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that he takes no credit to himself for this ern Canada and the United States, was wonderfully novel work of being the first built by the Indians and presented to their to teach these natives to write. Then highly appreciative priest. They have they apply the symbols to their own lan- also made him a present of a carriage and guage, in addition to the task of commit- team to enable him to make his visits to ting the shorthand alphabet. The Indians far-off villages. The Church has a cheernow using this phonetic system for writing ful interior with comfortable pews. The are some half-dozen tribes or more living most striking oddity, however, to the white along the Thompson and Fraser Rivers. It visitor is the curious hymn and prayer is in these languages that the prayers, books whose pages are full of the curious hymns, parts of the Bible, and the church shorthand symbols. Father Le Jeune ritua! have been published. The focus of preaches in the several native dialects of all religious and intellectual activities, and the country, especially Chinook, the ordithe one point of pilgrimage from long dis- nary trade language used between different tances by land and river, is the Church. tribes and whites throughout British This structure is a white frame one, simi- Columbia, Alaska and the Northwestern lar to those to be found in villages of East- coast of the United States.

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A page from a unique shorthand news paper. Read by the Indians of British Columbia. It has sixteen pages and contains church and local information. Pastor Le Jeune had special type made for it, and it is printed on one of the presses of the nearest city.

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On church and feast days, the whole in having type made for it and getting it community attend services. The church printed on one of the presses of the nearis well lighted by acetylene gas, and illus- est city. A full page of this unique pubtrated stereopticon lectures are frequently lication, here reproduced, shows the curigiven by the pastor. In the rear of the ous shorthand symbols used in the church church is the educational rooms, where service. Several years ago, the Passion Father Le Jeune gets up his quaint short- Play was enacted here by the Indians unhand paper. This has sixteen pages, about der the direction of the priest. They are the size of the average book, devoted to quite proud of their performance, and church and various local information.

information. speak of the event with unusual pride. For “Wawa" is the word for talk in the Chi- a novel picture of progressive Indian life, nook jargon, hence Father Le Jeune chose Father Le Jeune's queer "Wawa" and his that name for the quaint newspaper. It band of Indian shorthand writers, quite was printed on a mimeograph for the first overshadow all others to be met with in year, but after this, the priest succeeded British Columbia.

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F THE DEBATABLE ground forms of life that are now proven to be

between the plant and animal animals were long considered plants. To kingdoms, every one has read or ascertain and demonstrate their proper

heard; but there are few, ex- place in nature required the use of powercepting among students of biology, who ful microscopes and the most painstaking understand how slight is the distinction scientific study and observation. In these between the lower orders of the two great lower life-strata, practically the only difdivisions of the organic world. Many ference between plant and animal lies in

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that collectors press and dry, and proudly exhibit as rare and beautiful seaweeds. Dwellers along the sea coasts, who see some species of these peculiar animals almost every day, are as ill-informed in this regard as travelers from the interior making their first visit to the seashore, and receive suggestions to the effect that their "feather mosses" and sea-fans are really animals with open scorn.

Most deceptive of all animals in this regard are the Coelenterata, or polyps, formerly known as zoophytes, or animalplants. One writer has remarked that Shakespeare's description of old age is peculiarly applicable to the Coelenterates:

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the fact that the plant derives nourishment from inorganic substances in the soil, air or water, while the animal feeds solely upon organic matter.

Many of the plant-like animals microscopic in size, but others are several inches, or even several feet, in length or diameter. Even the sponges were long believed to be plants. Aristotle was the first to point out the fact that this belief was erroneous; but his arguments were long disputed, and sometimes ridiculed. However, it will hardly do to ridicule the ancients on that account, for even in these 1. Kelp air sac covered with hydrozoa. days of the universal diffusion of know- 2. Ostrich plume," a curious form of ledge there are scores of plant-like animals animal life mistaken for a seaweed.

ists, always occurring in groups or colonies of associated animals. Thus low in the scale of creation, long before the dawn of intelligence, nature worked out the social necessity of co-operation and the division of labor. In some genera, certain individuals have an open end with a crown of microscopic tentacles. These tentacles capture the floating organic cells that serve as food. Other individuals of the colony attend to the function of reproduction. The manner of reproduction is one of the strangest phenomena of organic life. In some genera the reproductive zooids set free tiny medusae, or jellyfishes—animals that differ widely in appearance and structure from their parents. When the medusa reaches maturity it deposits eggs, which float in the water until they become attached to some object, where they grow and develop into new hydroid colonies. This fact of two different forms of being, necessary to one


Sea pansies.


“Sans teeth, sans eyes, sans taste, everything." Devoid of any of the physical senses, without intelligence, without power of locomotion, and probably without consciousness, there is little about these strange animals to differentiate them from plants, except the function of digestion. The body is a sac, containing a digestive cavity. Essentially that is all there is to the Hydrozoa, an important class of the Coelenterata. Nevertheless, these animals are found in varied and beautiful forms, multitudes of individuals being arranged in colonies with an appearance of great complexity, although each individual of the colony consists of but a few simple cells.

To the unaided eye, the hydroids appear to be plants beyond the possibility of doubt; and the illusion is heightened by their manner of growth, firmly fixed by root-like appendages to shells, rocks, seaweels, piling, or anything else that happens to be at hand. These were the first communists—the primordial social

Fragment of help leaf, with hydroid colonies.

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