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ners, who do not now exist, and who cannot ry, off the Western islands, by the Majestick. | again disturbing the repose of Europe, you be educated in the western country."
BOSTON, SATURDAY, MARCH 26, 1814.
FOREIGN. Recent arrivals bring us a flood of important and agreeable Intelligence. The cause of murderous, overbearing, despotick France is sinking faster than ever it rose, and divine justice vindicating itself, in a most exemplary manner. The following are the leading facts.
Both have arrived at Bermuda.
JUDGING from appearances, the miseries of Europe are approaching a close; for though much remains to be done, the strong arm of the oppressor is broken. Wisdom and virtue in the conquerors will expedite a general peace, for at last physical power is decidedly with the advocates of liberty.
But while we rejoice in the prospect arising upon Europe, we lament that our own unhappy country is not to share the reward of a regeneration, which it is far from experiencing.
A peace with England must take place, but a madman in a strait waistcoat is no less a diseased man. We must expect that the fury and folly, which have produced this war, will act with the more violence at home, when it is repressed from abroad. We must, then, be preparing our minds for important eventsevents naturally arising from the vindictive, malevolent policy of those, who now hold, and who calculate on holding the power of gov erning--the power of controling, insulting, dejoin-grading, and distressing a large section of the
The allies having entered France, as before stated, on the Northeast and East, have continued to advance, in converging lines, towards Paris. The Emperour has employed every effort to guard against the crisis of his fate, but, as appears by French accounts, without success. Having ordered entrenchments around Paris, re-appointed the Empress regent, and recommended his dear son to the ship of the Parisians and government, he ed his army at Brienne, on the 26th of January; there he engaged; and after severe fighting, retreated to Troyes, on the Seine; where he remained on the 3d of February, 90 miles
from Paris. General Macdonald was at Chalons, about the same distance from Paris and forty miles northward of Troyes. While the Emperour was thus employed to the east of his capital, a division of the allies had advanced to Soissons, 60 miles northeast of Paris; and another army advanced from Switzerland, in a northwest course, to Fontainbleau, but 33 miles south of Paris! The city was in the utmost confusion and alarm; many of the citizens had removed their property, it being the supposed design of the allies to concentrate their forces at Paris. The object of the combined armies in cutting their way to the capital, through different parts of France, appears to be to prevent the French levies from uniting. A Proclamation has been circulated, to the people, of what import, we cannot learn, as it is not suffered to appear in the Paris papers; but that it has had great effect, is evident by a concession in a counter address from the French government.
A congress of belligerent diplomatists assembled at Chatillon, on the 4th of February, and dined with the French minister on the 5th. England and Sweden on the one part, and Denmark on the other, have formed a treaty of peace and Alliance, assigning Norway to Sweden, and Pomeramia to Denmark.
Bonaparte has given his prisoner, Ferdinand VII. a treaty of peace for Spain. How the Cortes would meet this insulting manœuvre was not ascertained.
Lord Wellington remained near Bayonne, and had ordered the British troops to withdraw from Cadiz and Carthagena.
It was reported that Murat, King of Naples, had joined the allies-not confirmed. The Prince of Orange "Sovereign of the Miherlands," has appointed M. Changuion, of Am er Plenipotentiary to the United States
On the th of March, Admiral Sir Alexander Cochrai. arrived, at Bermuda, with a squadron, a number of troops, and a large quantity of munit. ns of war. vailed there that the ritish government were A report preabout to turn their antion to the United
A very fine new 44 French frigate, the Terspichore, was taken on the 2nd of Februa
We hope the extracts, commenced in our first page, and which will be continued at some length, will be read with attention. They will be found rich in that kind of information, which should now be diffused among all classes of citizens. They will explain our situation, and point to our remedy."
REMARKS ON THE RECENT EVENTS IN EUROPE.
must humble her pride; you must destroy her arsenals; you must carry away all her munitions de guerre; you must conclude your treaty with, "Done at the Thuilleries, this 1st day of March, 1814." This treaty must be ratified in that palace by the descendant of Peter the Great, of Rodolph of Hapsburg, and of the Great Frederick of Prussia.
Will the allies insist on these circumstances? Do they value them at much? If they do not, they are base, unworthy of the thrones they occupy, and utterly ignorant of the springs of human action. Publick opinion, a sense of national honour or degradation, make men either heroes, or cowards and slaves.
Shall it be said by Bonaparte again, as he has said to all Europe: " In Vienna, I consented that the Austrian Dynasty should remain, it is to my clemency that monarch owes his throne ?"
