Slike strani

with tents, and drawn by 6 or 8 horses, which they drive - bedstead or two of the same fashion and material,- an Iron sitting on the front seat, more by the exercise of a long whip pot, and a few dishes,-a musket of tremendous size, and a large than by the rein,-guiding them with wonderful dexterity at a horn to contain his gunpowder, constitute nearly the whole infull gallop, over heathy and deep sands, or up and down the ventory of his furniture. Yet this man is probably the owner of steep and stony passes of high and rugged hills. The wealthiest 500 or 600 head of cattle, and 4,000 or 5,000 sheep. His children gentleman-farmer in England cannot be more independent than run wild among the little Hottentots, and his wife crouches within one of these old family-freeholders at the C.

the hovel as listless and as unwieldy as himself.-During late Boers.] The korn-boers live in, or near the C. district, mostly years, the boers have migrated in great numbers across the on freehold estates, and are in general a very wealthy people. C. frontier; and this again has led to reprisals by the displaced They chiefly inhabit that portion of the C. district to the N and native tribes, which have been attended with much bloodshed, E of Saldanha bay, and most parts of Stellenbosch, on both sides and even threatened the safety of Cape town itself. of the first range of mountains, as far as four or five days' jour- The Hottentots.] The original proprietors of this fine soil, the ney from C. Town. Most of them cultivate the vine also for poor Hottentots-the fabricated stories of whose filthiness are their own use, and even those beyond the mountains bring wine known to every schoolboy, and have made thein proverbial in to the C. market. Many of them are substantial farmers, who every nation of Europe-are probably the simplest and most incan send to the capital 4,000 or 5,000 bushels of wheat annually, offensive of the human race. By open robbery and murder, and besides tbeir own supply, which is not trifling, and that of their by a cruel and persevering system of oppression on the part of neighbours who content themselves with grazing cattle. Their the Dutch colonists, they have been reduced to not much more houses are, generally, much inferior to those of the wine-boer; than 15,000 souls. “Under the Dutch government, it was conand are usually to be known by six or eight trees, generally oak. sidered as a severe crime to mention the subject of religion to a The vineyard of the korn-boer is, however, the only patch he has native: they were not admitted within the walls of the churches. enclosed, unless he should have—which is not often the case-a By a notice struck above the doors of one of the churches, sm: garden, with a few straggling cabbages; or----which is still * Hottentots and dogs' were forbidden to enter." [Phưip.) Under more rare-an orchard of oranges, peaches, and the more com- the protection of the British government, by the instruction of mon fruits of the coantry. The korn-boer is a most unskilful the missionaries, and their increased importance in the colony as agriculturist. He knows nothing of the advantages of a rota- labourers since the abolition of the slave trade, their number is tion of crops; nor has he the most distant notion of raising any now considerably on the increase. The truth is that the filthy other green food except a little barley or maize; though turnips, appearance of the Hottentot was never from choice but necessity. carrots, potatoes, lucern, clover, and, we have reason to think, The anxiety which he now shows to get quit of his sheep-skin every kind of artificial grass would do well in this climate. No clothing for cotton, linen, or woollen, and to keep his person provision of dry food is ever made to meet the contingency of a clean, proves that he is far more sensible than the boer to the drought; and, in consequence of this neglect, the cattle some- comforts of civilized life. “Whoever," says the excellent Mr. times perish in great numbers. Wheat is the only grain which Latrobe, the father of the Moravians in this country, * charges he cultivates for the market. His plough-an unwieldy machine, the Hottentots with being inferior to other people of the same heavily dragged along by 12 or 16 oxen-only scratches the sur. class, as to education and the means of improvement, knows fuce, and avoids any little patch that may be stony or bushy, or nothing about them. They are, in general, more sensible, and a little stiffer than the rest. He sometimes turns the ground to possess better judgments than most Europeans, equally destitute let it lie.fallow, but seldom gives himself the trouble of collecting of the means of instruction." The Hottentots are of a deep manure; yet he rarely reaps less than 15 for one; frequently brown or yellow-brown colour; their eyes are pure white; their from 20 to 30, and, when he has the command of water, a great head is small; the face, very wide above, ends in a point; their deal more. In few parts of the world is finer wheat raised than cheek-bones are prominent; their eyes sunk; the nose flat; the at the C. Specimens of it have been exhibited in Mark Lane. lips thick; the teeth white; and the hand and foot rather small which were considered superior to every other in the market. They are well-made and tall; their hair is black, either curled The grounds of the korn-boer being unenclosed, they have all or woolly, and they have little or no beard. Barrow and Grandpre the appearance, when the grain is off, of heathy wastes; though conceive them to be of Chinese origin. They call themselies by a moderate share of labour, they might in two or three years Gkhui-gkhui, pronounced with a click of the tongue or thr at; be completely sheltered and protected by hedge-rows of oak, or of and say that they did not come from the interior of Africa, but the keur-broom, which grows still more rapidly. We have little over the sea. The Hottentots are divided into several tribes. doubt, that the hawthorn would answer remarkably well; and The Dammarras occupy the most northern part of the country, the lemon makes an excellent fence. By a little exertion of skill beyond the Copper mountains, to the 21st degree of latitude, or and labour, water might be raised from the rivers, which gene- as far as the country of the Makosees. The Great Namaquas rally run in deep chasms, and thus be made available to the have ascended the banks of the Orange river, in a NE direction. irrigation of land; in which case the returns would at least The Little Namaquas are found to the $ of the same river. The double those now obtained.

