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REED — REED, FLUE AND STRINGED INSTRUMENTS
say) (1867). He published Life and Correspondence of Joseph Reed? (1847); “Life of Esther de Berdt (1853).
REED, (1) in music, the sounding part of several instruments, such as the clarinet, bassoon, oboe and bagpipe, so called from its being made from the outer layer of a reed (Arundo sativa or donax) found in the south of Europe. The name is also applied to the speaking part of the organ, though made of metal. Reeds are generally divided into two kinds — the beating reed, used in the organ, clarinet, etc., requiring to be placed upon a tube to produce a musical sound, and the free reed, used in instruments of the harmonium and concertina kind. (2) In weaving, an appurtenance of the loom, consisting of two parallel bars set a few inches apart and furnished with a number of parallel slips or reeds, called dents, between which the warp threads are passed. The reed is set in a swinging frame, called a lathe, lay or batten. In the hand lathe, the bottom of the batten is furnished with a shelf, called the shuttle race, along which the shuttle is driven. The office of the reed is to beat the weft up to the web and the force of the blow determines the compactness of the fabric.
REED, FLUE AND STRINGED INSTRUMENTS, TEMPERAMENT, TUNING AND VOICING OF. Temperament.The intervals of the perfect octave are divided naturally into 53 parts or commas, the successive sounds of the diatonic scale being separated by these commas into the following intervals:
C to D 9 commas.
DE 8 E F 5
* G9 G" A 8 A B 9
17 22 31 39 48 53
tinction there is naturally between D sharp and E flat, G sharp and A flat, by tuning these notes too sharp for one and too flat for the other of these natural tones or intervals, and by making a similar compromise between the more minute discrepancies of the diatonic scale. Thus while no interval will be exactly true, yet none will be so adjusted as to shock the ear by false intonation, but rather add a color or quality to the tonality of the instrument, which, though harmonious, would otherwise be characterless.
Rule for Tempering Pianos and Organs.Tune middle C to desired pitch, then tune F fifth below — sharp of C, until between C and F, there result three beats in five seconds. Next tune A-sharp fourth above F-sharp of the latter, until there results one beat, each second. Next tune G- fourth below middle C- flat of C, by one beat a second; then tune D- fifth above - flat to G, by three beats in five seconds; A- fourth below — flat to D; E- fifth above — flat to A; B — fourth below — fat to E; F-sharp — fourth below — flat to B; Csharp - fifth above - flat to F-sharp; G-sharp
fourth below — flat to C-sharp; D-sharpfifth above - flat to G-sharp, which will make D-sharp as sharp of A-sharp, as the latter is sharp of the first F tuned.
In all the above intervals, the fifths beat three times in five seconds; the fourths beat once a second, or five times in five seconds. All the 12 notes, from F below middle C to first E above, have now been tuned; the temperament has been confined to the smallest possible compass to lessen the liability of errors, and if the first F above middle C is now tuned three beats in five seconds, flat of A-sharp below, it will be a perfect octave to the first Ê tuned.
Tuning:- The art, principle or act of so adjusting the intonations of keyed musical instruments as to make possible consecutive musical tones agreeable to the ear. The method varies according to the kind or character of the instrument. Where strings are used, as in pianofortes, harps, violins, violas, guitars, zithers, etc., tuning consists in adjusting the tension of the strings by turning the pins or pegs around which the strings are wound. In band and orchestral wind instruments, a crook or joint is used, sometimes called a slide, because it slides in and out to adjust the length of the column of air in the tube to the point where the desired pitch of the fundamental note is obtained.
In reed organs it depends upon the adjustment of the comparative weight, length and thickness of the reeds, and in pipe organs upon the length of the vibrating column of air in the flue pipes.
In the tuning of strings, the pitch is determined by the size, length and tension of the wire. In reed tuning the desired pitch is obtained by filing or scraping the reed; at the base or fixed end to flatten the tone and at the point or free end to sharpen it.