Shall it be once more insolently declared, as he said in the case of Portugal by a decree : "The House of Braganza is no more"?
How can these stains, on the honour of all
the other nations of Europe, be washed out?
By a decree, issued by all the monarchs, from the Thuilleries, declaring that Paris shall be spared; that they have too much greatness of mind to visit on the defenceless inhabitants of France the miseries, which they had been the ready instruments of bringing upon other States. This would be worthy of men of such a noble race. Let them leave to upstart and vulgar tyrants the meanness of revenge.
The honour however of all Europe requires, that all the trophies of the former disgraceful campaigns-all the monuments,erected in honour of them-and especially the Triumphal Pillar, dedicated to Napoleon, and made of the cannon taken from Austria, should be levelled sub-with the earth.
"Why carry war into her bosom, when she adheres to the bases, which they have proposed to her ? Why ravage and attempt to vert and divide her provinces ?"
THESE are two of the questions, asked in the Moniteur at Paris, in relation to the entry of the ALLIES into France.
We presume they will reply to them, through the press of the Moniteur, after their arrival at the Thuilleries. The Secretaries of State of the Allies are now better employed; and it is only from Paris that a satisfactory reply can be made. But we, being unengaged, and less immediately interested, will make the reply.
Because France has "carried war into the bosom" of every country in Europe; because she has "ravaged, and actually subverted and divided the Provinces" of Austria, Prussia, Holland, Savoy, Venice, Genoa, Switzerland, and reduced to a state of vassalage, all Germany and Italy.
We do not approve of retaliation. We should be sorry to see Paris in flames in revenge for the fate of Smolensko and Moscow; but the repose of the world requires that France should feel for centuries the folly and wickedness of the schemes of her unprincipled tyrant. If Frenchmen had not rejoiced, and insolently triumphed at the injustice and foreign conquests of Bonaparte; if they had not contributed cheerfully to promote his views; if they had not boasted of their trophies, plundered from other nations, and shown them, as we
have personally witnessed, to strangers, as the proud monuments of the irresistible prowess of France, one might feel some compassion for them. But those, who know the French character, must be convinced that they are as abject under misfortunes, as they are insolent in prosperity. If you would prevent France from
Justice and Pride both require that the objects of the Fine Arts, stolen from Antwerp, from Florence, from Rome, from Berlin, and especially, the sword of the Great Frederick, which the Emperour, like a felon, carried off from the sarcophagus of that hero, should be promptly restored.
An exact account should be taken of the wealth of all the Marshals, Generals, and other military chiefs, and the plundered of all nations should be required to send in their claims with specifick descriptions of the property, and the jewels, now worn by the mistresses of these military robbers; the vases and dishes of silver and gold; the regalia of all the little potentates of Germany, who were robbed of every thing, should be most strictly returned to the true owners; and instead of treble the value of the goods stolen, which our laws allow, I would make them add to the goods returned, the appraised value of the same.
This is but plain retributive justice. It is moderate; France in such a case would not take back her own merely, but she would plunder all that was worthy of removal.
It is not only just, but it is a duty. Shall sol. France still be able to say to her young diers This is a trophy, which your Emperour, or your father, took from the Kremlin,or from the Palace at Vienna"?
Shall her citizens still ride in the carriages, stolen from the nobility of Austria? Shall they continue to riot on this plundered wealth?
Policy, Honour, Pride, Justice forbid it. Let the French feel that fortune is fickle; that plunder, dishonourably acquired, will not avail the possessor; and they will hereafter discov er less cupidity for conquest, and less meanness and rapacity after victory.
The old concierge of the cathedral of Antwerp shed tears, when he showed that edifice to strangers, as he passed by the niche, in which Rubens' descent from the cross formerly hung. The same sensibility I remarked at Roine, when they showed the plaster statues of Apollo and the Muses, the originals of which had been, with a cruelty and meanness unexampled in modern ages, packed up and sent to Paris.
Every man of generous feelings must surely rejoice to see those objects of veneration and delight, the pride, and in some cases the only object of pride (in those devoted cities, destined often to change masters) travelling back to their ancient places of abode, again to form a source of attraction, and profit, to their injured proprietors.
It may be asked, do you then consider it as certain that it will be in the option of the Allies to enter Paris and perform this distributive justice?
It is my opinion, from the present state of intelligence, that the Allies may go to Paris. The reasons for that opinion I may hereafter assign.