Kabobiquas and Geissiquas appear to be branches of the KarnaThe vee-boer, or grazier, is still more slothful, and a great deal quas. The Koranas or Kora-Hottentots occupy a central 2010more savage than the korn-boer. He generally possesses a tract try of great extent. Mr. Campbell says their chief towns are to of not less than 5,000 acres, and consequently has no neighbours be found on the banks of the Orange river. within some miles of him. By means of spirits and tobacco, he The Bushmen, Griquas, Fingoes, &c.] On the confines of has not only contrived to juggle the poor Hottentot out of his the colony, to the north, inhabit the Bosjesmans, or Bushmen, cattle, but has also compelled him to become their keeper. Hav- who bear also the various appellations of Baraos, Buschies, Son

ing thus no regular employment at home, to kill time, and break quas, or Obiquas, and are supposed by some to be the aboriginal | the even tenor of a lazy life, under the old regime he would fre- inhabitants of this part of Africa See article BOSJESMANS. We

quently roam abroad to destroy game, or, in default of other must also refer our readers to our article on CAFFRARIA for an sport, to shoot wild Hottentots or Bosjesmen. His enormous account of the third native race of the S extremity of Africa musket, which he calls a roer, is his inseparable companion; in- The Griquas, or Bastaards, a half-caste race settled along the deed, he would not consider himself safe without it; with it he banks of the Orange river for 700 m., already number 20,000. travels with confidence, for so expert is he in the use of it that They are of industrious agricultural habits, and have always he seldom fails to bring down his object, whether it be a Bush- proved the victors in their struggles with the savage tribes in man or a wild beast, with a single ball. To an European, the their vicinity.--The Fingoes are a distinct tribe from the Caftres, whole establishment of a vee-boor presents a scene of filth and who retain them in a state of slavery. They are, “ generally discomfort which could scarcely be imagined. His hovel, gene- speaking, thicker set, and shorter of stature; whilst the colour of rally perched upon an eminence that no hostile attack may be the skin-approaching nearer to black-proclaims an origin from made upon it unperceived, whether by man or beast, has neither a locality much more contiguous to the rrid zone. Another tree nor shrub, nor blade of grass near it: a few straw huts, distinguishing inark of this people is a slit in the upper part of with a number of Hottentot women and children, naked or half- the ear, and which the Fingoe immediately shows, as a sign of clothed in sheep skins, are the principal objects that attract the identity, if accused of being of the hated Amakosa race. The eye. Between these huts and the boer's house, is the kraal or Fingoe women have also much more of the brunette in their pen in which the cattle and sheep are shut up at night, to protect complexions than the Caffir beauties; their figures are more fully them from the wolves and hyænas, or to prevent their straying. developed; and, though their countenances possess not the least The dung of these kraals--the accumulation of years -some- pretension to beauty, and are frequently of the darkest hue, I times rises even to the very eaves of the house; this, however, have often beheld sable nymphs of this tribe, whose perfect form gives no concern to the boer, who would probably see it overtop might have served as very models for the sculptor's art. In their thern with equal apathy: the only chance of its ever being dress and equipments, when preparing to meet the foe-during cleared away is its taking fire, which, in damp weather, some- their war-dances, and other ceremonies—the Fingoes show a times happens. The lambing season is the season of rains; and great fondness for barbaric pageantry and display. The shieldgenerally not a few of the lambs on being dropped, are smothered that martial appendage--a few years ago so essential a part of in the bog, a fate which also occasionally attends the calves; and the war dress, both with Catfirs and Fingoes, being found inerthis where wood for constructing sheds might be had almost fectual against the effects of 'villanous saltpetre,' is now cast without trouble, and at no expense. Nor does the interior of the aside, and become nearly obsolete and forgotten." (Napier.] vee-boer's establishment make any amends for its exterior filthi- Languages.) Besides the Dutch and English languages spoken Dess. A clay floor, in the pits of which are splashes of sour milk among the colonists, the frequent visits of trading-vessels have or mud,--a roof open to the thatch,-a square hole or two in the made several other languages to be commonly understood: such wall for windows, without glass, -an old rug or blanket, or a as the French, the Portuguese, and the Malay. Of the Hottenwattled partition, separating the sleeping apartment, - are the tots and Caffres, the languages are entirely different. That of leading features of his hovel. A large chest, which serves as a the former is of a barbarous structure, possessing some remarktable at home, or a seat in his waggon when he travels,-a few able verbal affinities to the Mongolian and Calmuck; and some ricketty stools, with bottoms made of the thongs of sheep.skins, words, it is said, in common with the Hindostanee, and of a pro

