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The band, which is an important factor in many college activities, may be eventually achieved by the young pupit who masters his rudimentary lessons.

intricacies of only one musical instrument. In the better type schools classical and semiclassical compositions are essayed as well as the current popular music. Along with the lessons will also go some extracurricular work in the line of reading biographies of famous composers and in nearly all of them come lessons of determination and industry seldom found in the biographies of other successful men. The genius who furnishes us with permanent music has usually overcome many difficulties before recognition has come to him, and he has left to posterity a fine example of persistency.

Gain a Cultural Background

Any student of music is anxious to know something of the lives of those who have supplied and made possible our best music as well as to know as much as possible of the present-day concert and opera musicians. If he is in a large center of population he will grasp the opportunity of attending concerts and of joining in musical activities and he will be of an age when he is most impressed by the influences of good entertain ment. It is doubtful if it would be possible to gain the cultural background of music more easily than by his participation in the music provided by the schools,

The second benefit to be derived by school music-discipline-is as important as the cultural

aspect and to many teachers, considered of far greater importance. It is at band practice that the child will learn to respect leadership and at the same time to strive for this leadership himself. It is not the cold, hard discipline of army training, nor the arbitrary discipline necessary in the classroom, but a happy combination of doing that which he knows is beneficial-and at the same time extremely pleasant-under the competent instruction of a trained musician. He has always the proud position of band leader to look forward to and he is given every opportunity to develop his bent for leadership. By the grace of playing one particular kind of a band instrument he may be given the opportunity of solo work and as he develops his ability he may become the soloist of the band. Or he may be the band master.

The Lesson of Team Work and Harmony

There is also the great lesson of team work and harmony, and without boring the pupils the competent supervisor can make every one of these lessons count for a great deal. There is no music without harmony and it does not take a blackboard demonstration to prove to the pupils that there is no benefit in life without the same kind, of harmony as they are learning in the music lesson. lesson. Team work represented by the band and the perfecting of this team work into perfect

harmony wins acclamation,

recognition, and prizes in school competition and there is no more striking demonstration of its values in afterschool life than can be shown in band practice and participation.

Finally, comes the vocational aspect of the music lesson. During the past few years due to the phonograph, the radio, and the moving picture theater popularization, there has been a most active demand for musicians. Remuneration is high, the work is pleasant, and the opportunities great. At the time described in the beginning of this article when music was given little attention in schools, there was but little demand for musicians. The town band offered the only outlet for the man who played "brass" and it must be admit ted that the bandman of that day was a low fellow given to hanging around the pool room in his leisure hours which were pretty nearly all of the time. Perhaps on Thursday night he would have to go to band practice at the Odd Fellows' Hall or the fire house, but his days were free and the band was engaged only irregularly for parades and band concerts in the town square in summer, and a few dances during the winter.

Music as a Vocation

To-day the member of a band or orchestra is assured of steady work and excellent pay. He goes to work much the same as any other man although his hours may be different, and on pay day his envelope is much heavier than that of the

average worker. If he is better than average he is in great demand by philharmonic orchestras and among the better type of bands. If he has extraordinary talent, the bidding for his services is spirited and he reaps the benefit. Recently a story was told of how a particularly talented musician was brought to this country for one of the big Eastern philharmonic orchestras. His success was instantaneous and within less than six months after landing on these shores he was a soloist in Paul Whiteman's band at a salary generally associated with bank presidents. Whiteman had outbid the philharmonic orchestra.

Fundamentals of Discipline

So here we have the picture of the pupil being instructed in an art that has centuries of culture as its foundation and absorbing much of that culture, at the same time learning the very fundamentals of discipline that will prepare him to be a model member of society, the while he actually learns a most lucrative vocation.

What are the other benefits to the pupil? For one he is kept off the streets at least more hours of the day than the boy who has no music to learn and he is thrown into the society of other children who have an interest, in things musical. He will probably spend his evenings in furthering his musical education or attending good concerts and recitals. He will become a better pupil in his other studies because, either consciously or unconsciously, he is learning the value of close

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Membership in school bands is open to both boys and girls of Taft Union High School, Taft, Calif., the latter often

forming organizations that compare favorably with those composed of boys.

application to the subject in hand and the value of leadership in all fields of endeavor as well as music and if he has done his required reading he knows the rewards of diligence.

All of the foregoing depends upon the selection of an intelligent and sympathetic music supervisor but it has been found far easier to obtain intelligence and fine feeling among those with a musical education than among those who have not such a background.