My present object was simply to answer the whining complaining questions of the Moniteur, and to show that the Allies might and ought to make France feel her present humiliation and their power. This is necessary to the future repose of the world.
LITERARY AND MISCELLANEOUS.
FOR THE BOSTON SPECTATOR.
ALEXIS, THE CZAREWITZ. It is not our province to deal in theatricals, but we may be allowed, on so rare an occasion as the representation of a new Tragedy, to indulge in a few remarks.
Alexis, performed for the first time last Wednesday evening, is from the pen of Mr. Eustaphieve, Russian Consul, residing in Boston; a gentleman whose political writings, and prospective speculations on the course of the present war in Europe, have given the publick great satisfaction and reflected much credit on
The annunciation of the play excited a very favourable interest-the house was well filled, and repeated applauses evinced a degree of satisfaction, which must have been pleasing to Mr. Eustaphieve, who, we understand, unites with the audience in approbation of the spirit and talent with which the principal characters were sustained.
him a successor. This author produces facts. and reasons to shew, that the art of the Ventriloquist consists principally in interrupting the original sound of the voice, and conveying in its stead the echo only, as the sound of bells, is heard by a person walking in a valley, obstructed by buildings.
DOCTOR Garnett says, that "the blight to which flowers are exposed at this season of the year, is a species of gangrene or mortification, brought on by the action of the rays of the sun in the spring, on the morbidly accumulated irritability, which had been produced by a considerable subduction of heat during the night; and that a frosty night, succeeded by a cloudy or misty morning, is never attended with these effects, which almost certainly follow, if, when the spring is considerably advanced, a frost should be succeeded by a fine morning."
If this Brunonianism be true, our plants may be easily preserved, by taking precautions, that the sudden action of heat be avoided in such cases, by shade, or sprinkling with cold
THIS problem presents, at once, two equations, as follows, wherein the number of Cows is represented by x, the number of Sheep by y, and the number of Geese by z: 10x+y+g=100 We have then only two equations and three unknown terms. As the problem gives us no other equation, we are left to guess a little. Two other things however obviously present themselves to aid our researches. One is, that there must be no fractions in the solution, and that of course z must be a multiple of 6; the other is, that cannot exceed 10. Availing ourselves of the latter data, all we have to do is to suppose to x, successively, all the numbers between 1 and 10, until we find the solution. Let us then suppose x=1; the preceding equations will give
100-10=y+; 100—1=y+z; y=99—z; 90=99—z +7; 9=z—¿; 54—5z; and finally z=-5 Geese which does not solve the question, because we want whole Geese, and no fractions of them.
Following up the suppositions of x=2, x=3,
The tragedy is founded on historical fact; and in the management of the plot the patriotick author takes occasion to vindicate the character of the Czar from the unmerited calumnies, which uninformed or prejudiced biographers have attached to his conduct towards=4, we find results equally unsatisfactory. his son. The story exceeds our limits, and is already before the publick; we can only add, that the many who wished success to the enterprise, (for such it may here be considered) have been gratified.
FRENCHMEN can make bulls, as well as Irishmen. I find the following in the Cid of Corneille, at agedy which French criticks consider among the first of human productions. Combien d'exploits celebres
Sont demear's sins gloire au milieu des ténebres !
RANNIE dead, and we know of no pretender to his art. A Mr. Gough, has written a pamphlet on the theory of sound, which may possibly explain Rannie's secret, so as to find
But if x=5, we have 100—50=y+; 100—5=y+z; y=95—z ; 50=95z+; 45=z—z; 270=5z; and finally z=54. It follows that y=41; and the solution stands :
5 Cows at $10 41 Sheep and 54 Geese
100 in all,
THERE is a square field, enclosed by a fence 6 feet high, and two inches thick. The number of cubick feet, in the fence, is equal to the number of square rods in the field. What is the number of square rods in the field?
BONAPARTE AND JAMES IV. AS BONAPARTE, when in his glory, and seyeral years before the United States commenced hostilities against Great Britain, declared there should be no neutrals, it was thought surprising that the impetuous despot did not declare war against us, at once. Bonaparte reasoned like James the Fourth, of Scotland, who, when advised by Sir Ralph Sadler, Ambassador from Henry the Eighth, to increase his resources, by taking the revenues of the Abbey lands into his hands, replied "What need have I to take them into my own hands, when I can have any thing that I require of them without it ?"