nunciation so harsh and difficult as to be grating to an European appropriate amount for emigration-purposes, and the ear, and ahnost impossible to an European tongue. In profunds required for the various alterations in the exsometimes against the teeth, sometimes against the palate, pro-isting administration of affairs, Sir Harry Smith looks doeing a combination of sounds which no character with which to the sales of new land placed at the disposal of the we are acquainted can indicate. The diphthongs eao aao, and ouou predominate; and the phrase frequently ends with a final ing: receipts, &c. The expenditure has usually exceeded

government, irrespective of progressive custom-house tural and harsh, as to be extremely disagreeable. The language the revenue; but the full resources of this country of the Caffres is said to be soft and sonorous, with a harmonious have not yet been called into action, and its value pronanciation. Nothing like a written character exists either among them or the Hottentots. “ Savage tribes," remarks Malte

must be estimated at present, not by its actual reveBran -are continually changing their idioms; every new chief nue, but from the circumstance of its forming a conwishes to introduce some new form of speech, hence arise an necting link between Great Britain and her possesinstability and multiplication of dialects which perplex critical sions in the East. study. This is a general phenomenon both in Asia and America. It is particularly the case in the customs of the different Hot

Ecclesiastical affairs.) Strictly speaking, there is tentot idioms which are continually varying." The Bosjesmen no established church in this colony. Provision, speak Hottentot dialect; but the idiom is sufficiently strong to however, is annually made by vote of the legislative prevent the two races of people from communicating with each council for the support of the ministers in charge of other except by signs.

the several congregations belonging to the Dutch Government.] Since the capture of this colony in Reformed church, and for the chaplains of the Eng1806, the government has been rather of a military lish Episcopalian church. Grants are also voted anthan of a civil character; as the governor was not nually' towards the support of the Scottish and Luonly the first civil officer, but also the commander of theran churches in c. Town, the Wesleyan church the forces. He was assisted in the civil administra- at Salem in Albany, and the Roman Catholic church tion by legal assessors. Affairs are now administered in C. Town and Graham's Town. The votes in 1846 by a governor nominated by the crown, aided by an in behalf of these several communities were as fol. executive council, and a legislative council appointed lows:-In support of 33 ministers of the Dutch Reby the home-government. Each district has a civil formed church, stationed in various districts of the commissioner who acts also as a resident magistrate; colony, £7,000; of 12 chaplains belonging to the and each district is subdivided into several smaller Church of England, £2,945; the Scotch and Lutheran divisions termed veld-cornetcies. Trial by jury in churches in C. Town, £203 14s. 6d.; the Wesleyan criminal cases has been introduced; and a new su- church. Salem, £150; and the Roman Catholic church preme court instituted, which opens to the colonists in C. Town and Graham's Town, £300. In the all the advantages of an English court of unlimited Dutch and English churches the government rejurisdiction. It is composed of a chief justice, and serves the right of appointment to all vacancies. three puisne judges, whose appointments are ren- Beyond this the government claims no interference dered by the charter as independent as those of with the internal economy and order of the Dutch English judges.

Reformed church, which is exclusively ruled by its Revenue.] While this settlement was subject to the own judicatories. With respect to the English church, Dutch East India company, its revenue was never ade- the governor is, in the absence of a bishop, ex officio quate to the contingencies and extraordinary expenses the ordinary. From returns received for 1846 from of its government; and it was retained merely as a 115 congregations belonging to the two provinces, place of refreshment for the outward and homeward it appears that of these 32 belong to the Dutch Rebound India ships, which was considered an ample formed church, 13 to the English Episcopalian, 8 to compensation for the annual expenditure of 300,000 various Presbyterian denominations, 4 to the Roman guilders. In 1770, the deficiency in the receipts for Catholic church, 21 to the Wesleyan church, 23 defraying the expenses of the colony amounted to were Independents, 5 Moravian, and 9 Lutheran. In £26,768 11s. 3d. sterling, being nearly two-thirds of connexion with the above congregations there were, the expenditure; and in 1779 it had increased to in the aggregate, 70,310 white persons, and 41,748 £28,191. The average revenue from 1784 to 1794 coloured; yielding a total of 112,058; which constiwas about 100,000 rix-dollars yearly; but, by the tutes, on a rough estimate, three-fifths of the pop. of new regulations and imposts of the Dutch commis- the colony. It further appears that every denosaries general in 1793, it was raised to 211,568 rix- mination has, to a greater or less extent, provided, dollars; which was farther increased to 450,713 dur- by Sunday and evening schools, for the religious ining the last year of Lord Macartney's administration struction of the young, and of such as have grown up The revenue of the colony arises from various sources, to mature age in heathenism, or in entire ignorance the principal of which are: land, import - duties, of the principles of Christianity. The number taught stamps, and duties on sales and transfers. In 1828 in such schools during 1846 amounted to 14,134. It it amounted to £128,971; in 1836 to £158,697. The is not known what proportion of these were white, aggregate fixed revenue for the years 1844, 1845, and and what persons of colour; but it may with safety 1846, amounted to £174,180, £178,554, and £187,547 be asserted that upwards of two-thirds of the whole respectively; exhibiting, when compared with the number were coloured persons. The number of financial average for 1841, 1842, and 1843, an aver- schools receiving aid in 1847 amounted to 86. In age increase of £29,000. The average annual reve- these there were enrolled 9,080 pupils, that yielded nue derived from the sale of crown lands, land-rents, a daily attendance of from 6,000 to 6,500, of whom &c., in 1844, 1845, and 1846, amounted to £22,781. 250 were receiving instruction in the higher branches. The actual revenue in 1847 amounted to £216,085, In all of these schools the English language is taught, being £56,462 in excess of the estimates. The great in respect to which there is no prejudice existing increase was observable in customs, auctions, trans- among any class of the community,--a sure test of fer-dues, postage, and land sales, all these branches this is its rapid extension and adoption in the daily indicating a gradual but steady return of prosperity transactions of society. The London, Wesleyan, Mo. now that the Caffre war is concluded. The revenue ravian, and Glasgow missionary societies have several for 1849 is estimated at £213,424, and the expendi- agents in this quarter. The Malays have their own ture at £210,000. Besides a reduction of postage to imaum in C. Town. the level "enjoyed by the inhabitants of the mother- Districts.] The following table of the area and country," it is also proposed to exempt the press from pop. of the earlier settled districts of the colony, is stamp tax. For supplying £16,000, suggested as the from the Cape Register of 1838:

