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meet Governor Goodwin's party at Los Tinos, from whence they would proceed to the new diggings. These companies waited for some time, and then received orders to go ahead and did so, arriving at Chino Valley a few weeks before the Governor's party, where they established Fort Whipple.

In an interview Fred G. Hughes, a wellknown pioneer and old resident of Arizona, who subsequently held many positions, gave the following account of the trip of these troops to the new gold fields:

“The fall of 1863 found the California column, after its weary trip from California to the Rio Grande, scattered through Arizona and New Mexico, in full and undisputed possession of both territories so far as the southern Confederacy was concerned. The summer had passed principally in operations against the Apaches and Navajo Indians. The latter tribe was wealthy and possessed large herds of sheep and other stock; they were quickly whipped, and at the time at which this narrative commences, had succumbed, and were coming in and giving themselves up as prisoners of war, and were being sent to the Bosque Redondo reservation in New Mexico.

“During the summer a party of hardy prospectors and mountaineers from Colorado and California, under the lead of a noted trapper, named Captain Joe Walker, had pushed forward into the country around where the city of Prescott now stands, and had discovered rich gold placers. This new discovery had created excitement, and all that prevented a general stampede thereto was the difficulty of getting there, there being three or four hundred miles of travel through the hostile Indian country to reach that locality.

“It was during the early part of this year that Congress had passed the act organizing the territory of Arizona and at the time of which I write the territorial officials had been appointed and were on their way out from Washington to their posts of duty. Governor John N. Goodwin, the head of the delegation, had decided to locate the capital of the new territory in the vicinity of the new gold discovery made by the Walker party. General Carleton, who was then in command of the department, also decided to locate a fort there, ostensibly to protect the miners against the Indians, but in reality to guard against organization in our rear, for it was known that most of the people going to the new discovery were sympathizers with the Confederacy. The company to which I then belonged was located at Fort Craig, on the Rio Grande, better known then as Val Verde, and we were detailed by General Carleton as one of two companies to proceed to the new discovery and locate the fort. We were first to proceed to Los Tinos on the Rio Grande, where we were to meet the new territorial officials and escort them through the Indian country to their destination. We reached Los Tinos in the middle of October, but the officials had not arrived, and after waiting for them about ten days, and they failing to appear, we were ordered to proceed to old Fort Wingate and await their arrival there. We proceeded to Wingate, and remained there a week or ten days and they not appearing, and it growing late in the season, we were ordered to push on without them.

Our expedition left Wingate on the 17th day of November (1863). It consisted of Companies 'C' and 'F' of the First California Volunteers, and some forty or fifty wagons, fourfifths of which were ox-teams. The winter proved to be exceedingly cold and stormy, and by the time we reached the Little Colorado, our oxen began to peg out. We had as yet had very little trouble with the Indians. At Inscription Rock they had stolen some horses from a party of citizens who were accompanying us, and who had ventured too far from the command, and struck a party of Navajoes under a chief named Nannelity, who had as yet refused to submit and come in off the warpath. By the time we reached the base of the San Francisco mountains our cattle were giving out and dying to such an extent that it became necessary to either destroy part of our stores, or cache them until the command could go on to its destination. The latter course was determined upon, and I was detailed to remain behind with ten men and guard the cache until they could return and relieve us. It was nearly a month before they returned. In the interim we enjoyed ourselves hunting to our hearts' content, for our camp was a veritable hunters' paradise. It was at a point then called Snider's Water Hole. Bear, elk, deer, antelope and turkey abounded in greater numbers than I have ever seen, either before or since. While hunting we would see Indians almost daily and being as we now were in Tonto or Hualapai Apache country, we knew them to be Apaches, and really

expected each day that our camp would be attacked. As we were in a new country, however, we concluded not to be the aggressors, at least not without cause. Two days before the party arrived to relieve us, an Indian appeared before our camp, and made signs that he wanted to come in. We brought him in, and he proved to be a Hualapai Apache. He stayed with us all day. We treated him well, and he left in the evening for his camp, apparently pleased with his visit. The next day two Indians came in, and that evening the relief party arrived. A Lieutenant Pomeroy was in command of the relief party and he had brought out all the inule teams of the command to relieve us. I related to him the circumstances of the Indians visiting our camp, and he told me they had passed a camp of two or three hundred Hualapais at a point called Rattlesnake Canyon two or three days out from Camp Clark, the new location for the fort,' and that the Indians were inclined to be peaceable. However, that night the herd was stampeded, every hoof taken, and one of our herders shot. The herder was shot with a Navajo arrow, and a couple of Navajo arrows were also picked up the next day on the ground from where the herd was taken. The morning after the stampede I arose early and taking the trail of our herd, followed it some six or eight miles, when I discovered some mules grazing in the timber about a mile ahead of me. The trail had thus far led in the direction of the Volunteer Springs, and toward the Navajo country. Being alone I did not feel like investigating the mules I had discovered too closely, feeling that if the Indians had halted so close to our camp

they were numerous enough to make it too interesting for me should I be discovered. So I returned to camp. I found upon my return that Lieutenant Pomeroy and his party had started back to Camp Clark with the intention of bringing out the ox-teams to relieve us.

“The next day we were surprised to have a train of four wagons pull into our camp, coming from the direction of the Rio Grande. They proved to be a party of Americans and Mexicans from Santa Fe and Albuquerque, en route to the new gold diggings. They had followed our trail out from the Rio Grande. They had laid over the day before to rest at some springs about ten miles from our camp, and it was without a doubt their mules I had seen the day previous. Jack Collins, a noted crack stage driver, who was afterwards killed by Apaches, near where the town of Pantano now stands, was at the head of the American party with this train. They had heard nothing of the Arizona officials before they left the river.

"It was about three weeks before the second party got back to relieve us, and in the meantime no Indians had visited our camp, nor had we seen any while hunting. The new relief party was commanded by Lieutenant Griff Taylor, afterwards a noted Prescottite. Taylor came with orders to relieve us, and on his return to attack the Hualapai camp at Rattlesnake Canyon. Evidently it was the impression that these Indians were the ones that stampeded our herd.

“I related to Taylor the circumstances of our herder being shot with a Navajo arrow, also the fact that the trail of our stolen herd led in the direction of the Navajo country, and that

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