MARY, QUEEN OF SCOTS. THERE are many curious manuscript papers, relative to Mary, Queen of Scots, in the library of the Scots college at Paris. The last time that David Hume was in that city, the learned and excellent Principal of the college shewed them to him, and asked him, why he had pretended to write her history, in an unfavourable light, without consulting them. Hume, on being told this, looked over some letters, which the Principal put into his hands, and though not much used to the melting mood, burst into tears.
The Editor inust sometimes judge of the means, by which he may gratify his readers, by the impulse of his own taste. He has derived considerable pleasure from the following story, the basis on which Shakspeare constructed his King Lear. It is not found in the Illustrations of Mrs. Lenox, whose work has given the admirers of the immortal dramatist (and who is not of the number ) much interesting amusement. It is a translation from the latin history of Geoffry of Monmouth, a monkish historian of the twelfth century; and was found among the papers of Garrick, who had prepared an extensive collection of matter, with a view to publish had he lived to accomplish it, a series of Illustrations, with his own remarks. The extract was thus Beaded
THE STORY OF KING LEIR AND HIS DAUGHTERS, TRANSLATED FROM THE LATIN HISTORY OF GEOFFRY OF MONMOUTH, B.II. ç XI. "BLADUD being dead, his son Leir was raised to the throne, who governed the kingdom with a powerful sway for sixty years. He built on the river Sora (now Soar) a city which was called in the British tongue KaerLeir, but by the Saxons Leir-cester (i. e. Leicester). He had no male issue but only three daughters, named Gonorilla, Regan and Cordeilla. He had a great affection for them all, but particularly for the youngest, Cordeilla. Finding himself growing old, he began to think of dividing his kingdom among them, and of marrying them to such husbands as might share the government with them; but, that he might know which of them was worthy of a larger share, he went to them one by one, that by questioning them he might discover which had the greatest regard for him. Gonorilla called heaven to witness, that she loved her father better than her own soul. To whom her father replied, since you esteem my old age in preference to your own life, I will marry you my dearest daughter to any youth you shall choose, and will give you a third part of Britain for a portion. Then Regan the second daughter, like her sister, endeavouring to wheedle him into kindness, answered, with an oath, that she could not otherwise express her sentiments than by declaring, that she loved him far above every other human
eing. The credulous old man then promised er the same honour as he had given to her der sister, and to marry her with a like ortion of a third part of the realm. But Coreilla, the youngest, when she found that her ather had been thus duped by the flattery of her sisters, bad a mind to try him by another kind of answer. Is there any where, sir, said she, a daughter who will say that she loves her father more than she ought to do? I believe no such one would be found, unless she wished to conceal the truth under professions I have in which she could not be in earnest. always loved you as a father, and always mean to do so. In vain will you try to extort from me any other answer: this is the true state of my affection towards you; I beseech you to ask me no more questions, so much as you have, so much are you worth, and so much I love you. Leir, supposing that she had spoken from the bottom of her heart, was exceedingly offended, and gave her a very angry answer. Since, said he, you treat my old age with such contempt as not to profess the same regard for me as your sisters have done, it is now my turn to despise you, nor ever shall you have a share in my kingdom with them; I do not say, since you are my daughter, but that I may marry you to some foreigner (should fortune throw any such person in your way), but this only I affirm, that I will never try to marry you with the same honours and dignities which your sisters will enjoy; I have hitherto loved you better than the rest of my children, and it seems you have loved me less than they. Immediately calling a council of his nobles, he gave his two elder daughters to the Dukes of Cornwall and Albany, with half of the island during his life, and the whole monarchy of it after his death. It happened at that time, that Aganippus, king of France, had heard the beauty of Cordeilla greatly celebrated. He sent an embassy to King Leir desiring that Cordeilla might be given to him in marriage. His rage having not had yet time to cool, he give for answer, that King Aganippus was very welcome to her, but that he must be content to take her without lands or money, for that he had already divided his kingelo with all the silver and gold he was master on to her sisters Gonorilla and Regan. When this was told to Aganippus, who was much in love with the lady, he sent another message to King Leir, telling him that he had already as much gold and silver and as large possessions as he could wish, being now master of a third part of France; that he desired nothing of him but his daughter, that he might have heirs by her. Matters being thus agreed, Cordeilla was sent to France and married to Aganippus.
he met with an honourable reception at first;
some other town, there to bathe and strengthen him, to clothe anew and take all possible care of him. A train of forty soldiers, wel chosen and well appointed, was then ordered was to make King Aganippus and his daughto attend him; and when all this was done, he ter acquainted of his arrival. The messenger immediately returning, conducted Leir privately to another place and kept him concealed there till every thing was done which Cordeilla had commanded.