Area in
sq. m.


9,000 20,000

13,180 17,884 9,514 8,015 21,859



2.100 11,728 13,660 14,938


7.168 22,000 9,000

Graaf Reinet,


Pop. .

Tarka, the Bambosberg, and the Zuureberg, divided I. WESTERN PROVINCE.

it from the Caffres on the E, the Camtoos river, the Cape Town,

19,743 Lion's river, and the Nieuweveld mountains from Cape district,

Swellendam and Stellenbosch districts on the W; Stellenbosch, Worcester,

Plettenburg, Landmark, the great Table mountains, Clanwilliam,

and the Karrooberg from the Bosjesman Hottentots Swellendam,

on the N. The mean length and breadth of the disBeaufort,


trict was about 250 m. by 160 m. II. EASTERN PROVINCE.

Algoa bay} This rising settlement, known also George,

as Port Elizabeth, and formerly called Twartkop'sColesberg,

bay, is situated 500 m. E of C. Town, between it Albany,

and the newly settled district of Albany. The white

population is 33,146; and the black-who are very Uitenhage,

11,019 orderly, though not industrions-37,075, making a Cape district.] The Cape district is at once the total of 70,221. Its revenue has for several years smallest and most populous in this colony, containing been in excess of its expenditure. Its live stock is in 1823, on a surface of about 3,240 sq. m., a pop., valued at £2,000,000 sterling; there are 35,000 acres exclusive of the capital, of 7,462 souls; but with the of land under cultivation, chiefly wheat, oats, and pop. of the capital, it cannot now be under 40,000 souls. barley, and the annual produce of the settlement is About 40,000 acres are under cultivation in this district, valued at £269,000. Sheep farming is the principal and 3,000 acres are laid out in vineyards and gardens. pursuit, as requiring less labour than tillage. This It consists of two parts; the peninsula on which the part of the colony is divided into six districts, and town is built, about 30 m. in length and 8 m. in comprises a sea-coast of about 200 m., extending also breadth, connected with the continent by a low flat about an equal distance inland. The distance from isthmus; and a slip of land extending from the shore Graham's Town, its capital, to C. Town, is nearly of Table bay to the mouth of Berg river, or about 80 700 m., and an overland mail twice a-week conveys m. from N to S, and 25 m. from E to W. The lead- the post in abont 5 days. From Port Elizabeth, ing physical features in the vicinity of C. Town are which is about 94 m. from Graham's Town over bad the magnificent serrated mountains of the Blueberg roads, there is a steamer to C. Town that performs stretching N into the interior, and the promontory the distance in about 3 days. The colonists are dewhich extends from Table mountain to the Cape. sirous of promoting emigration, but what is wanted Each of these ranges consists of flat-topped masses is a continuous rather than a large supply of really interspersed with pyramidal or pointed peaks, and useful English labourers. The sum expended on separated by deep ravines. A level area extends emigration from surplus revenue was in 1844, £500; from the base of the Blueberg to the shore; and be- in 1845, £285; and in 1846, £5,885. In 1847 the 40tween the S termination of the Blueberg and Table thorities authorized the Commissioners to proceed mountain is a low sandy district called the Table with emigration, and voted £10,000 for the purpose; flats, forming an isthmus between Table bay and but the apprehensions entertained among tbe labourFalse bay, which must at one time have been united ing classes in England as to the dangers of the Caffre by a sheet of water more than 60 fath. deep, making war put a stop to it. In this division there is genCape promontory an island. A prominent but sub- erally an abundance of water. The wheat grown in ordinate physical feature is the Lion's hill below some of its districts is said to be the finest in the Table mountain. See CAPE Town.

