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RUSSIA - RUSSIAN ART (6)
lavski, and for his contributions to the success Women? (Seltzer); (Savva) (Seltzer); (The of this theatre, which has had such Sorrows of Belgium (Bernstein); King enormous influence over the western European Hunger!, (Kayden; in Poet Lore, 1911); Love stage. His realism was of so distinct a type for One's Neighbor? (Seltzer). that it struck even the Russians, who called Chekhov (or Tchekoff).- (The Sea Gull' him the “poet of actuality.”
(Eiseman; in Poet Lore, 1913); "The Sea Gorki said of himself, "I have come from Gull' and (The Cherry Orchard (Calderon); below, from the nethermost ground of life, (The Sea Gull,' Ivanov, Uncle Vania' and where is nought but smudge and murk.
(The Swan Song) (Fell); (The Three Sisters,' I am the truthful voice of life, the harsh cry (The Cherry Orchard and other plays (West); of those who still abide down there and who The Cherry Orchard (Mandell); A Marhave let me come up to bear witness to their riage Proposal (Chambers, also by House); suffering.” This statement is not true to so (The Wedding and The Jubilee! (edited by great an extent of his dramas as of his stories, Bechhofer). since there are in them many characters of the EVREINOV.- A Merry Death' and 'The middle class, as for instance, in The Smug Beautiful Despot! (edited by Bechhofer), Citizen, (The Barbarians,' and even Enemies, GOGOL. — The Revisor (also called 'The which deals with the labor problems. All of Inspector-General, Sykes) ; same (Mandell); Gorki's plays are powerful - gripping, in fact. same (Seltzer).
Some of Andreev's plays, as Ekaterina GORKI.- The Children of the Sun (Wolfe; Ivanovna, Professor Storitsyn, "To the in Poet Lore, 1906); "The Smug Citizen' Stars, Savva) and Days of our Life) fol- (Hopkins; in Poet Lore, 1906); (Summer low the traditional type we have just been dis- Folk) (Delano; in Poet Lore, 1895); (A cussing, but he has also produced a number of Night's Lodging (Hopkins; in Poet Lore, symbolic dramas which is an entirely new 1905); same separately under title (Submerged); type. One of these, (The Life of Man,' has same under title (The Lower Depths) (Irving); met with remarkable success on the stage, but same under the title In Lower Depths) others. present enormous technical difficulties in (Chambers). presentation ('The Ocean' and The Black
GRIBOEDOV.-'Gore ot uma? (Woe from Maskers'), or were prohibited by the censor Wit' (Benardaky); also same under the title, (King Hunger'). Andreev represents, par ex.
(The Misfortune of being Clever.) cellence, the “tragedy of thought” mentioned Kossatch (pseudonym: Lesya Ukrainka). above. Indeed, he has written one drama en- - "The Babylonian Captivity' (from the Little titled “Thought. Andreev is second perhaps Russian language by Volska). only to Dostoevski in his powers of psychologi
OSTROVSKI.- (The Storm (Garnett); (A cal analysis, and few, it any, surpass him in Protégé of the Mistress, Poverty is No power of vivid description. His style is at Crime,' 'Sin and Sorrow Are Common to times impressionalistic in a remarkable degree, All, and It's a Family Affair) (edited by although he is equally at home with realism Noyes). and symbolism.
PUSHKIN.—(The Statue Guest, Mozart The last three decades have brought fortlı and Saglieri? and Boris Godunov? (Turner). many other meritorious writers of the drama TOLSTOI, LEO.— (The Fruits of Culture) (L. in Russia. Yushkevich in his King Hunger and A. Maude; also by Wiener; by Schumm; an D Glank (also called “The City').
by Dillon); (The Power of Darkness' (L. and has drawn faithful pictures of the life of
A. Maude; also by Wiener); "The Living the Jews in Russia. Artsybashev produced Corpse',(Wright); The Light That Shines in a drama Jealously,' which for months was the
the Darkness (Wright); (The Cause of it sensation of the Russian intellectuals. Other All (Wright); (The First Distiller) (L. and writers of the drama are Chirikov, Nadson,
A. Maude). Garin and Chulkov. Evreinov is less distinctly
von. Visin.—'The Choice of a Tutor) (edited Russian.