Preferential Treatment for School

of Education Graduates

In forty states the graduate of a school of education is on exactly the same footing for certification as the graduate of a college of liberal arts who has taken the required work in education, while in seven others, the graduate of a school of education has advantages as compared with other persons seeking certification, according to a study made by Arland D. Weeks, State College, Fargo, N. Dak. These seven states are Ohio, Rhode Island, South Carolina, North Dakota, West Virginia, New Hampshire, and Wisconsin.

At the Ohio State University only graduates of the college of education are eligible for four-year professional certificates. All others must secure this certificate by examination before city or county boards. In Rhode Island a graduate of a college of education may be certificated for all types of public schools, both elementary and secondary, whereas graduates of liberal arts colleges with credits for professional courses in education, and experience, may be granted a certificate valid only in secondary schools.

Education Graduate Favored

In South Carolina the professional school of education is recognized in that the professional academic certificate issued on eighteen semesterhours of education is granted for a period of five years, while that on the A.B. or a B.S. degree alone from liberal arts colleges is granted for a period of three years. In North Dakota the school of education graduate may secure a life professional certificate at the end of one year of probationary teaching, while the liberal arts graduate with sixteen semester-hours in education has a probationary period of five years.

In West Virginia it appears that attendance at a teacher-training institution is contemplated for the granting of certificates. Certificate regulations in New Hampshire have recently been amended to provide that graduates of four-year teacher-training courses in accredited normal schools or teachers colleges shall be granted

licenses of the highest grade, a special consideration. In Wisconsin graduates of schools of education who have completed the prescribed teachercertificate courses are granted teacher licenses without further examination. Persons not enrolled in teacher-certificate courses must submit credits for individual evaluation.

Thus it appears that a beginning has been made of favoring in certification the graduate of the professional school of education. In some quarters the feeling is expressed that more extensive preferential treatment should be given than is the case at the present time.

Possibly many other states will come to a distinction between the graduate of a school of education and the graduate of a college of liberal arts who has elected educational courses. Such distinction might rest upon the assumption that the student in the school of education has chosen teaching as a career and has made correspondingly thorough and thoughtful preparation therefor; while the liberal arts college graduate might be less positively credited with serious professional purpose. For a number of states where the certification regulations make no distinction it is reported that boards of education and superintendents of schools prefer graduates of schools of education. Such preference may have as much to do in building up schools of education as would changes in certification regulations.

Not a Stepping-Stone Vocation

It is likely that the prestige of schools of education will increase with the conviction that education has professional possibilities and that it should less often be regarded as a steppingstone vocation, for which last-minute preparation may be made by financially worried students ultimately bent on engineering or medicine. While to shut off access to teaching to all not coming as graduates of teachers colleges or schools of education would scarcely be warranted to-day, a more definite recognition of such graduates is proper and may be expected in certification laws.

The trend in modern education is toward a more thorough training in those subjects regarded as basic. More time is being devoted to the study of reading, writing, and arithmetic in the public schools to-day than ever before. There is a greater application of the results of research and scientific technique to the problems of instruction. A part of the program of schools should be the strengthening of the work of instruction in these fundamental subjects, by making use of the best principles of modern supervision and instruction.

J

A Study of Student Government in Colleges

Faculty-student co-operation is undoubtedly the best form
since youthful radicalism is tempered by mature experience
and adult conservatism is invigorated by new viewpoints

BY JOHN L. MANAHAN, DEAN, UNIVERSITY OF VIRGINIA

AMES BRYCE, in his book entitled, The Hindrances to Good Citizenship, presents the principles underlying popular government as

follows:

"Everywhere in human society two principles have been and are at work, principles antagonistic to one another, yet equally essential to the well-being of civil society. These are the principle of Obedience and the principle of Independence, the submission of the individual will to other wills and the assertion of that will against other wills. The former principle, carried to excess, gives Despotism. The latter, carried to excess, and generally diffused through a people, ends in Anarchy. The undue extension. of the former has been so widespread as to have brought nearly all communities into a stage of despotic government and (till very recently) kept most of them there, whereas Anarchy has scarcely existed except in that detachment of individuals. or families from one another which belongs to the very rudest states of society.

"The reasonable mean between, or an adjustment to one another of, these two principles creates what we call Free or Popular government, in which a relatively large number of individual wills agree to form a collective will of the community, and to obey that will cheerfully because each individual has borne a part in forming it.

Advantages of Popular System

"This scheme seems to offer not only the best security that the interests of all will be fully considered and the common interest best attained, but also the best prospect that each individual will be stimulated to bear his proper share in the efforts and labors of the community. Accordingly, men are now agreed, far more generally agreed than at any previous moment in history, that governments of a more or less popular type are to be preferred. The progress of civilized societies is evidently in that direction.