The poor old man now became exceedingly miserable, returned again to his eldest daughter, hoping to move her to compassion, and that he might still find an honourable retreat in her family. But she, without any mitigation of her former resentment, swore by all the powers of Heaven that no abode should be there for him, unless, sending away the rest, he would be satisfied with one soldier ly; severely she chid him, that, he being an old man, and in want of every thing, should affect to be followed by a large and armed retAs she continued inflexible, he was inue. obliged to give up the contest, and to remain with only one follower. But whenever his thoughts returned to the remembrance of his former greatness, detesting the low and miserable estate into which he was now fallen, he began to entertain a desire of going over to France to his youngest daughter; but much he doubted whether he should find comfort and protection there, after the injurious usage with which he had treated her. However, beBut when he saw ing unable any longer to support his present misery, to France he went. himself the third only among the princes who passed over with him, with deep sighs and a flood of tears, he broke out into these exclamations: oh! ye irrevocable decrees of fate, which still hold on your fixed and certain course; why would ye ever raise me to such heights of fickle and uncertain happiness, since more pain arises from a remembrance of it when lost than from the pressure of present misfortunes. The remembrance of those times, when at the head of armies I could lay waste cities and provinces, grieves me more than all [The following lines were written by HENRY KIRKE the calamities I now endure, though great enough to compel those to laugh at my present weakness, who not long since were trembling at my feet. Oh, frowns of angry fortune will that day never come when it will be in my power to be avenged on those who have
Chap. XIII. Soon after, being clothed in royal apparel, and nobly attended, he sent word to Aganippus and Cordeilla that he was on-driven from the kingdom of Britain by his two sons in law, and that he was come over to them in hopes that, by their assistance, he might regain his country. They then, attended by their courtiers and nobles, went out to meet him, received him with all marks of honour and distinction, and gave him power. over the whole realm of France till they could restore him to his former dignity at home.
thus cruelly deserted my old age
having been exasperated at thy words, I
Chap. XII." After a long time, when Leir began to grow very old, the Dukes before named, to whom he had divided Britainter with his daughters, rebelled against him, and took from him the crown and all the royal power which he had so long and so gloriously held. Peace being at length made, one of his sons in law, Maglaunus, Duke of Albany, retained him at his court, together with sixty soldiers, that he might not be without a retinue suitable to his rank. After two years elapsed in the same residence, Gonorilla took offence at the number of his soldiers, who abused her servants, because a more liberal With distribution was not made among them. the consent of her husband she ordered her father to be contented with only thirty followers, and to dismiss the other half of them. Enraged at this so ill treatment, he left Maglaunus, and went to Henvinus, Duke of Cornwall, who had married his other daughter Regan. Here
While intent on making these and such like
She took then as much money as
Chap. XIV." In the mean time Aganippus sent dispatches through all France to collect all the armed force therein, that by their aid he might restore Britain to his father-inlaw King Leir. This being done, Leir conducted his daughter Cordeilla and a powerful sons and overthrew them. When the whole army into Britain, where he gave battle to his was again reduced to his power, he lived only three years to enjoy it. Aganippus also died about the same time. Cordeilla, having assumed the reins of government, buried her father in a subterraneous vault under the river Soar, in Leicester."
WHITE, at the age of thirteen.]
TO AN EARLY PRIMROSE.
Was nurs'd in whirling storms
Thee, when young Spring first question'd Winter's
And dar'd the sturdy blusterer to the fight,
To mark his victory.
In this low vale, the promise of the year,
Thy tender elegance.
So Virtue blooms, brought forth amid the storms.
While every bleaching breeze that on her blows,
And hardens her to bear
DEVOTED TO POLITICKS AND BELLES LETTRES.
FOR THE BOSTON SPECTATOR.
THE INTEGRITY OF THE UNITED STATES MUST BE PRESERVED.
EXTRA TS CONTINUED.
Shewing the comparative strength, resources, and local advantages of the different sections of the Union.