Organ pipes are tuned according to their construction. The large open flue wood pipes are lowered or flattened in pitch by being lengthened by a sliding cap or by a board fastened to the back, at the top, and is raised or sharpened in pitch by being shortened.
The large open metal flue pipes are tuned by cutting away or adding to the length or
Nature's arbitrary division of the octave, into intervals of exact dimensions, is not satisfactory, nor does it admit of an exact equalizing; the only possible approach to it being by the method known as the even temperament," which method or principle was discovered and established by John Sebastian Bach, in the early part of the 18th century, who learned that certain intervals would bear being tuned sharp (in excess of) or flat (short of) perfect; the thirds and fourths being tuned sharp and the fifth tuned flat of perfect, thus distributing among all the 12 keys of the octave, the three commas or points by which the major tones exceeded the minor, thus rendering equal the five tones in the diatonic series. Previous to this time, it had been the custom to tune to perfect intervals, those keys having not over three sharps or flats and play in those keys only. The problem to be solved was to so divide the octave into 12 semitones by fixed sounds, that each one of the 12 sounds could be made the key note upon which a properly proportioned diatonic scale could be based, either in the major or minor form, and a melodic or harmonic progression made possible through the whole 24 major and minor scales; so that from any one of these 12 notes a uniform chromatic scale could be constructed, thus making possible modulations of unlimited variety and beauty.
The method then of tempering the notes of keyed instruments consists in arbitrarily adjusting the enharmonic diesis, that is, the dis
by a slit in the back near the top, making two were illegal, but the governor issued certificates flaps to be opened or closed as required; clos- of election to all claimants whose papers were ing them lowers the pitch, opening them raises regular and against whom no protests or official it; the small metal pipes being tuned by the notice of frauds were presented. His action he use of a conical horn, with which the tops of defended as strictly legal and declared that any the pipes are contracted or expanded, as the other would have been revolutionary, though pitch is to be lowered or raised respectively, he confessed to knowledge of the fraudulent Stopped metal pipes are tuned by a cap, raised voting. He was dismissed from office by the or lowered as desired, and reed pipes by adjust- President and he returned to Lawrence to reing the wire which bears upon the reed, the side and to join forces with the Free-Soil move. raising or drawing up of the wire increasing ment. He was nominated by this party as the effective length of the reed and so flattening Territorial delegate to Congress. A legislature it and vice-versa. In the tunning of pipe organs, of the Free-State party formed under the inthe reed pipes are the last to be tuned, since strument known as the Topeka constitution they are the most liable of all the pipes to be- elected him to the United States Senate in 1856. come disarranged.
But the election was refused ratification by Voicing of Keyed Musical Instruments.- Congress. President Lincoln appointed him a The voicing of organ pipes consists in the ad
brigadier-general at the outbreak of the war, justment of their various parts, consisting of but considerations of age induced him to dethe mouth, throat, lips, languid and ears, the cline. Consult Spring, Kansas? (1885); Robcorrect method of treatment having been inson, "The Kansas Conflict' (1892). learned by experience many years ago and of late years demonstrated by mathematical calcu
REEDFISH, a crossopterygian ganoid fish lations and by the investigations of scientists.
(Calamoichthys calibaricus), which, with the The languid is that flat piece of the pipe
bichir is the only survivor of a group prominent which lies horizontally above the upper part
in palæozoic time, which dwells in the sluggish of the foot, and it is against this languid the
reedy, rivers of the Senegal coast of Africa, "sheet of wind” is forced from the wind way.”
searching the mud of the bottom for prey. below. Some of the pipes have the languids REEDSBURG, Wis., city in Sauk County, grooved upon their face, as one method of 150 miles northwest of Milwaukee, on Baraboo voicing, and some metal pipes are voiced by River and on the Chicago and Northwestern bending the ears, which are placed on either Railroad. It has lumber, dairying and livestock side of the mouth. Pipes once voiced at the interests, manufactures woolens and flour and factory seldom need any alteration.