"Popular government, however, resting on the recognition of the principle of Independence no less than on that of Obedience, requires for its success the presence of the conditions which make Independence real and serviceable. Each member of a free community must be capable of citizenship. Capacity involves three qualities-Intelligence, Self-control, Conscience. The citizen must be able to understand the interests of the community, must be able to subordinate his own will to the general will, must feel his responsibility to the community and be prepared to serve it by voting, working, or (if need be) fighting.

"Upon the extent to which these civic capacities are present in the community, the excellence of its government will generally depend. Such as are the stones, such will be the temple into which they are fitly compacted together.

"Of the three requisites, the two former are the more frequent and are the more easy to produce by proper training. The last, Conscience, or a sense of civic duty, is the rarest."

What Is Education?

Let us, therefore, assume that government in college will require the same qualities and ask ourselves the question, What is Education?

In the Harvard Club in Boston there is one room set aside for the use of the graduates of the Medical School and over the fireplace in that room there is an inscription, a motto, which states in a sentence the philosophy of the medical profession. It reads, "We dress the wound, God heals it." If a devoted student of education were to construct a similar motto, which would in like manner set forth the object of the teaching profession, I think it would read, "We feed the mind, God makes it."

Following out this conception of education the wise teacher will give the student an opportunity to use his own mind in socially profitable ways in the making of knowledge. From the stand

point of the school it becomes the process of providing conditions that necessitate the child's using his own mind in socially profitable ways in the making of knowledge. The teacher cannot supply knowledge and cannot make mind. His function is to provide the environment, to direct the child to the facts and methods of handling them that have been found to be socially useful, and to leave the rest to him.

Correct Conception of Education

Many students of education have made the mistake of deriving "education" from the wrong Latin root. They have readily accepted the meaning of education carried by the Latin derivation, meaning, to lead out, this being the meaning of the Latin "Educō" (Ēducere, Ēduxi, Ēductus). Education, however, is derived not from "Educō" meaning to lead out, but from "Educō" (Educāre, Ēducāvi, Ēducātus) which means to bring up, to foster, to rear, to nourish, etc. One can readily One can readily see, therefore, that the proper derivation of education has a vital bearing upon the whole educational process and method. It forms the necessary basis for any program of student participation in educational control. In my judgment, this conception of education is vital to the organization and administration of any successful program of student government in any division of our educational system, but more especially in the college field.

The relationship of the student to the teacher in matters of responsibility and control is well illustrated in the accompanying diagram.

An analysis of this diagram shows clearly that there is an ever increasing responsibility resting upon the pupil and an ever decreasing responsibility resting upon the teacher as the pupil advances from the lower to the higher divisions of our school organization. At the left of the diagonal line the increase in the pupil-responsibility is shown, and at the right the ever decreasing teacher-responsibility. The following observations are valid from this diagram:

1. That during the preschool period the teacher has no control over pupil-development.

2.

That the child himself cannot be expected in the beginning to assume but a very little responsibility.

3. That when the pupil formally enters the primary school the major responsibility for his direction rests upon the teacher. 4. That when the student leaves the school to enter life the teacher's responsibility and opportunity end, the student becoming a citizen and assuming full responsibility for his own character and conduct.

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(c)

A mixed form of government, that is, co-operation of faculty and students.

The general consensus of opinion seems to be that student self-government unrelated to faculty authority rarely, if ever, succeeds. This is largely due to the fact that student control in educational institutions is by legislation and regulation placed upon the administrative authorities of the institution. This, therefore, makes it necessary that all student government programs derive their authority from faculty or administrative action. This is termed "delegated authority or responsibility."

An Account Must Be Rendered

In a democratic form of government, and likewise in a democratic school system, authority and responsibility delegated to a group presuppose a higher authority and responsibility in the final analysis. For instance, in a democratic form of government the people delegate to certain representatives, certain duties and responsibilities, but in practice those delegating the authority and responsibility expect an accounting. In other words, if the representatives to whom authority and responsibility are delegated fail in the discharge of their duties, those delegating that authority and responsibility, by a subsequent vote, modify the regulations or choose other representatives.

The nature of students, young or mature, rebels at government by authority alone. Such government is foreign and contrary to the fundamental processes underlying democratic control.

It seems, therefore, that some form of facultystudent co-operation will provide the best form of government. This I believe to be true for the following reasons:

1. The students are the ones who know more about the actual conditions of college life and work among the students.

2. The average intelligence of a typical college body is, in reality, high, and the intelligence of the ablest members is very high, indeed.

3. A typical college student body is inherently idealistic.

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