by Bechhofer). The historical drama cannot be said to be a
Bibliography.- Kropotkin, Ideals and great success in Russia. Only a few patriotic
Realities of Russian Literature); Brueckner, dramas like Pushkin's "Boris Godunov) and
A Literary History of Russia'; Waliszewski, Alexis Tolstoi's trilogy Death of John the
(Russian Literature.) Consult also introducTerrible, Czar Fedor Ioannovich, "Czar
tions to the various translations. Boris,' dealing with the establishment of the
CLARENCE L. MEADER, house of the Romanovs, have occupied a
Professor of Latin, Sanskrit and General prominent place on the stage. The reason is
Linguistics, University of Michigan. that in Russia, literature has served during the 6. RUSSIAN ART. In studying Russian past century primarily as a guide to art we have to consider two distinct periods -philosophy of life and to the solution of life's the ancient and the modern. The ancient, practical problems. Hence it has dealt almost which extends from the earliest origin to exclusively with contemporary life and has left Peter I, is characterized by an imitation of the dead past to bury its dead.
Byzantine art imported into Russia from the Translations of Russian dramas into Eng- South and partly from the West, and by the lish (the names of the translators are blending of the Byzantine and the Russian eleparentheses) :
ments into an original type of art. The modern ANDREEV.—“To the Stars (Goudis; in period, which begins with Peter I, is marked Poet Lore, 1907); Anathema' (Bernstein); at first by a strong West-European influence, "Life of Man,' (The Black Maskers) and (The and later by a strict realism and the developSabine Women) (Meader and Scott); “The ment of a typical Russian art. Life of Man (Hogarth); "The Sabine The beginning of Russian art dates from the
remotest times when the Slavs, who formed the of different styles. The second group are Russian Empire, expressed their artistic in- churches whose main body is a long parallelostinct in their animal-like shaped instruments, piped, ending in two or three tent towers. The in the reproduction of their gods, in their churches of the third group are cubes ornaworks of wood, stone, metal and pottery and in mented with domes varying in number from their decorations of household objects and two to five. clothes. The history of art properly begins, At the end of the 17th century Russian however, only with the time of Saint Vladimir. architecture begins to come under the influence Immediately after the introduction of Christian- of West-European styles. The churches of ity, Byzantine builders, painters, decorators and that time have the old-established form with the engravers were called to Russia to build decorations of the baroque style then prevalent churches and decorate them. The first stone in western Europe. The innovations of Peter I churches in Kiev, the Vasilyevskaya_ and the reflected in architecture just as well as in anyDesyatinnaya, were built on the Byzantine thing else a German taste, which, however, model of the 10th century. This was an ob- with the accession of the patriotic Empress long rectangle with three apses on the eastern Elizabeth was abolished in favor of the French. end of the building. The churches which were It was not until the middle of the 19th century soon afterward built in the district of Kiev and that attempts were made to rescue native archiin the two other church districts, Novgorod and tecture from its peril. The first Russian archiPskov, and Vladimir-Susdal, are all on the tects who came into prominence only during same style with only slight modifications. Both the reign of Catherine II were A. Kokorinov, a the churches in the district of Kiev and in the pupil of Count Rastrelli, then in Russia; V. district of Vladimir-Susdal had the plan of a Bajenov and I. Sfarov. There was, however, rectangle, which was almost square, and the yet no attempt made to restore distinctly naform of a cube with two or three apses on the tional features in architecture. All of them had eastern end and a drum) attached to the semi- studied the pseudo-classical style and applied it circular cupola in the middle of the building. to their productions.
