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After their arrival Ahsonnutli sang a song, the men sitting opposite to her, yet even with their presence the song failed to secure the needed light. Two eagle plumes were placed upon each cheek of the turquoise and two upon the cheeks of the white-shell beads and one at each of the cardinal points. The twelve men of the east placed twelve white-shell beads at that point. Then with the crystal dipped in corn pollen they made a circle embracing the whole. The wish still remained unrealized. Then Ahsonnutli held the crystal over the turquoise face, whereupon it lighted into a blaze. The people retreated far back on account of the great heat, which continued increasing. The men from the four points found the heat so intense that they arose, but they could hardly stand, as the heavens were so close to them. They looked up and saw two rainbows, one across the other, from east to west, and from north to south. The heads and feet of the rainbows almost touched the men's heads. The men tried to raise the great light but each time they failed. Finally a man and woman appeared, whence they knew not. The man's name was Atseatsine and the woman's name was Atseatsan. They were asked, “How can this sun be got up?' They replied, 'We know; we heard the people down here trying to raise it, and this is why we came.' 'Chanteen' (sun's rays), exclaimed the man, 'I have the chanteen; I have a crystal from which I can light the chanteen, and I have the rainbow; with these three I can raise the sun.' The people said, 'Go ahead and raise it.' When

he had elevated the sun a short distance it tipped a little and burned vegetation and scorched the people, for it was still too near.

Then the people said to Atseatsine and Atseatsan, 'Raise the sun higher,' and they continued to elevate it, and yet it continued to burn everything. They were then called upon to 'lift it higher still, as high as possible,' but after a certain height was reached their power failed; it would go no farther.

“The couple then made four poles, two of turquoise and two of white-shell beads, and each was put under the sun, and with these poles the twelve men at each of the cardinal points raised it. They could not get it high enough to prevent the people and grass from burning. The people then said, 'Let us stretch the world'; so the twelve men at each point expanded the world. The sun continued to rise as the world expanded, and began to shine with less heat, but when it reached the meridian the heat became great and the people suffered much. They crawled everywhere to find shade. Then the voice of Darkness went four times around the world telling the men at the cardinal points to go on expanding the world. 'I want all this suffering stopped,' said Darkness; “the people are suffering and all is burning; you must continue stretching.' And the men blew and stretched, and after a time they saw the sun rise beautifully, and when the sun again reached the meridian it was only tropical. It was then just right, and as far as the eye could reach, the earth was encircled, first with the white dawn of day, then with the blue of early morning, and

all things were perfect. And Ahsonnutli commanded the twelve men to go to the east, south, west and north, to hold up the heavens, which office they are supposed to perform to this day.”

In “An Ethnologic Dictionary of the Navaho Language,” published by The Franciscan Fathers in 1910, appears the following in regard to the religion, legends, etc., of the Navahos:

“The elaborate system of religious worship among the Navaho lets them appear as a very religious people. Their anthropomorphous deities are numerous and strikingly democratic, each excelling in his peculiar sphere of independent activity and power. They are described as kind, hospitable, and industrious; on the other hand as fraudulent, treacherous, unmerciful, and, in general, subject to passion and human weaknesses. Their lives, to a great extent, are reflected in the social condition of the Navaho as, for instance, in the subordination to local headmen, in the manner of farming, hunting, ceremony, etc., all of which find an explanation in previous occurrences in the lives of the holy ones. This is especially true of the ceremonies or chants, most of which have been established by the diyini, or Holy ones, for removing evil.

“The existence of evil is attributed to the wrath of the dinăéé, or Peoples, such as the Animals, Winds, Lightnings, etc. Much evil, disease, and bodily injury is due also to secret agents of evil, in consequence of which the belief in witchcraft, spells, dreams and shooting of evil is widely spread. Accordingly, too, of the

two forms of worship, one against evil, the other for blessing, the former is presumably in greater demand, but is subordinate to, and always accompanied by, the latter.

“The idea of a creator of all things is unknown to the Navaho, as also that of heaven or hell. The belief in a life hereafter, exists, however, and is a life of happiness with the peoples of the lower worlds among whom the deceased are numbered. The deceased, in turn, may injure the living

“The average Navaho is loath to study the intricate fabric of his religion and knows little of it beyond ceremonial performance. The singer or shaman, usually a man of excellent memory, is entrusted with whatever pertains to subjects of worship, though probably no single one is versed in all of its branches. Moreover, the knowledge of the legend which attaches to every chant is not a material requisite for properly conducting a ceremony, though the legend furnishes the clue for corrections.

"The following synopsis, taken from unpublished legends in our possession, presents the most salient features of Navaho worship, together with other subjects of a religious character:

"THE LOWER WORLDS. “The legends speak of twelve lower worlds, the homes of various Peoples. These worlds were small in size and are referred to as chambers, which are numbered as the people pass through and stand on the several vaults. Their speech in the several worlds is recorded also

from one to twelve, the roofs or vaults of the twelve worlds being the speeches, and the twelfth speech being the one we now occupy.

“Furthermore, these twelve worlds are subdivided into three divisions of four, the first four being referred to as the dark world, the subsequent four as the red world, and the upper four as the blue world. Some of the chant legends begin with events in one of these three groups of worlds. In this manner some speak of five, others of eight worlds, etc. THE PEOPLES OF THE DARK WORLD.

“The above mentioned worlds are not spoken of as having been created, but as already existing. The first world is inhabited by the Ant People, who are subordinate to chiefs or spokesmen in the east, south, west and north. In the second world they find the Locust Man and Woman. The third world, being uninhabited, all of these peoples travel to the fourth world, where the following persons are found: First Man; First Woman; the First Made; Second Made; First Boy; First Girl, and the First Angry, or Coyote. First Man and his eight companions are the first witches, and the cause of sickness and fatal diseases. He who originated with the earth, is applied to First Man. The name corresponds with the sacred name of the kit-fox.


“The Peoples of the four preceding worlds ascend to the fifth world, where they are joined by the Grub Man and Woman. The sixth world

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