BOSTON, SATURDAY, APRIL 2, 1814.
great country are such, as will occasion strong rivalships and violent parties. Every part will be alike incapable of acquiring maritime power; all will feel the deepest interest in the regulations, which may at any time affect the trade of the Mississippi; their alliances will naturally be with the people who can best supply their wants, and most effectually protect their commerce; and as the power to protect must imply a power to annoy, their protectors will, in all periods of fancied security, be viewcd with more jealousy and distrust, than confiincidence and friendship. The western country is unit, composed of several distinct parts, too scordant to cooperate among themselves, or with the rest of the Union, in any efficient system for consolidating the power and resources, or extending the credit of the nation. Having, at the same time, a distinct and important interest, they will unite in endeavourg to hold the balance, between the different parties in the national government, which they will attempt to incline, in such manner, as may best promote their local policy. During the next Congress some of these predictions will probably be verified. (Jan. 1803)
"It has been said, that the difficulties dent to foreign commerce, will soon compel the western states to become manufacturers, and thus acquire a commercial independence. It is highly probable that a few important manufactures will soon be established. The valuable metals and fossils, with which this country abounds; the internal demand for hard ware, glass, and other bulky articles; the great expense, which must attend their importation, and their imperishable qualities, certainly favour a number of manufacturing establishments. Some manufactures of iron, copper, and perhaps glass, may, even soon, be exported; but as the price of all agricultural productions will be liable to very great vibrations, and as a considerable part of the labour of the country will be performed by slaves, it is certain that much time must elapse, before the attention of the people can be directed to the fabrication of articles, requiring a combination of skill, with continued and systematical industry.
Having said that the prices of agricultural productions will be subject to great vibrations, it may be proper to explain the grounds of this opinion they are these. Provisions, in general, must be sold or consumed within the year in which they are produced, or they must be lost; those of a great proportion of the western country can be carried to market during only those seasons in each year, in which the state of the rivers favours the descent of boats; all the produce must be carried to one, or a very few, ports. Combinations among men of capital, not only with a view of affecting the price of what is brought to market, but also the articles which are to be given in exchange, will, for a long time be practicable. Owing to the climate and state of society, the ports on the Mississippi are not likely to produce or retain any considerable number of navigators. The vessels, which will frequent these ports, will, therefore, generally be owned in the northern and middle states, or by Europeans their inducements to visit these parts will depend on the general state of commerce. addition to these causes, which affect the price of agricultural produce in all places, the western country must therefore continually experience the influence of special causes, of very potent operation, arising out of their peculiar situation.
The political inferences, deducible from these facts are, that, in matters of mere local administration and policy, but little uniformity and concert can be expected from the people of the Western States: It is not indeed improbable that it will soon appear, that the circumstances and relative advantages of different sections of this
At the he of the third Division of our country stands Virginia, whose councils, at present, influence a great majority of the United States. In a political speculation, that part of Virginia, which lies east of the Blue Ridge may be taken for the whole; because in consequence of its physical situation, and the habits
existing constitution of the State, this part fras long governed, and probabig will continue to govern the whole. An accurate knowledge of what the eastern district of Virginia now is, and is capable of becoming, appears, therefore, to be essentially necessary, for every American statesman.
Of about forty millions of acres of taxable land, in the whole of Virginia, nearly fourteen millions of acres lie east of the Blue Ridge. The average value of these lands is no more than three dollars per acre; the average value of the twenty-six millions of acres west of the Blue Ridge is considerably below one dollar per acre.
Of 518,000 persons, being the whole of the white population of the state, 340,000 persons live in the eastern district;-the white population of the eastern district, therefore, somewhat exceeds fifteen persons to the square mile. In the western district, the white population but little exceeds four persons to the square mile. The slaves, free negroes, and mulattoes in the eastern district amount to 341,000, and in the western district to 26,000.
During ten years, from 1790 to 1800, the increase of white population in the eastern district was about 26,000; and of slaves, free negroes, and mulattoes, 52,000. The increase of white population in the western district during the same time was 50,000; and of slaves, free negroes, and mulattoes 9,000.
In the commercial towns of Norfolk, Richmond, and Alexandria, the white population has increased in ten years about 4,600 persons'; in the town of Petersburgh it has decreased ;the most populous of these towns is Norfolk, which contains 3,800 inhabitants, or about the same number as Beverly in Massachusetts.
I will contrast some of these facts with those of the same nature in Masaachusetts, exclusive of Maine, being the most ancient of our settlements, situated in the vicinity of extensive tracts of new lands, to which her inhabitants are constantly migrating, and being at the same time extensively interested in navigation and the fisheries, both of which employments are more unfavourable to population, than agriculture.
The tenable land in Massachusetts, exclusive of Maine, is less than five millions of acres, and little more than one third of the quantity in the eastern district of Virginia: The average price of land in Massachusetts is ten dol-lars per acre, and the population equal to fiftyfour persons to the square mile.