is a shipping point for potatoes, apples and other The voicing of reeds in the common house products. Pop. 2,615. organ is accomplished by giving the free end of the reed a slight curl or circumflex, and this
REEF, the part of a sail comprehended bealso causes the reed to speak or sound more
tween the top or bottom and a row of eyelet promptly and with less pressure of wind.
holes generally parallel thereto. The object of The voicing of pianos consists in the stab
the reef is to reduce the surface of the sail in bing of the felt of which the hammers are
proportion to the increase of the wind; for made, by several needles fastened in a handle.
which reason there are several reefs parallel to The thrusts should be made directly toward
each other in the superior sails; thus the topthe centre of the hammer and not through the
sails of ships are generally furnished with three top of the felt, from the sides. In the making reefs and sometimes four; and there are always of hammers, which is done by machinery, one
three or four reefs parallel to the foot or botentire set being covered with felt at a time,
tom of those main-sails and fore-sails which are there is a variation as to hardness in the indi
extended upon booms. When a reef has to be vidual hammers, and voicing is relied upon to
taken in the sail is slightly lowered; the men lighten up the felt and give a uniform char
climb out along the lower boom or yard, which acter of tone throughout the entire scale of
they lean over, with their feet supported by the the piano.
foot-ropes, fold the loose portion of the sail EDWARD QUINCY NORTON, around the yard and tie them up with the cords Author of Construction, Tuning and Care of inserted in the eyelėt-holes. As the operation the Pianoforte.
of reefing is dangerous in stormy weather many
ships are now fitted up with a patent apparatus REED-BIRD. See BOBOLINK.
by which sails may be reefed from the deck. REED CANARY GRASS, a grass of the Reef also implies a chain of rocks lying near genus Phalaris. See GRASSES IN THE UNITED the surface of the water. States. REEDBUCK. See REITBOKS.
REEL, a revolving contrivance on which
fibre, thread, cord, rope, fabric, etc., are wound REEDER, Andrew Horatio, American to form them into hanks or skeins, and for varipolitician, first governor of Kansas Territory: ous other purposes.
The term is applied in b. Easton, Pa., 6 Aug. 1807; d. there, 5 July agriculture to a device having radial arms 1864. He practised law at Easton and was a carrying horizontal slats and rotated by gear or prominent Democratic politician when, in 1854, pulley connected with the axle of a harvester, he was appointed by President Pierce the first for pressing backward and holding the stalks governor of the newly-formed territory of of grain in position for being severed by the Kansas. Upon arriving at his post he at once knives. In angling, a skeleton barrel attached rendered his position difficult by declaring his to the butt of a fishing rod, around which the intention rigidly to put down the violence re- inner end of the line is wound, and from which sulting from the conflict of the two parties it is paid out as the fish runs off with the bait, respecting slavery. In the election of March and is gradually wound in again as his struggles 1855 more than three-fourths of the votes cast become less violent, bringing him to land or
to the landing net. In baking, a cylinder with the decoration of Chevalier of the Legion of radial arms rotating in a heated chamber, carry
Honor, ing pans in which loaves of bread are placed for
REESE, rēs, Michael, American pioneer: baking in the reel-oven. In cotton machinery, a machine on which cotton is wound, making Aug. 1878. Apprenticed to a tanner, he worked
b. Heinsforth, Bavaria, 1816; d. Germany, ? hanks of thread. In domestic industry, a spool at his trade until he emigrated to the United or bobbin of wood on which cotton, thread, silk,
States, and there after some reverses he estabetc., is wound for use in sewing.