At the time of the conThe churches of the northern district, Nov- struction of the Kazanski Sobar (cathedral of gorod and Pskov, were slightly different. They Kazan), which took place under Alexander I, were polyhedral structures with the same sys- the so-called imperial style was in vogue in tem of cupolas in the centre, which was the Russia. This was the style which had degeneral characteristic of the churches of the veloped in France under Napoleon I, who tried Peloponnesus and the Grecian Archipelago. to compete in splendor with the emperors of The number of cupolas varied in the three dis- ancient Rome. A great number of Roman tricts from two to five. The drum” was later porticos, frontals, façades, supported by colonchanged, giving the cupola a belly-shape. How- nades, vast vaults in imitation of ancient ever, only the stone churches built in residences rotundas and temples appeared all over in of dukes in great cities and rich monasteries Petrograd and Moscow. The best illustration bore the Byzantine character. The wooden of the imperial style is the Stock Exchange in churches, of which there were many in the three Petrograd, which is the production of the church districts, were typically Russian. They Frenchman, T. De-Tomon. Vas. Stassov, who were the work of Russian peasants and were had reached great prominence during the years built like the izba (hut) with the roof sloping 1820–30, devised a plan in which the Latin form down on both sides. The Russian churches be- of the cross and the decoration of the imperial gan to lose their distinctive Byzantine character style, five cupolas, were combined. This comwhen Russian architecture came under the in- bination made the structures resemble the anfluence of the Italian Renaissance. The Lom- cient Russian churches. Architectural activibard style had made itself felt already in the ties were greatly spurred under Nicholas I, Vladimir-Sudal period. When Moscow be- who was a great lover of art. However, the came the capital, Fioraventi and other masters freedom of the artist was greatly hampered as were called to Moscow at the close of the 15th architecture assumed an official character. The century to erect there churches and public build- greater number of state and public buildings ings. Though the churches of Vladimir were were constructed at the order of Nicholas I taken as a model, the churches assumed new who entrusted with this work mainly Ton and characteristics with the ascendency of Moscow. Brullov. Russian architecture is indebted to Instead of the elementarv type of belfry con- Ton for the revival of its national element and sisting of one or two arches covered with a his first attempt to restore it by turning the simple span roof, lofty and elaborate bell attention of the Russian architects to old towers decorate the Russian churches after the Russian art. The tendency to return to the 15th century. Though churches of the Byzan- Byzantine and ancient Russian styles became tine style still continued being built during the more pronounced under Alexander II when 16th, 17th and 18th centuries, the new type be- the new spirit of reform allowed greater freegins to appear in the middle of the 16th cen- dom in art. tury. This type resulted from the combination The embellishments of the churches were of the Italian element and the national Rus- mosaic works, frescoes and ikons which represian style of the wooden churches. A great sented saints and prophets, complete episodes number of these churches appeared in Moscow of the life of Christ and the feasts of the in the middle of the 17th century. They were Byzantine emperors. structures of unusual beauty which betrayed Iconography was for a long time strictly the originality and rich fancy of the Russian Byzantine in character. The first sacred architects. The different models of the new pictures were imported into Russia from style can be classified in three groups. The Byzantium. The earliest ikons at Novgorod characteristic of the first is the tent-shaped roof and Kiev were productions of Greek painters.