Notwithstanding the comparative high price of land, which, if other circumstances were equal, so far increase the inducements to emigration, Massachusetts has, in ten years, on five millions of acres, added to her population 43,000 persons; whereas, on 14 millions of acres, the eastern district of Virginia has added to her population only 25,000 persons, while her real strength has been diminished by an increase of more than 50,000 slaves and free negroes.
It may be asked, is this disparity, in the condition of the two states, imputable to the sterility of the soil, the insalubrity of the climate, or the state of society?
A comparison of the natural fertility of two countries, thenate, productions, and cultiva tion of which are so different, cannot be casily made. It is only certain, that extensive contiguous tracts in Virginia are too poor to be cultivated by freemen. What proportion of these poor lands have become private property, and have been subject to taxation, cannot be ascertained-probably the proportion is not considerable.
That the climate, or state of society, or both' united, are unfavourable to the increase of white population, can be easily demonstrated.' Virginia, alone, contains more granted tenable land, than the five New Engiand states, with Maine and the state of New York. Compar atively, very few foreigners have settled in the northern country during the last ten years, and it is certain that great numbers have emigrated to Canada, and the middle and western states. Though the emigrations to the five southern states have not been so considerable, yet it is probable that ten persons have emigrated from the northern to the southern, for one who has emigrated from the southern to the northern states.
In 1790, the five New England states, with New York, contained 1,308,000; and the five southern states, 1,133,000 white persons; the emigrations from the northern are certainly sufficient to counterbalance those from the southern section: notwithstanding which, the increase in the northern section has been 437,000, while in the southern it has been only 242,000 white persons. In proportion to the stock of population, in 1790, the increase in the southern section ought to have been 378,000 persons; the increase in the northern, compared with the southern section, has been in a ratio of 100 to 64 in favour of the former
graded, abused country, to support Governour to see the rival of Homer hailed by a general Strong, and his associates.
acclamation, making the Romans forget theatrical representations, gladiators, and pantomines, to enjoy the description of their brilliant destinies.
One of the most indispensable qualities of an
That this disparity is, in some considerable degree, owing to physical causes, which abridge the duration of human life in the southern states, is probable from the following calculation. In the five New England States and New York, the number of white males of fortyfive years of age and upwards is 115,000, and BOSTON, SATURDAY, APRIL 2, 1814. epick poem, is that the subject should be nathe number of white males under ten years 249,000. In the five southern states, the number of white males under ten years is also 249,000, and the number of 45 years and upwards, no more than 78,000; the proportion of children, born in the southern states, therefore, exceeds that in the northern states, while the number who survive the age of 45 years is less, in the ratio of 67 to 100. A compari
son of the number of white males under ten years, and of 45 and upwards, in Massachusetts and the eastern district of Virginia, will give the same result. It appears that a greater number of persons attain to 45 years and upwards in Massachusetts, than in some other of the northern states, and the same fact
EUROPEAN. Nothing received since our last publication.
DOMESTICK. Of several trifling move-
some private property and some of the inhabi-
During the last session of the Pennsylvanian
tional. The requisitions of vanity are neither the least felt nor the least common. A nation resembles individuals or families-all hear, with pleasure, the history of their ancestors or their founders, as a child sees his paternal mansion and patrimonial estate with more insessions of another, however beautiful. Thus terest, than he experiences in viewing the posthe two poems of Homer had, in this respect, a great advantage. Virgil's enjoys the same; -his subject, as a national one, is happily as much flattered as the Grecians, by the histochosen. The Romans, to say the least, were Ty of their origin and every thing favourable to their genealogical pride. In this, the poet was aided by all the popular traditions of his
is observable in Virginia, in relation to her legislature, Governour Snyder attempted to time; they afforded him the natural means of
more southern neighbours."
FOURTH OF APRIL.