lished a jewelry business in which he was sucAlso the name of a lively rustic dance in
cessful. In 1850 he went to California and which the couples sometimes swing or whirl
began investing in San Francisco real estate. round, and sometimes pass, forming the figure When the Fraser River excitement was at its 8. In the United States the Virginia reel was height, Berri, a Swiss banker, disheartened as to widely popular. Also the music for such dance,
the future of San Francisco, expressed to Reese generally written in common time, but some- his desire to part with his holdings. Reese times in jig time of six quavers to a bar. The having a firm belief in the coming importance Scotch dance known as a reel is executed by
of the city purchased Berri's property and thus two couples, the music for which is generally laid the foundation of his great wealth. Among written in common time of four crotchets in a
his benefactions was his gift to the University bar, but sometimes in jig time of six quavers. of California of the Lieber Library. The
REEM, in Scriptural zoology, Bos primi- Michae! Reese Hospital of Chicago, I1., is his genius. In the Authorized Version the influence memorial, while his legacies to charities in the of the Septuagint has prevailed, and the word is aggregate reached half a million dollars. translated “unicorn, but erroneously, as the REEVE, Richard Andrews, Canadian phymention of two horns on one reem (Deut.
sician: b. Toronto, 1842. He was graduated at xxxiii, 17) proves. The word unicorn has dis
Toronto University in 1862 and took his M.D. appeared from the Revised Version, wild ox at Queen's University in 1865. He engaged in being substituted for it; but in Num. xxiii, 22, practice at Toronto and specialized in the treatthe alternative rendering ox-antelope (Oryx ment of the eye and ear. In 1867-72 he was leucoryx) is given in the margin. The term is
assistant surgeon at the Toronto Eye and Ear still a vernacular name among the Arabs of the Infirmary, and subsequently became lectures on Sahara for a gazelle (Gazella loderi).
opthalmology and otology at the Toronto School RE-ENTRY, legal term designating the re- of Medicine (now Medical Faculty of the Unisuming or retaking possession of lands or tene- versity of Toronto). He was dean of the ments by the landlord in case of non-payment of faculty in 1896–1908, when he resigned. He was rent or public dues. Usually a clause providing president of the British Medical Association in for re-entry in case of non-payment is inserted 1905, and was then elected a life vice-president. in the lease; and under this the landlord may REEVE, Tapping, American jurist: b. enforce ejectment either through notification of Brook Haven, L. 1., October 1744; d. Litchhis wish to re-enter or, if necessary, through field, Conn., 13 Dec. 1823. He was graduprocess of law.
ated from Princeton in 1763 and in 1767-70 REES, rés, Abraham, English Presbyterian was engaged as a tutor there. In 1772 he clergyman : b. Llanbrynmair, Wales, 1743; d. 9 established a law practice at Litchfield, and June 1825. He prepared for the ministry at during the war served as a recruiting officer Hoxton Academy, where in his 19th year he
and as a member of various committees of was appointed mathematical tutor to the insti- safety and defense. In 1784 he opened a law tution, and soon after resident tutor, in which school at Litchfield which became justly famous capacity he continued upward of 22 years. He
and for years was without an American rival. was pastor to the Presbyterian congregation of
He conducted it without assistance until 1795, Saint Thomas', Southwark, 1768-83, and of a when he became associated with James Gould, congregation in the Old Jewry from 1783 till who succeeded him in 1820. He was a judge of his death. In 1776 he undertook a revision and the Supreme Court of Connecticut in 1798– expansion of Chambers' Cyclopædia,' which 1814, served as chief justice for a short time he completed in 1785. The success of this work and subsequently served a single term in each led him to a new undertaking, similar in its
the legislature and the council, after which he nature, The New Cyclopædia, in 45 volumes
declined to hold further office. (1802-20), republished at Philadelphia in 47 Federalist, a lawyer of high ability and was the volumes.