- RUSSIAN ART (6)
There practically was no school of native the times of the eclectics, conventionality in painters until the 12th century. The teachers colors and observation of prescribed rules in the schools were Greek masters and the made Russian work of art of those days beRussians who studied with them only copied tray poor fancy and routine. The artistic prothe Greek style. Soon, however, as early as ductions of Losenko's followers lack origthe 13th century, Novgorod, one of the centres inality and national character. They treat of inconography, began to produce painters themes from holy history, ancient history, who showed ability and originality. The mythology or allegory, represented on the Russians, however, never reached any great French or Italian style. Rarely were themes distinction in this art, being hindered in their taken from Russian history. G. Ugriumov and development by the restrictions imposed by the A. Ivanov, the teacher of Brullov, rank as the Orthodox church. Despite the efforts of the first prominent Russian historical painters. ecclesiastical authorities to keep this art with- The first to part with the traditions of the in the limits of tradition, the schools of Mos- academy was Brullov, whose picture (Last Days cow and Taroslav began from the 17th century of Pompeii appeared while the pupils of onward to be influenced by Western tendencies. Ugriumov still strictly adhered to academic The school of Pskov showed Italian influence classicism. Though the Last Days of Pomalready in the 16th century. Iconography lost pei? combined classicism and romanticism, then
uch of its national character. The style of prevalent in western Europe, it threw off the the Novgorodian school, the leading style un- shackles of academic routine and first opened til far into the 15th century, which was re- the way to free creation. Next to Brullov the markable for its vividness and touch of natural- path of freedom in artistic production was ism, and that of the Pskov school, which dif- entered upon by P. Basin and Th. Bruni. Rusfered only in peculiarities of coloring, lost sian art became more successful with the armany of their good qualities with the ascend- tists' disposal of ancient gods and heroes for ency of Moscow. The art of iconography be- the sake of episodes from ancient Russian hiscame poor and remained undeveloped.
tory, which they treated in a simple and natuThe decorative art on the whole dates from ral way. This change marks the beginning of very early ages.
At first it was only an the National Historical Genre.) The origimitation of the Byzantine but later in the inators of genre were graduates of the acad16th and 17th centuries, under foreign influence, emy during the years following 1860. The most it formed a peculiar style of its own, marked famous of these were P. Chistyakov, G. by an astounding originality, diversity and Myasoyedov, N. Shustov, K. Flavitzki, H. beauty. It combined West-European, Asiatic, Litovchenko, K. Makovski, V. Shvartz, N. Ge, Byzantine and national elements. The most V. Jacobi, V. Perov, U. Rilpin. The first to characteristic Russian designs are geometrical attempt genre was A. Venetianov. The subpatterns and fanciful representations of birds, ject matter of the genre style were pictures animals and floral motifs. A very common from everyday life, such as Evening-Meetstyle is that of climbing plants, such as vine, ings,' A Hunter with his Flock,' (Travelers or ribbon-like strips interlacing in fanciful ways, Caught in a Storm,' Scenes of Provincial forming different angles and ending with Life. In the 18th century portrait painting griffons and other fantastical animals and even became very prominent and there was almost human faces. Usually more than one color 110 painter of genre who did not paint portraits is used.
also. At a time of growth of wealth, followed In the beginning of the 18th century due by, vanity on one hand and servility on the to the reforms of Peter I, Russian_art as- other, there was a great demand for portraits. sumed distinctly foreign character. Peter I, And such artists as Kozlov, Ugriumov and A. believing in the usefulness of art, sent a good Rimov responded. After Brullov's death many men for training abroad and also invited Zarianko and Nakarov ranked as first portrait to Russia foreign masters, such as Trezzini, painters. Though after Venetianov the realisBrandt and K. V. Rastrelli, Sr. Though lic painters began to produce portraits deElizabeth was patriotic and preferred everything picting Italian and Eastern life, nationalistic Russian, she was compelled to invite foreign ideas had penetrated the public and they deartists, such as De Rotarri, for there were yet manded the representation of the real life of no prominent Russian artists, due to inadequate their native country. The realization of this means for good training. Later in 1757, at the ideal in art was made possible by the reforms suggestion of Shuvalov, an academy of art achieved by Alexander II. The first to refor the training of native artists was estab- spond to this public demand was P. Fedatov, lished. However, Russian art continued to be a fine observer and witty satirist, who very sucimitative in character, for the teachers at the cessfully represented both the funny and the academy were foreign artists. Moreover, the sad sides of contemporary Russian life. The most gifted pupils of the academy were sent realism of genre assumed a journalistic charabroad for six years to complete their studies acter. Its purpose was to attack and correct there.