world. A great road in course of construction from Stellenbosch and Drakenstein.] The district of Stel-C. Town to the E frontier, by convict - labour, is lenbosch and Drakenstein formerly included the likely to promote in a high degree the improvement country from Cape L'Agulhas, the southernmost of the territory. point of Africa, to the river Koossie, the N boundary Natal.] The colony of Natal is distant 1,200 m. of the colony, a line of 380 m. in length, and 150 m. from the C. settlement, and 600 m. from Algoa bay. in breadth. Part of this territory consists of naked It is a country abounding with wood and water, havmountains and arid plains; but the remainder is a ing a very fertile soil and a most delightful climate, fruitful soil stretching along the great chain of moun- although not so salubrious as the C. colony proper. tains from False bay to the mouth of Elephant's Its only want is a safe and commodious harbour. river. Stellenbosch is a handsome village, about 26 There is no road from Algoa bay to Natal; but Sir m. E of C. Town, founded in 1670.

Harry Smith has it in view to create one, although Swellendam.] The district of Swellendam, previ- the difficulties are very great. There are, however, ous to the late subdivision of the colony, included good natural roads for horses and ox-waggons, and the coast between the Breede river on the W and before the war there was a regular postal communithe Camtoos river on the E, running northerly to the cation carried on by native runners to Graham's Black mountains. Its length was about 380 m., and Town. As yet there has been no regular exploraits breadth 60 m. The principal village consists of tion of the Natal district. The whole area has been about 30 houses irregularly disposed in a fertile val. estimated at upwards of 13,000 sq. m. The district ley.-In this district, Mossel-bay opens to the SE, seems capable of growing every useful prodact, and, and affords a safe anchorage when winds blow from above all, it is believed available for the growth of SSW, W, and round ENE.—The next division to cotton, which, unlike the American cotton, is not an Mossel-bay is the Outinæquas Land, extending as annual, but a perennial. Some specimens, grown far as the Kayman or Crocodile river. The moun experimentally in a garden, and sent to the manutains here are covered with forests, and the land facturing districts in England, have been well-reaffords sustenance to immense herds of cattle.- ported upon; and Lord Grey has instructed the local Plettenburg - bay begins at the Kayman river and authorities to give every facility for its cultivation. continues to the inaccessible forests of Sitsikamma. Indigo is found as an indigenous plant. Fine crops This tract is exceedingly beautiful, and produces fine of wheat are said to have been grown; but the abunlarge timber.

dance of water, and a luxuriant grass, which covers Graaf Reynet.] This district, previous to its sub-a large part of the district, render it especially favourdivision, extended to the eastern limits of the colony, able for pasturage. The

amount of European popu500 m. from C. Town. The Great Fish river, the lation is not known. The early Dutch emigrants

hold large grants, which, it is apprehended, may the East Indies, planted a colony here. The result showed that prove an obstruction. Most of the new settlers, how-Riebeck's views were sound. The utility of the settlement was

immediately felt, and it daily increased in magnitude and imporerer, have bought their land from the Dutch at very

tance; while the Hottentots gradually receded with their flocks low prices. The settlement was originally formed and herds from the vicinity of Table bay, towards the N and NE. about 11 years back by an emigration of Dutch boors in 1774, the whole race of those unfortunate natives, who yet from the É districts, but it was not recognised by the lingered on the frontiers, and had not submitted to servitude,

were ordered to be seized or extirpated, by the Dutch governbome-government until 1845. It is at present gov- ment; and a series of commandoes, or military parties, were sent erned by a lieutenant-governor, who holds under the against them, who perpetrated the most wanton atrocities in the

execution of this order The Namaqua Hottentots, formerly ingovernor of the C.; and about 500 troops constitute

habiting the Nieuweveld, the Bokkeveld, and the Roggeveld, its military establishment. For the year ending Ja- worn out by the repeated aggressions of the coloniste, quietly renuary 5, 1846, its imports were £32,000, and its ex- tired into the immense deserts stretching from the Kamiesberg ports £10,000.

to the bay of Angra Pequina on the SW coast of Africa; but on Orange river sovereignty.) The Cape journals of lision. The Dutch retained this territory till 1795, when a British

the E, the Caffres and colonists constantly came into hostile colMarch 1849, announce the form of government about squadron, under General Clarke and Admiral Keith Elphinstone, to be adopted for the territories N of Orange river. took possession of it without resistance. It was restored at the This territory is to be called “the Orange river sov

peace of Amiens; but Holland being dragged into the war which

speedily ensued between France and Britain, an expedition was ereignty,' and divided into four districts: the Gri

again fitted out, under General Baird and Commodore Sir Home qualand, of which Queen's Fort is to be the seat of Popham, for the purpose of reducing this important settlement. magistracy; the district of Winberg, with the town

The British forces arrived in Table bay on the 4th of January, of the same name; the district of Vaal river, with the tion on the 8th, in which the Duteh were completely defeated,

1806; a landing was effected on the 6th; and, after a sharp actown of Vleedorp; the district of Caledon river, with the British advanced to C. Town, which immediately capitulated. the town of Smithfield. The sovereignty is to be

