as is well There were one or two other secessions known, claim to be descended in the main a little later, one of which was headed by from those Waldenses who, towards the the Rev. Mr. Stillwell, in the city of Newclose of the twelfth century, emigrated in York, by which the Methodist Episcopal great numbers to that country. If this be Church lost a few of its congregations, but so, then the Mennonists in America have they were not of such consequence as to in their veins the blood of those wonder- call for special notice. But it sustained ful survivers of long ages of persecution a far more serious loss in 1828, when a and oppression.
considerable number of preachers, chiefly local, and of lay members, withdrew from
it at Baltimore, and in other parts of the CHAPTER XV.
country. As this secession has resulted
in the foi tion of a new communion, 'SMALLER METHODIST DENOMINATIONS.
which promises to be permanent, it calls Secessions of greater or less magnitude for farther notice. have detached themselves from time to In what was said of the Methodist Epistime, and glided off like avalanches from copal Church, the reader will have rethe Mount Zion of the Methodist Episco- marked that its constitution lodges the supal Church, not, however, so as to dimin-preme power, legislative, judicial, and exish its grandeur, or change its physiogno- ecutive, in the itinerating ministers. They my; but most of them sooner or later alone compose_ the Yearly and General melted away to nothing.
Conferences. But, to two classes of the The first that occurred was that of the members, this has been felt to be oppresRev. William Hammet, of Charleston, sive. First, to the local preachers, who, South Carolina, in 1785. His followers although they may be ordained ministers, took the name of Primitive Methodists. can have no voice in the government of The second was that of the Rev. James the church. Nay, ministers who may have O'Kelly, in Virginia, about 1792. His fol- been for years in the itinerating service, lowers called themselves Republican Meth- the moment that, from sickness, duty to odists. This was by far the more serious their families, insufficient support, or any of the two, but both soon and forever dis- other cause, they leave that service, have appeared from the scene.
no longer any voice in the affairs of that In the year 1816, about 1000 of the peo- church. Next, there were laymen who ple of colour in the Methodist Episcopal thought that the laity ought to be repreChurch at Philadelphia, headed by a Mr. sented in the church courts ; that is, Richard Allen, seceded from the main should be admitted to the Annual and Genbody Allen was man of considerable eral Conferences. talent, who, from having been once a slave This dissatisfaction began to assume a in one of the Southern States, besides pro- more decided character about the year curing his freedom, had acquired a hand- 1820. A journal having been established some property, and becoming a preacher for the purpose of advocating what were in the Methodist connexion, rose to be or called “equal rights,” this led to the senddained an elder. After his secession he ing up of numerous petitions to the Genwas ordained a bishop at the first General eral Conference held in 1824. These beConference of his followers, by prayer and ing unfavourably received, much excitethe imposition of hands by five local el- ment and discussion followed. The party ders, of whom one was a presbyter in the that wanted reform urged their demands Protestant Episcopal Church. What the with more eagerness, and, consequently, number of ministers in this small cóm- some suspensions from church privileges munion may be I know not. Since the took place in Baltimore and elsewhere. death of Allen, instead of a bishop it has Such was the state of matters when the two superintendents.
General Conference met in 1828 ; failing, Another secession of coloured members in obtaining redress from which, they who took place at New-York in 1819, and it has thought themselves aggrieved seceded, and now several congregations of people of formed a new body, under the title of the colour in New-Jersey, Connecticut, Rhode PROTESTANT METHODIST CHURCH IN THE Island, and Massachusetts. Three years UNITED States. In taking this step they ago they had twenty-one circuits, thirty- have made no change in their doctrines, two preachers, and 2608 communicants. nor any innovations in church polity, beThey are believed to have adhered to the lyond what they had unsucce