social defects. Art of the genre style, just as The history of modern Russian painting well as literature and politics of that time, was dates from the establishment of the Russian to play a part in bringing about reforms. The school of painting which practically begins interest of the public backed this tendency. Fawith A. Losenko. received his training mous artists of this group formed in 1872 a in France, and as professor and, later, di- "Society of Movable Artistic Expositions) to rector of the academy, he is greatly responsible bring to the attention of the public the existfor the foreign direction which Russian art ing social and.political evils. took and preserved for a long time. The close Genre was followed by landscape painting. imitation of ancient forms and Italian art of At the head of a great number of landscape
painters stands Schedrue whose influence on national characteristics. Within the last centhis phase of painting would have been still tury there has been a tendency to rid it of the greater, if he had not spent a great part of classical traditions, but with little success. Even his short life abroad painting Italian sceneries in the works of prominent sculptors like of the Neapolitan coast. A famous contem- Antokolski who reproduced mainly Russian porary of his was M. Ivanov. The most prom- historical persons and episodes of Russian inent landscape painter, however, was Th. history, the classical element is quite prominent. Aleksyexey whose specialty was perspective With the exception of sculpture all phases of views of large cities. Russian landscape paint- arthave been developing in Russia along ing was at first, in the 18th century, only an nationalistic lines since Alexander II. In reimitation of foreign models. Following the cent years a regeneration of Russian art took foreign artist, the Russian painters did not place, the religious aspect becoming in it very depict nature as it actually is, but represented prominent. Art became permeated with ideals it perfectly lifeless, depriving it of all its con- such as expressed by Tolstoi in his “What is tingencies and defects and giving it an arti- Art,” where he states that the task of the ficial coloring. The Russian landscape paint- artist is to express in his creations his highest ing, however, gradually lost its conventional and best sensations; and sensations are highest traits, and during the reign of Alexander II and best only when they coincide with the assumed a national character. I. Shishkin re- religious conception of goodness. Not beauty produced the native forests; V. Onlovski but goodness is the underlying idea of art, and painted Russian fields, seas and groves; M. K. the purpose of the artist is to convey it to Klodt depicted his native villages. However, others. The ideals of great modern artists, Russian landscape painters did not escape the such as the Jew Antokolski, the naturalist P. influence of decadence and impressionism of Troubetzkoi, and the realist Vereschagin western Europe, which of late made itself felt coincide with Tolstoi's religious revelry. The in the Russian landscape.
later's war pictures agitate against war Engraving sprang up together with the in- anti-Christian.. troduction of printing in the middle of the 16th Consult Benois, A., (The Russian School of century. At first wood engraving was not a Painting (New York 1916); Duc, E. V. le, separate art, wood cuts being used merely for L'art russe, ses origines, etc. (Paris 1877); the illustration of prayer books and other re- Holme, Ç. (ed.), Peasant Art in Russia ligious books, but later, in the 17th and 18th (International Studio, special autumn number, centuries, it developed into xylography: Though 1912); id., (Some Notes on Modern Russian this art was practised in Russia for 150 years, Art (R. Newmarch, December 1903); id., no great artistic work was produced, and it
Modern Russian Art: Some leading Painters later degenerated into plain factory work. of Moscow) (May 1904); ib., Russian Art and
Metal engraving began in Russia as early as American (W. G. Peckham, June 1914); ib., the 12th century, when it was first used for the
Three Russian Painters — Somoff, Grabar and decoration of evangelic books, cases of ikons Maliavine) (V. Pica, December 1913); Martinand of different articles for church and home
off, Anciens monuments des environs de Mosuse. Copper plates, however, were first used cou' (Moscow 1889); Newmarch, Mrs. Rosa, in Moscow only in 1647, the engraving being (The Russian Arts! (New York 1916) ; made after the drawing by Gregory Blagoạ- Ramesanov, Materialen Zur Geschichte der shin. The art of engraving was studied in Kunst in Russland (Moscow 1863); Rikliter, Orouzhenaya Palata (school of the Orouzhe
Monuments of Ancient Russian Architecture naya Palace), and the graduates of the school,
(1850); Snow, F. H., . 'Ten Centuries of artists like A. Gerkov, G. Kachalov, E. Vino- Russian Art (Art World, November, Decemgradov, were masters of their profession who
ber 1916); Sobko, N. P., Lexikon russischer in the excellence of their work could easily Künstler des liten bis 19ten Jahrhundert) compete with the best foreign engravers. (Petrograd 1873). The most famous Russian engraver was E.