The surrender of the whole colony followed; and, by the pacifigoverned by her majesty's high commissioner, aided

cation of 1814, this valuable possession was fully ceded to Great

Britain. For many years the colonists and the Caffres have carby a local council composed of the British resident, ried on hostilities against each other on the N and E frontiers of as chief, with 4 other magistrates, and 8 councillors the colony. The colonists seized the lands, and, in many in,-2 for each district—to be appointed by his excel stances, the cattle of the Caffres: and the Caffres retaliated by

incursions into the British territory. In Dec. 1834, and Jan. leney from among the resident landowners. Each

1835, it is asserted they carried off 1,000 horses, and 50,000 head councillor is to serve for three years, unless sooner of cattle. The governor, Sir Benjamin D'Urban, thereupon dedismissed. The council is to meet only once a-year, clared war against them, and speedily compelled their apparent and consider only such subjects as are suggested by

submission. At the conclusion of the war, Sir Benjamin annexed,

by treaties concluded in September 1835, a considerable portion the commissioner, or proposed by the resident. The of Caffraria to the British dominions in South Africa, and brought council is not competent to entertain any project

the Caffres under the dominion of British laws. Lord Glenelg, which shall interfere with the exclusive jurisdiction

however, disallowed this arrangement; sent out Sir Andries

Stockenstrom as lieutenant-governor of the Eastern division of the of the native chiefs over their tribes. The annual

C. colony; restored to the Caffres the greater part of their conestimates and expenditure are to be published.—The quered country; and concluded treaties with their chiefs, by which law of the sovereignty is to be the Dutch Roman law of they were treated as an independent nation, while the treaty, it was the colony: local ordinances of the Cape shall have no jects, in demanding restitution for cattle, horses, and sheep stolen

alleged by the boers, limited the colonial government and its subforce unless re-enacted. Each of the 4 magistrates by the Caffres, " so as to neutralize all the benefits which might shall hold a court in his district. The natives shall otherwise have resulted to those semi-savages from the treaties, be governed by their own penal laws, as far as not

and as to convert them into a premium on the robbery and mur

der of the frontier-colonists." These new treaties were signed in repugnant to religion and morality. Parties accused June 1837; and produced, it is asserted, a state of coșstant irritaof very grave crimes shall be tried by the courts of tion and annoyance on the Eastern frontier. The boers, alleging the Cape colony.-All lands allotted to natives shall

numerous grievances, resolved to leave the colony en masse, if be held according to their usages, to be judged and

arrangements more efficient to protect them were not substituted.

Mr. Banbury enumerates these grievances to have been: 1st. The decided by themselves. All other lands to be held inadequate compensation allotted to these old colonists on the by royal grants on quit-rents; the quit-rents to go to emancipation of their slaves by the act of 1833. They complainthe public revenue. - For every license to keep a

ed that they had received scarcely a third of their value. The

average value of slaves in the C. colony was nearly donble shop, store, &c., 100 dollars per annum is to be paid; what it was in the West Indies, and the compensation was for every license for waggon, &c., to carry merchan- calculated with reference to these latter colonies. The money dise, 50 d. per annum. Heavy penalties are attached

was paid in London, so that the slave-owners of the Cape had

to pay discount and commission to the amount of 12 per cent. to trading without licenses. The remaining heads and upwards, in order to receive their share at Cape Town, 2d. state that there shall be churehes, schools, a general The want of adequate protection against the inroads of the Kaftirs, post, roads, &c. The regulations leave everything to

Bushmen, and other aborigines, was urged as one of the grievances of the colonists residing

near the frontier. " At first it strikes one as the absolute will of the Lord High commissioner, and

rather singular that they should seek to remedy this evil by plungare vague in the extreme; and the powers left to the ing into the very midst of the savage tribes, and braving the ut. native chiefs will be a source of anarchy and misrule. most effects of their hostility; but their object was, to be able to

take the law into their own hands, without the restraints imposed History] Whether the ancients had any knowledge of the s by the British government.” 3d. A sore evil was the prevalence extremity of Africa, is a doubtful point; but the first European of vagrancy. Great numbers of Hottentots, Bastaards, emancinavigator who doubled the

Cape was Bartholomew Diaz, an officer pated or runaway slaves, and others, roamed about the colony, in the service of John IL of Portugal. In 1493, he sailed to the without any regular means of subsistence, and committing numparallel of 24* 8; and then, stretching boldly out to sea, never ap- berless depredations on the property of the farmers; and this proached the coast again till he was 40° to the E of the Cape, without any check, owing partly to the absence of a regular powhich he had passed without seeing it. He then advanced as lice, and more to the want of a law for the repression of vagrancy. far as the Rio-del-Infanta; and returning, discovered the grand 4th. A number of farmers, whose cattle and horses were seized promontory of the continent, which, on account of the storms for the use of the army during the Kaflir war of 1835, were unable which he bad experienced in his approach to it, he called Cabo to obtain any compensation for the losses thus sustained. To Tormentoss; but King John of Portugal called it the Cape of these causes of discontent was added the distress occasioned by Gooi Hope, as it gave new confidence to the expectation of an protracted droughts in the N and NE districts. The farmers of winterrupted passage by sea to the East Indies. In 1496, Vasco those regions, unable to subsist with their large families on those de Gama doubled this cape; and sailed to Calicut on the Malabar parched and