THE Anniversary of our election of state officers, we trust, will be another proud day for Massachusetts. Of all possible means of acquiring lasting honours to the Commonwealth, none are so easy as the faithful discharge of duty on that day. By simply attending Town-meetings, and voting with a regard to publick good and private advantage, we can pay a just and flattering tribute to the services and virtues of a man, who richly deserves the love and veneration of his fellow citizens. We can lend strength and support to those principles, which have given us a high rank in the political history of our country, and given our country a high rank among nations. We can give a wholesome check to that all-grasping spirit of ambition, which hesitates at no means to attain a selfish end. We can preserve the consistency of our own characters, by evincing a uniform conduct in uniform circumstances. We can avert the scoffs of our tyrants, who would exult in our folly, were we to give our countenance to those whom we find pledged to strengthen the despotism, under which we are already suffering so severely.
strangle forty-one new banks in the birth;
Congress have been engaged in a long debate on the subject of the Yazoo claims, in which was exhibited, to the disgrace of the nation, much of the intemperance and vulgarity, which constantly marks the speeches of some of the leading members. It is however expected, a decision will prevail in favour of a compromise between government and the claimants.
The Senate have passed a vote in favour of The Senate have passed a vote in favour of bringing in a bill to remove the Embargo. The House have not acted on the subject. Should it possibly succeed, we are at no loss to understand the measure. The southern states are now suffering most by the embargo. Raise it and, they will probably wish the war continued, and support those who are in favour
We should be glad of an interview with the author of " THE WRITER, NO. 1."
We have several communications of which we can. not avail ourselves, for several reasons. No indelicate allusion will ever be admitted. We must not allow the precedent of English writers a century ago. Whether morals have improved or not, the publick taste is more refined.
LITERARY AND MISCELLANEOUS.
Translated for the Boston Spectator.
ON THE COMPARATIVE MERIT OF THE GREAT EPICK
cherishing the vanity of his countrymen. Julius Cæsar was gratified to have it believed his prenomen descended to him from Iulus, the son of Eneas; Augustus, his adopted son, did not abandon this pretension. A long list of families were fond of tracing their ancestry claimed a lineal descent from Clausus; the back through the night of time. The Claudii Menumii even to Mnestheus (genus a quo sanguine Memmi); the Cluentii to Cloanthus; and the heads of these illustrious families enjoyed, in reading Virgil, the pleasure of seeing their founders perform distinguished characters, in his poem. In a word, the whole nation took its share in what was so flattering—the antiquity, and marvellous nature of their origin, assumed by the author of the Eneid. Innumerable religious or civil festivals, the worship of Vesta, of Cybele, and of almost all their Gods, the ceremonies with which they proclaimed peace or war, the arms of the warriors, the costume of the pontiffs, had passed from the Trojans and Grecians to the Romans; and were not considered the least honourable part of their heritage. To these were united a long list of oracular responses and predictions, which, placing the Roman destinies under the guardianship and protection of the Gods, increased the eclat and dignity of this people, and predisposed nations to the voluntary reception of their laws and to recognize their sovereignty. The Romans were so sensible of this advantage, that they professed a solemn gratitude, in exempting the subjects of ancient Troy from every species of tax; and it appeared that this exemption sealed the authenticity of their origin.
Virgil derived resources from his subject, not enjoyed by Homer. The latter was necessarily limited to Greece. Virgil embraces both Greece and Italy. The fall of Troy echoes throughout the Eneid. An empire to be destroyed-is the whole subject of Homer: the destruction of this great empire-its revival
To paralyze the zeal of the citizens on such occasions, it has been heretofore urged that the governour of the state has no power to interfere with the views of the general government. This is no longer the case. The gencral government has invaded our constitutional rights, and made attempts upon our personal freedom. Our governour is our guardian. EXTRACTS FROM A TREATISE BY THE ABBE DELILCLE, While he is true, though we must groan under the miseries of a wicked war, we shall not be dragged from our families to perish, the vic- VOLTAIRE has said, "if Homer is to be contims of sturid generalship, in a hopeless, un- sidered the author of Virgil, it is his most justifiable cause. Governour Strong stands perfect production." Let us pursue this sugfirm by us-let us stand firm by him. His pi-gestion. One of the most interesting spectaety is cast in his teeth, by the profligates of cles that can be contemplated is the impression of genius upon genius. I take pleasure in representing to myself the latin poet, at the in-in Italy, under a new name and more favourable auspices-the whole world subjected, by stant when, for the first time, he read the IIpromise, to its domination-such is the subject of Virgil. He is placed between the tomb of Troy and the cradle of Rome and by a mul titude of oracles, by the prophesies of Anchises, and the ingenious fiction of the shield formcd by Vulcan, he was enabled to pursue the high destinies of that proud metropolis, from the wolf of Romulus to the Roman eagles; from the royal cottage of the good Evander to the pomp of the capitol. His materials would have been deficient in novelty, if his fable and
this and the other states; let us show our re-
iad, full of the inspiration, which he derived