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Llanrug, R.

Llanfihangel y Pennant, C. Bettws

y Coed,chapel to Tref- Treflys, --chapel to Cricciaeth riw (St. Mary.)

(St. Catherine.) Llanfihangel Bachellaeth,-chap

el to Llanbedrog (St. Pedrog.)


Ffestiniog, R.—1 Chapel, Maen- Llanfihangel y Traeth,—chapel twrog (St. Mary.)

to Llandecwyn (St. Tecwyn.) Llanfihangel y Pennant,-chapel

to Tywyn All Saints.)


Trefeglwys, R.


Efenechtyd, R.

* Bettws was formerly a chapel to Abergele. See Edwards's “Cathedral of St. Asaph."


Llanfihangel yn Nhywyn,-chap- Llanfihangel Tre'r Beirdd, --chap

el to Rhoscolyn, (St. Gwen- el to Llandyfrydog (St. Dyffaen.)

rydog.) Llanfihangel Ysgeifiog, C.--1 Llugwy, -chapel to Llaneigrad

Chapel, Llanffinan(St. Ffinan.) (St. Eigrad.) Llanfihangel Tinsilwy,--chapel Penrhos, C.

to Llaniestin (St. Iestin.)

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Llanfihangel Istern Llewern, R. Troy, or Mitchel Troy, R.-1
Llanfihangel juxta Usk, R. Chapel, Cwmcarfan.
Llanfihangel Crug corneu, V. Kemmys, (Cemmaes,) R.
Llanfihangel, R. (in Deanery of Gwernesey, R.
Nether Went.)

Llanfihangel Tormynydd, R. Tintern Parva, R.

Llanfihangel Pontymoel, C. Machan, or Maghen, R.

Llanfihangel juxta Llantarnam, C. St. Michael's near Rumney, or

Michaelston Vedo, R.

Total in Llandaff




Discoed, -chapel to Presteign Michaelchurch upon Arrow,

(St. Andrew,) Radnorshire. chapel to Kington (St. Mary.)

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These churches, unlike those dedicated to St. Mary, do not crowd the English districts, but are dispersed over the country with greater regularity. They are found in the interior as well as in the outskirts, and are so far characteristic of the Principality, that the proportion they bear to other churches is twice as great as that of those dedicated to St. Michael in England.* This national distinction would show that they were mostly founded by the native princes, and their more general dispersion would indicate that they belonged to an era prior to the permanent occupation of parts of Wales by foreigners. Another mark of nationality, as well as of higher antiquity, is the greater number of Welsh names in the list of St. Michael than in that of St. Mary.t But the best criterion, in the absence of historical records, is the arrangement of parishes. Except in those parts where English and Norman settlers may have made a new distribution, the parishes dedicated to St. Michael are generally of much larger extent than those dedicated to St. Mary, some of them being eight, and even ten miles in length. While only nine out of

* According to Ecton, or Browne Willis, there are in the Diocese of Lincoln about 1520 churches, including extinct chapelries, sixty of which are dedicated to St. Michael. According to the same authority, there are in the Dioceses of St. David's and Bangor 720 churches, or less than half the number in Lincoln, sixty four of which aie dedicated to St. Michael.

+ Only two churches situate in towns, St. Michael's Pembroke, and Caerwys, occur in the list.

eighty five places of Worship, in the Dioceses of St. David's and Bangor, named in the first list, were of sufficient antiquity or importance to have chapelries under them; the proportion in the list of St. Michael, for the same Dioceses, is ten out of sixty four. Four chapels of St. Mary are subject to churches of St. Michael, and two* vice versa. Out of nineteen chapels dedicated to St. Michael, fourteen are parochial,+ which for reasons already stated are more ancient than chapels of ease; while of those consecrated to St. Mary, the proportion is less, being twenty out of thirty three. From these calculations the Dioceses of St. Asaph and Llandaff are excluded, owing to the singular circumstance that, according to the authority of Ecton, there are no chapels dedicated to St. Michael in either of them.

These Dioceses therefore require a separate consideration, and the circumstance alluded to is an illustration of the truth of Welsh history. The Diocese of St. Asaph extends more along the English frontier than the rest; and long before the Norman conquest, according to the Welsh Annals, it appears to have suffered severely from the ravages of the AngloSaxons, who are even recorded to have taken possession of the territories comprised in it; and though they could not


Namely, Llanfihangel, in ruins, subject to St. Mary's Kidwelly, and Bettws y Coed subject to Trefriw; but the irregular situations of both the superior churches has been already noticed, in note page 85. Another irregularity is Michael-church upon Arrow subordinate to Kington; both these churches however are in the Diocese of Hereford.

+ This particular is ascertained from Carlisle's Topographical Dictionary.

Between A. D. 810 and 820, as stated in two Chronicles printed in the Myvyrian Archaiology, the Saxons took possession of Rhufoniog, or the western part of Denbighshire. In about ten years afterwards, according to three Chronicles in the same collection, they took possession of the “kingdom” or principality of Powys, comprising the county of Montgomery, with the remainder of Denbigh, and parts of Flint, Merioneth,


maintain their footing, their continual inroads must have desolated the country. To this cause may be attributed the fact that all the churches dedicated to St. Michael in this Diocese are only eight; and also, that though it is, perhaps, the second of the Welsh Dioceses in point of extent, it contains fewer churches considerably than either of the other three.* In Llandaff, the least extensive Diocese in Wales, the number of churches dedicated to St. Michael is twenty, not one of which is a chapel ; but the Normans formed their settlements in this district at a later period, and it may be presumed that, according to their usual rule, they converted such chapels as existed in the country into independent benefices.

On the other hand, the churches of St. Michael, though more ancient than those of St. Mary, are not the most ancient in the Principality. Onet only of the chapels subordinate to them is dedicated to a Welsh Saint; while fourteen of the chapels dedicated to St. Michael are subordinate to churches ascribed to Welsh Saints; and this want of reciprocity can be accounted for on no other principle than that the commemoration of the native Saints is of older date. The parishes dedicated to St. Michael vary considerably in extent, according to the nature of the ground unoccupied by previous endowments; but even the most extensive of them do not possess the characteristics of endowments of the first class. That which approaches nearest is Llanfihangel Penbryn in Cardiganshire, which contains the subordinate parishes of

and Salop. The occupation of the remaining part of Flintshire by the Saxons has been already noticed, and it will be observed that the territories described are situated principally in the Diocese of St. Asaph. (Myvyrian Archaiology, Vol. II. pp. 392, 475, & 476.)

* The number of churches in St. David's, including extinct chapelries, as far as can be collected from Browne Willis, is 526; in Llandaff 275; Bangor 194; and St. Asaph 145.

+ Capel Teilo, a decayed chapel under Talley, Carmarthenshire.

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