exhausted lands, naturally felt a wish to better their coast, in the East Indies. In 1510, Francis Almeida, first viceroy condition, and seek more fertile possessions beyond the colonial of the Portuguese dominions in India, was defeated and killed in boundary. " It must not be forgotten that, from a very early an obstinate engagement with the Hottentots, near the Salt period of the settlement, it had been a common practice of the river, not far from the site now occupied by C. Town. When the colonial farmers to remove themselves and their families beyond new passage to India by the Cape was ascertained, the trade the frontier as often as they found themselves distressed by unfapassed almost entirely in that direction. In 1620, two English vourable seasons or by want of room, and had any expectation of ships took formal possession of Saldanha bay; but of the C. no use finding more abundant resources in the country not yet colonized. was made till 1650, when Van Riebeck, a Dutch surgeon, convinced Thinly peopled as are all the interior districts of the Cape colony, of the utility of a settlement in a situation which would afford the population, nevertheless, is soon found to press hard on the convenient refreshments to ships passing between Europe and means of subsistence; for so great a proportion of the land is ut

terly and irreclaimably barren, on account of the want of water, 1 ernment. A long and desultory warfare ensued, which was that a tract many square miles in extent may be fit to support finally terminated by the vigorous measures adopted by Sir Harry but very few families. The country being almost everywhere Smith, who abrogated all former treaties and conventions, and on unsuited to agriculture, the colonists require, in the best times, a the 23d of December, 1847, annexed by proclamation all the terwide range for the feeding of their flocks and herds; and the ritory between the Black Kei and the Keiskamma rivers to the severe droughts which almost periodically afflict the northern and British sovereignty, under the title of British Caffraria : and opnorth-eastern districts, reducing to utter sterility the greaterganized a kind of banat, or series of mllitary villages, between part even of those lands which are usually fit for pasturage, oc- the Great Fish river and the Keiskamma, for the better proteccasion most severe distress." For some time previous to the tion of the colonists. It would appear that this arrangement has great migration, many farmers had crossed the boundary, singly hitherto worked well. See article CAFFRARIA. or in small parties, and wandered into the more promising coun- The latest event of importance in the history of this colony, is try to the NE, in search of grass and water for their cattle. Some the resolute resistance it has offered to its being made a penal of them penetrated as far as Port Natal, and sent back such ac- settlement for the reception of transported convicts from the mocounts of the fertility of that district that many others were in ther-country, or rather from the overflowing convict settlement cited to follow. But there was no combined plan of emigration in the Bermudas. until after the close of the Kaffir war, when dissatisfaction began Authorities.] Sparrman.- Le Vaillant.Thunberg.Starorinus. to be felt on account of the Stockenstrom treaty, and of the in- -Percival's Account of the Cape.-Liechtenstein.-Burchell.-Barsufficient protection provided for the frontier colonists. Thus, in- row's Travels.-Pringle's Sketches --Thompson's Trarels and Adfluenced by a variety of motives, the desire to trek-as it was ventures in S Africa.--Moodie's Ten years in S Africa.-Sir C. called-became a perfect passion, and infected even the long-set- Harris' Travels in S Africa.-- Philip's Researches, 2 vols.- Cap tled districts near Cape Town. One of the first considerable Foster's Voyage, vol. i.--Excursions in S Africa. By Lieut.-Col parties of emigrants which quitted the colony soon after the close Napier, 2 vols. 8vo, London, 1849.- Cape Almanac.- l’nited Ser. of the Kaffir war (1836), was headed by a man of the name of vice Journal-Parl. Papers. Louis Triechard. Crossing the Orange river they followed a NE course, keeping along the W side of the great Quathlamba chain

CAPE ISLAND, a village of Cape May co., in of mountains; but, being little acquainted with the country, they the state of New Jersey, U. S., 108 m. S of Trenton. penetrated too far to the N, and, having entered upon the swampy It is situated on the Atlantic, and is much frequented and pestilential plains in the neighbourhood of Delagoa bay, were cut off in great numbers by the fever which prevails there. The

as a watering-place. great body of the emigrants, although they took the same direc- CAPEL, a parish of Surrey, 6 m. S of Dorking. tion, did not advance so far, but spread themselves along the Area 6,990 acres. Pop. in 1841, 989. banks of the Likwa or Vaal river, which formed the boundary of

CAPEL-DDEWI, a hamlet in the p. of Llandysthe dominions of the great Matabili chief, Moselekatse. This savage had rendered himself the sconrge and terror of all that syl, Cardiganshire. Pop. in 1841, 394. part of the country, as Chaka and Dingaan were of the regions CAPEL-GARMON, or GARTH-GARMON, a townto the E of the mountains. He had shown himself not unwilling ship of the p. and 4, m. S of Llanrwst, Denbighshire. New Latakoo, considering the missionaries at that place as his Pop. in 1841, 728. best friends; but he had positively forbidden all strangers to enter CAPELLA, a town and parish of Brazil, in the his dominions by way of the Vaal river. Seeing the boers to prov. of Sergipe. The sugar-cane forms the chief tally regardless of this prohibition, and finding that they brought article of local culture. him no presents, and made no attempt to conciliate him, he regarded them as enemies, and determined on their destruction.