Woislav M. PETROVITCH, Chemessov, a pupil of Schmidt. The art of engraving was already declining when Peter I, Chief of Slavonic Division, New York Public who liked to see his heroic deeds and accom
Library. plishments perpetuated, called to Russia foreign 7. RUSSIAN ARCHITECTURE. The masters to train Russian engravers, and in the most cursory survey of the history of Russia, 18th century a great many engravings were as summarized in the article Russia (q.v.), produced, which were pictures of court life or should suffice to explain why Russian architecportraits of high personages. In the begin- ture is not comparable
in extent and importance ning of the 20th century the themes of the with that of western Europe, on the one hand, Russian engravers were also historical subjects or of the great Moslem and Indian empires on and landscapes. With the invention of photog- the other. Not until the 9th century does raphy and the revival of wood cuts in 1840, Russia appear as a recognizable entity, and metal engraving went out of existence. Only until the 16th the chaos of peoples and political eaux-fortes was continued in which Russian institutions, the conquest by the Mongol Khans artists had become interested in the 19th cen- in the 13th, the incessant struggles of rival printury when water-coloring was much appreciated ces, kings or tsars against the Khans and against in western Europe.
each other, the complete absence of any racial Sculpture practically did not exist until the or national unity, the lack of roads and the time of Peter I. for statues of religious per- dense ignorance of the masses, made impossible sonages with the exception of that of Saint the development of any real civilization out of Nicholas were forbidden by the Orthodox which alone a great architecture could spring. Church. In modern times it has been only an The first civilizing influence was the converimitation of Greek sculpture deprived of all sion to Christianity in 988 of Saint Vladimir
RUSSIA - RUSSIAN MUSIC (8)
the Great, who made Kiev the seat of a metro- at Moscow (cathedral of the Assumption) repolitan of the Greek faith, and brought the built in 1473 by Fioraventi of Bologna has five empire under the Byzantine influence. At the simpler domes; the church of the Devitchy conend of the 14th century, however, Moscow vent in the Kremlin has five bulbous domes. emerged as the political and religious capital Of secular buildings of this period the most of Russia, was enriched with churches and striking at Moscow are the Ivan Veliki tower palaces of great splendor, especially in the cita- of Ivan the Great, finished in 1600 by Boris del called the Kremlin, and remained the capi- Godunov, the tower over the Spasskaia Gate, tal under the early Romanoffs until in 1703 and the Granovitaia or lesser palace, 1473-90, Peter the Great built his new capital Saint by Italian architects in the Renaissance style, Petersburg (now Petrograd) upon the Neva but restored in 1882, and now serving as a banand began the imposition upon his empire of
quet hall. Western ideas and Western architecture.