originator of the movement to secure to mar
ried women the legal right to dispose of their REES, John Krom, American educator: b. New York, 27 Oct. 1851 ; d. there, 9 March
own property. He published "The Law of
Baron and Femme; of Parent and Child; of 1907. He was graduated from Columbia in 1872 and from the Columbia School of Mines
Guardian and Ward; of Master and Servant,' in 1875. He filled the position of assistant pro
etc. (1816), republished in numerous editions; fessor of mathematics in the Columbia School
and A Treatise on the Law of Descent of Mines 1873-76, and was professor of astron
(1825). omy in Washington University, Saint Louis, REEVE, a bird. See RUFF. 1876-81. He was dire or of the observatory REEVES, Arthur Middleton, American and instructor in geodesy and practical astron- philologist: b. Cincinnati, Ohio, 7 Oct. 1856; d. omy in Columbia 1881-84, and from 1884 pro- in railway accident near Hagerstown, Ind., 25 fessor of astronomy there. He was president Feb. 1891. He was graduated at Cornell in of the New York Academy of Sciences in 1894 1878. He specialized in the study of languages 96, was elected Fellow of the Royal Astronom- and after 1879, when he visited Iceland, he ical Society of London; and in 1901 received devoted much of his time to European travel
and the study of the sagas and ancient manu- ments and other research work as will aid the scripts. With Beamish and Anderson he wrote superintendent and his supervisors in their "The Norse Discovery of America' (pub. post- administrative work. The object of such a humously 1906) Author of The Finding of specially organized bureau is to do this work Wineland the Good (1890; new ed., with biog- during the current school term, so that the raphy and correspondence of the author, 1895). schools may make immediate use of the findings REEVES, rēvz, Helen Mathers, English
obtained and that preventive and remedial
measures and economies may be put into effect novelist : b. Misterton, Somerset, 26 Aug. 1853.
during the same school year in which they are In 1876 she was married to Henry Albert
discovered. The most notable example of such Reeves, a London surgeon. "Comin' Through
a bureau is in Rochester, N. Y. the Rye,' her first story (1875), was widely popular both in this country and her own, and REFERENDUM, in the United States, the among her later fictions are 'Cherry Ripe! submission of the legislative acts of a represen(1877); As He Comes Up the Stair (1878); tative assembly to the people for acceptance or My Lady Green Sleeves (1879); The Sin rejection by popular vote. Under its Ameriof Hagar) (1896); Becky) (1900); Tally can application, the referendum means that a Ho! (1906); Pigskin and Petticoat (1907); specified time must elapse before a law (or, Love the Thief! (1909). Her style is pleasing in case of a city, an ordinance) may go into and animated and the interest of her novels is effect, but if, during the period, a reasonable well sustained.
minority of the people should petition for a
referendum on the law, it remains inoperative REEVES, John Sims, English tenor singer: until after the following election, when it is b. Woolwich, Kent, 26 Sept. 1818; d. Worthing,
either ratified or rejected by a majority of the Sussex, 25 Oct. 1900. He studied music and popular votes. The period usually allowed bein 1832, became organist in the church of North
fore bills may become laws is 60 days and the Cray, Kent, and made his first appearance as a
percentage of voters who must sign a petition singer in 1839 on the Newcastle stage. He first
to secure a referendum varies from 5 per cent sang in London in 1842, and having studied in Paris and Milan made his first appearance at
in South Dakota to 10 per cent in North Dakota. the La Scala Theatre of the latter city as Egardo referendum might be invoked not only upon en
In 1906 Oregon amended her law so that the in Donizetti's opera, Lucia di Lammermoor.?
tire laws but also upon individual items or His voice was of wide compass and great beauty
parts of laws. Every measure to be submitted --- mellow and powerful, capable of the ten
to the people, on demand of initiative or derest pathos and of the most stirring martial
referendum petitions, must be filed not less appeal, but always controlled by genuine artistic than four months before the general election. feeling and knowledge. He was heard to most
A comprehensive ballot title for each measure advantage in the concert hall and in oratorio is formulated by the attorney-general and a parts, and in such pieces as 'Guy Mannering campaign book is prepared by the Secretary of he displayed considerable histrionic ability: He State. The proposed law is printed in full in published Life and Recollections) (1888) and this book as well as any arguments that may My Jubilee) (1889).