CAPELLADES, a town of Spain, in Catalonia, Accordingly, in May 1836, the emigrants, who were scattered in in the prov. and 32 m. NW of Barcelona, and 5 m. small parties along the banks of the river, unsuspicious of danger, SSE of Igualada, near the r. bank of the Noya. Pop. the Matabili warriors, many of them slain, and a part of their 2,798. It is of Saracenic origin. tlocks and herds carried oil. In October of the same year the CAPELLE, CAPELLE-AC-Bois, or KAPELLE-OPattack was repeated, with more formidable numbers, and under DEN-Bosch, a village of Belgium, in the prov. of boers were on their guard, and the assailants were repulsed with Brabant, 14 m. N of Brussels, and on the Brussels great loss. Not many months afterwards, being reinforced by and Schelde canal. Pop. 2,000. It is celebrated fresh swarms from the colony, the emigrants retaliated by an at- for its gin-distilleries. tack on Moselekatse's own kraal, in which they were successful. The chief himself, however, escaped, and the victors, instead of of France, in the dep. of Aisne, arrond. of Vervios.

CAPELLE (LA), a canton, commune, and town prises in another direction. Peter Retief was elected, in the course | The cant. comprises 18 com., and in 1831 contained of 1837, to be their governor and commander-in-chief; and under 15,726 inhabitants. The town is 11 m. N of Verhis guidance they succeeded in finding a way across the Quath-vins. Pop. 1,341. It has a manufactory of white

The emigration of the boers, as might be expected, added to iron and a brewery, and is the entrepot of a consithe dissatisfaction of the Caffres; and war again broke out, which derable trade in grain. It was formerly fortified. was, for the time, repressed by the new governor, Sir P. Maitland,

CAPELLE-BENHAC (LA), or BANHAC, a comwho, in September 1845, concluded another treaty with the chiefs of the Slambie, Congo, and Fingo Caffre tribes, which practi- mune of France, in the dep. of Lot, cant. of Figeac. cally extended over Lower Caffreland British sovereignty in all Pop. 2,205. matters in which British interests were involved. The chiefs CAPELLE - EN - PEVILLE, a commune of professed their readiness to submit to the authority of the British government to decide which party was right in their feuds and France, in the dep. of the Nord, cant. of Cysoing. quarrels, and actively to aid that party: also to submit to the Pop. 1,367. jurisdiction of British courts of justice, Caffres who should com- CAPEL-LE-FERNE, a parish of Kent. Ares mit, or be charged with having committed, any crime, either in 1,490 acres. Pop. in 1841, 98. the colony or in Caffreland, cognizable by the colonial courts; and further, the right of protecting Christian converts amongst

CAPELLE-MARIVAL, a canton, commune, and the British government. These, with other provisions for the --The cant. comprises 18 com., and in 1831 had a the Caffres from the oppressions of their chiefs, was conceded to town of France, in the dep. of Lot, arrond. of Figeae. the sea-coast of Caffreland to British rule, and for the encourage- pop. of 12,982.-The town is on the Francase, 12 m. ment of Christian schools, formed the main articles of Sir Peregrine NW of Figeac. Pop. 1,240. Maitland's treaty, which was characterised in the following eulo- CAPELLE-OP-DEN-YSSEL, or KAPELLE, a gistic terms. Simple and explicit in language, it is wise and village of Holland, in the prov. of S Holland, on the humane in substance. It entirely abrogates the system under which, for the last eight years, the border-farmers have suffered r. bank of the Yssel, 5 m. ENE of Rotterdam. In so severely; by making the Caffres subject to British law, it ren- the environs are extensive tile-works. ders the fulfilment by them of its stipulations a matter of self- CAPELLETTI, a town of the Morea, on an afflqinterest; by throwing around Caffre converts to Christianity the protection of British authority and power, it emancipates the

ent of Lake Kotoki, 10 m. NNE of Gastrouni. tribes from the debasing thraldom of their chiefs, gives a fatal CAPELLO (CAPE), a promontory of the island blow to the superstition and vices which induced Sir Benjamin of Cerigo, at the SE extremity, in N lat. 36° 7', E D'Urban to declare the whole race ' irreclaimable,' and opens a long. 23° 5'. path to civilization and true religion. Carried out with energy and system, this treaty will constitute a new era in our relations CAPEL-ST-ANDREW, a parish of Suffolk, to with the aborigines; for it lays down the basis by which only a the W of the Butley, and 7'm. SE of Woodbridge. civilized nation can reclaim and benefit a predatory and savage Area 2,400 acres. Pop. in 1841, 111. people." These anticipations were unfortunately destined to be speedily disproved. In the following year, the Caffres again

CAPEL-ST.-MARÝ, a parish of Suffolk. Area crossed the frontiers, and carried alarm to the very seat of gov- | 1,210 acres. Pop. in 1841, 303.

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