Of the Second Period the chief examples We may accordingly divide Russian archi- are at Petrograd. The civic buildings comtecture into two main periods; the first from prise the Admiralty (1727-35), the famous about 1389 to 1703, occupied chiefly, with the Winter Palace by Rastrelle (1732), the Stroerection of ecclesiastical buildings in a style ganov Palace by the same, the Tauride Palace derived from the Byzantine; and from 1703 to by Starov (1783), the Imperial Library by the present time, during which period the Sokolov (1794–1830), the National Museum by churches with some exceptions have continued Rossi (1819–25) and the Alexandra Theatre to be built in the Russo-Byzantine style, while (Rossi, 1832); nearly all these in a Russianpalaces and civic buildings generally have fol- ized version of the Italian Baroque, in many lowed the modern neo-classic tendencies. Mos- parts displaying, especially in the interior decocow is the important centre for examples of the rations, the mixed Russian inheritance of Byfirst period, Petrograd for those of the second; zantine and Asiatic taste for showy effects. but cities like Kiev, Nijni-Novgorod and Yaro- The Hermitage, by von Klenze, is in the neoslav also possess interesting examples of both. Greek style, more restrained in composition and In all Russian architecture there is an ele
detail. But the two most striking monuments ment of semi-barbaric Asiatic taste, which im- are the two cathedrals: that of the Virgin of parts a distinct character alike to the older and Kazan by Woronikine (1801-11) in classic the newer monuments. This is especially con
style with a bronze dome and semi-circular spicuous in the Kremlin or citadel at Moscow, colonnade, and the impressive cruciform cathewithin whose nearly triangular enclosure is an dral of Saint Isaac by de Montferrand (1819– extraordinary group of churches, cathedrals 58) with a vast iron dome, and internally splen(for in Russia there may be any number of did in its finish of marble and malachite; it cathedrals in one city, dedicated to different is in a strictly classical style, and is reputed to names or saints), towcis, convents, palaces, have cost $15,000,000. The cathedral of Saint museums and an arsenal; the earliest buildings
Vladimir at Kiev is a more recent work in the dating from the late 15th century, the latest Russo-Byzantine style, by Beretti and Bernfrom the middle of the 19th century. The hardt. Consult Monuments de l'architecture fantastic turrets, lanterns, bulbous domes, gilded russe) (Saint Petersburg 1895–1900); Violletand brilliantly colored roofs, and singular le-Duc, E., "L'Art russe (Paris 1877). decorations suggest a mixture of Tartar, By
A. D. F. HAMLIN, zantine and Italian Baroque influences, while Professor of Architecture, Columbia University. in some churches the multiplied repetition of certain details suggests even the Brahman
8. RUSSIAN MUSIC. The music pro
duced by the Russian people, whether in the monuments of India. The religious monuments of the First Period
form of the primitive and spontaneous folkare best studied at Kiev and Moscow. The
songs or in the various art forms developed earliest churches, built of wood, are no longer by individual composers. It includes, in other standing; the first church of stone and brick, words, all the music possessing sufficient Rusthat of the Tithes at Kiev, built in 989, has also
sian characteristics that has sprung up on
Russian soil or that has been composed by Rusdisappeared. While parts of some existing churches may date as far back as 1020–37, as
sian composers, whether in the strictly nain the cathedral of Saint Sophia at Kiev which
tionalist spirit of Glinka and Dargomyzhsky has 15 domes and whose interior retains very
or in the more Western vein of Rubinstein ancient mosaics of. Byzantine style, nearly all
and Tchaikovsky. have been so often rebuilt entirely or greatly
The historical development of Russian altered in much later years that little is to be
music reflects, in a large measure, the vicissiseen that is older than the late 15th century. tudes of Russia's general and cultural evoluThe churches are all built on a small scale of
tion. In her musical evolution, as in her genparts, often with four interior piers forming eral history, Russia has had her centuries of nine bays, each covered by a domical vault or semi-Asiatic seclusion, her sporadic waves of a very lofty lantern or drum carrying a bulbous Western influence, her periods of vigorous nadome, or a spire tipped with a huge bulbous tionalism, and her days of cosmopolitanism or final. These lanterns are the extreme develop
eclecticism. While it is manifestly impossible ment of the late Byzantine dome on a drum
to draw exact parallels, it will greatly help the seen in the churches of Salonika and Athens, reader to grasp the general outlines of Rusand reach the extreme of fantastic extravagance
sian musical history to bear this analogy in of splendor in the cathedral of Saint Basil mind as he reads this article. (Vasili Blajenoy) just outside the Spasskaia There are various ways of dividing and subGate of the Kremlin at Moscow, built 1554 by dividing the periods composing Russia's musiIvan the Terrible, with eight lanterns and a cal history. Four general divisions are perhuge central spire. The Uspensky Cathedral haps as logical as any. These may be desig