be advanced by the advocates or opponents of REFEREE, in law, (1) a person who tries
the measure, the interested parties paying the or examines an issue or question of fact sent
exact cost of the paper, and printing required to him by judicial order. (2) A person au
to present these arguments. A copy of this thorized by judicial order to take testimony
book must be mailed by the Secretary of State and investigate on a given case. In England,
to every registered voter in the State eight under the Judicature Act of 1873, in the High
weeks before the general election, the State Court of Justice trial before referees is ordered
bearing the cost of printing the text of the law. only on the consent of the parties or in cases
and postage as a legislative expense. This in which accounts or documents are complicated enables the voter to familiarize himself with the and necessitate long investigation or involve authentic details of the proposition the fate of local or scientific facts incapable of trial in the which he is called upon to determine and allows usual manner. Assessment of damages and
sufficient time for discussion between individuals inquiry and report may be ordered in any case. and by every variety of organization throughIn the United States referees are appointed in
out the State. Under this device the people bankruptcy cases and often in divorce proceed- may kill bad laws and overthrow the work of ings, cases in which accounts are complicated tools of political bosses who intend to foster and those in which secrecy is desirable.
their private or political fortunes in the State
legislative body; moreover, by a threat of REFERENCE AND RESEARCH BU. invoking this remedy, much pernicious legislaREAUS, or SCHOOL RESEARCH BU.
tion can be prevented, franchise stealing elimiREAUS, a type of office maintained in connec- nated and the corrupting lobby rendered tion with the office of superintendent of schools, unprofitable. On the other hand if the legislathe functions of which are' (1) to prepare sta- ture exhibits indifference to public requiretistical data from current reports to keep the ments and persistently refuse to the superintendent informed as to the work of each necessary legislation, the people have an efschool in the system, the relative standing of fective remedy in the initiative (q.v.) and to the schools and grades in educational accom- a considerable extent in the recall (q.v.). plishment and the cost of operating the system; Since the 16th century a form of referen(2) to act as a clearing-house of current infor- dum has existed in some of the cantons of mation, bringing the experience of other sys- Switzerland. Under the Swiss Constitution all tems to the attention of local authorities; and constitutional amendments must be ratified by (3) to conduct standard classroom measure- the electorate before they become law, In
eight cantons an obligatory referendum is in Appeal was taken to the Supreme Court of the vogue, requiring the submission to the electorate State which tribunal not only reversed the deof every law and every expenditure above a cision of the lower court, but held that the fixed maximum, and no demand for such sub- referendum "does not abolish or destroy the mission to the electors is necessary. Other representative form of government or submeasures of national importance must be sub- stitute another in its place. The representative mitted to popular vote if, within 90 days after character of the government still remains. their publication, the governments of eight In 1897 the Nebraska legislature enacted a cantons or 30,000 votes throughout the republic law permitting the cities of that State, upon should demand such submission. While the the vote of a majority of their citizens, to terms initiative and referendum were almost adopt direct legislation methods in the conduct unknown in American politics prior to 1890, yet of their affairs. In the same year Iowa exan analogy is to be found in colonial days. In tended the initiative to all questions of franthe Plymouth colony, even after the towns be- chise save those of public ownership. Many gan to send deputies to their representative Western cities have adopted the direct legislalegislature, the whole body of the freemen” tion reform, beginning with Seattle, Wash., in appeared at the June court to make laws and 1892, this city being quickly followed by Buckrepeal such of the laws enacted by the legisla ley, Wash., Alameda, Vallejo, San Francisco, ture as appeared "prejudicial to the whole.” Sacramento, Los Angeles, San Diego, Pasadena Even in the Massachusetts constitution of 1780 and many of the smaller cities of California; the bill of rights expressly reserved to the Portland, Ore., Grand Rapids and Detroit, voters the right to instruct their representatives Mich., Denver, Des Moines, Minneapolis, Nashin the legislature, and both prior to and after ville and others. Altogether the initiative, the Revolution this right was freely exercised. referendum and recall are used more or less Almost from the beginning, with a few excep- completely in about 300 municipalities, some tions, the State constitutions and amendments under general State laws and some under special thereto have been referred to the voters of the charters. See INITIATIVE; RECALL. State for ratification or rejection. (See Con- Bibliography - Beard, C. A., American VENTIONS, CONSTITUTIONAL). Some of the Government and Politics) (rev., New York 1914); States have introduced another type of referen- Bacon, E. M., and Wyman, M., Direct Elecdum by amending, their constitutions so that tions and Law-making by Popular Vote! (Boslegislative acts, which relate to specific subjects ton 1912); Beard, C. A., and Schultz, B. E., (such as incurring a State debt or the sale of Documents on State-wide Initiative, Referenschool lands), must be subjected to popular dum and Recall (New York 1912, gives text vote. In a few States, the constitutions of of laws of various States); Boyle, James, The which contained no such authorization, the Initiative and Referendum? (Columbus, Ohio, legislatures attempted to submit to popular vote 1912); Baker, F. A., (The Initiative and Refermiscellaneous questions of a perplexing nature, endum? (Detroit 1911); Barnett, J. D., Operabut this practice was checked by court decisions tion of the Initiative, Referendum and Recall on the ground that such action on the part of in Oregon' (New York 1915); Butler, N. M., representative assemblies was an unwarranted "Why Should We Change Our Form of Goydelegation of their law-making powers. In 1901 ernment' (ib. 1912); Cleveland, F. A., OrganIllinois enacted a law which might be termed ized Democracy' (ib. 1913); Coker, F. W., an advisory initiative, providing that upon (Safeguarding the Petition in the Initiative and petition of 10 per cent of the registered voters Referendum in American Political Science a given proposal, such as a "question of pub- Review, Vol. X, pp. 540-545, Baltimore 1916), lic policy,” must be submitted to the electorate and Interworkings of State Administration and of the entire State. A similar law has been Direct Legislation (in Annals of the Ameripassed in Delaware and several other States. can Academy of Political and Social Science,'
The first referendum league in the United Vol. LXIV, pp. 122–133, March 1916); ComStates was organized in New Jersey in 1892 but mons, J. R., Proportional Representation South Dakota was the first State to adopt the (New York 1907); Cushman, R. E., Recent optional or facultative referendum, the neces- Experience with the Initiative and Referendum sary amendment to the constitution being (in American Political Science Review, Vol. X, adopted in 1898. Her example was followed by pp. 532–539, Baltimore 1916); Carey, C. H., Oregon (1902), Nevada (1905 and 1912), Mon- Limitations on the Use of the Initiative and tana (1906), Oklahoma (1907), Maine (1908), Referendum' (in Case and Comment, Vol. Missouri (1908), Arkansas (1910), Colorado XXIII, PP. 353-357, Rochester, N. Y., 1916); (1910), Arizona (1911), New Mexico (1911), Eaton, A. H., (The Oregon System (Chicago California (1911), Idaho (1912), Nebraska 1912); Galbreath, C. B., Provisions for State(1912), Ohio (1912), Washington (1912), Michi- wide Initiative and Referendum' (in Annals gan (1908 and 1913), Massachusetts in a limited of the American Academy, Vol. XLIII, pp. form (1913), North Dakota (1914), Maryland 81-109, September 1912; gives results of votes (1915) and Mississippi (1916). In 1900 Utah on various measures in the several States); and in 1912 Idaho adopted amendments provid- Galbreath, C. B., Initiative and Referendum ing for the initiative and referendum, but the (Columbus, Ohio, 1911); Gardner, C. 0., legislatures have not passed enabling acts; New Problems of Percentages in Direct GovernJersey is experimenting with the referendum ment' (in American Political Science Review, in cities and in 1916 Minnesota rejected the Vol. X, pp. 500-514, Baltimore 1916); Gove, F. plan. The Oregon amendment was bitterly at- E., The Initiative and Referendum' (Washtacked by its opponents who took the matter ington 1912); Hendrick, B. J., (The Initiative to court, where a minor judge declared the and Referendum' and 'Law Making by the measure unconstitutional and not in accord with Voters) (in McClure's Magazine, Vol. the provisions of the Federal Constitution. XXXVII, pp. 235–248, 435-450, 1911); Haynes,