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tures the helium thermometer is still useful, of Thermopylæ soon after mid-day of the third however.

day. Tidings of their coming had already been Consult Guillaume, Thermometrie de Pré- brought to the Greeks by scouts and Persian cision, and Preston, Theory of Heat.' See, deserters. Most of the Greeks withdrew, but also, the numerous scientific papers of Kamer- the Spartans and the Thespians (700) remained, lingh-Onnes relating to low-temperature re- and the Thebans (400) were compelled to stay. search.

Of the Spartans and Thespians, all fell; and of

ALLAN D. RISTEEN, the Thebans, few escaped. To the complaint Director Technical Research, The Travelers that the Persian arrows darkened the sky the Insurance Company, Hartford, Conn.

Spartan Dieneces is said to have answered,

"Good; then we shall fight in the shade.) THERMOPHONE, a resistance thermometer (see THERMOMETRY), in which the galva.

Through deposits from the Spercheius and nometer that is most commonly employed is re

other streams, great alterations have taken placed by a telephone. Two coils of platinum place at Thermopylæ, so that it is not now a wire, which are exposed to the respective tem

pass but a swampy plain. Consult Schliemann,

Untersuchungen der Thermopylen (1883) peratures that are to be compared, are intro

and various standard histories of Greece. See duced into two of the arms of a Wheatstone's bridge whose remaining arms contain known

also GREECE, ANCIENT History. resistances. The telephone is placed in the

THERMOPYLÆ OF AMERICA, a title cross-arm of the bridge. An alternating or applied to Fort Alamo, Texas. See Alamo, pulsating current of low frequency is used in

The. making the observation, and when the bridge is THERMOSCOPE (Greek, «to show in balance, this fact is indicated by the silence heat”), any instrument for indicating temperaof the telephone. See Warren and Whipple, ture. The term is commonly applied, however, (The Thermophone, in The Technology Quar- to such instruments as indicate one temperaterly, Vol. VIII, page 125.

ture only, or a very limited number of temperTHERMOPOLIS, Wyo., town and county

atures; or to those which are used for indicatseat of Hot Springs County, on the Chicago,

ing changes or difference of temperature, withBurlington and Quincy Railroad, and on the

out giving the magnitude of these changes or west bank of the Bighorn River. It is noted

differences. The forms that have been given for the large hot springs which issue along the

to instruments of this kind are so manifold as river bank at this place. These springs are

to be almost past numeration. As a single illusconsidered curative for rheumatism and simi- tration, the instrument may be cited, whose inlar ailments. They are protected as

a State

dications depend upon the melting points of reservation. Pop. (1920) 2,095.

alloys. An instrument or device of this sort THERMOPYLÆ (Gk. Depuombat

contains buttons or wires of a number of alloys, hot

whose several melting points are known; and in gates), in classical geography, a pass on the

the observation of temperature by this method, southeastern frontier of Æniania, Greece, lead

the instrument is exposed to the temperature ing from Thessaly into Locris, and on the route of the only good road from Thessaly to

under examination, and a note is made of which

of the alloys melt, and of which remain uncentral Greece. It was situated between the

melted. If Ti is the melting point of the least range of Mount Eta and an inaccessible morass

fusible of the alloys that have melted, and T, which bordered the Maliac Gulf; and in

is the melting point of the most fusible of the breadth it was a narrow tract of perhaps some

alloys that have not melted, we can then assert 50 feet. Its name was derived from the pres

that the temperature under consideration is ence of thermal springs. As the only means

higher than Tı, but lower than Tz. For many by which a hostile army might penetrate from northern into southern Greece, it held a pecu

purposes in the arts, it is quite sufficient to

know, in this manner, that a temperature is liar strategic value in Grecian history. It is

between certain limits. A thermoscope which celebrated as the scene of the defense by

can only indicate certain limits between which Leonidas (q.v.) and the 300 Spartans against

a temperature lies is called a discontinuous the vast host of Xerxes (q.v.) in August 480

thermoscope. Continuous thermoscopes, which B.C. The account of this battle given by He

are capable of affording an actual measurement rodotus has been generally followed. Xerxes,

of any temperature within their range, are now ridiculing the numbers of the Hellenic de

commonly called (thermometers,” whether they fenders (5,200, not counting the Locrians, whose

resemble the ordinary mercury-in-glass thernumbers are not known), sent against them the

mometer or not. A thermoscope in which temMedes and Cissians with instructions to take them prisoners and bring them before him.

perature is inferred by noting the electrical re

sistance of a coil of platinum wire, for exWhen, after a day's fighting, these were unsuc

ample, is called a "platinum resistance thercessful, the picked 10,000, called the "Immor

mometer.” See PYROMETER; THERMOMETER; tals, were sent forward; but, handicapped by

and THERMOMETRY. the shortness of their spears, they were no match for the Hellenes, of whom few fell, while

THERMOSTAT, a device in which the vathe Persian loss was on both days excessive.

riation of heat is utilized to expand and conXerxes was now in great perplexity, when

tract a long strip of metal, so that its motion Ephialtes, a Malian, came to tell him of the

can be utilized to regulate a damper or to mainpathway which led across the mountain to

tain approximately uniform steam pressure. Thermopylæ.” This path ascended the gorge THERMOTAXIS, the regulation of the of the river Asopus, and the hill Anopæ; then temperature of the body. The principal sources passed over the crest of Eta and to the rear of of animal heat are muscular exercise and the Thermopylæ. The Persians arrived in the rear combustion of food, involving absorption of THERMOTROPISM - THESEUS


oxygen and liberation of carbon dioxide. Body Consult Woodward, (Vertebrate Palæontology' temperature remains about normal under many (London 1898); Gadow, Amphibia and Reptrying circumstances through the balance main- tiles) (New York 1901), wherein many further tained by the nervous system between its pro- references to details will be found. duction and its dissipation. The chief avenues

THEROPODA, a sub-order of dinosaurs of dissipation are radiation from the surface of

(q.v.). the body, the expired air and the excreta. Febrile action or fever is believed to be due to an

THERSITES, thér-si'tēz, according to overproduction of heat, to an underelimination

Homer, the ugliest man in the whole Grecian or to both. The overproduction is believed to

army that beleagured Troy. He was a maliresult from an increased combustion especially

cious and slanderous brawler whom Ulysses of albuminous substances of the body, with an

publicly beat and brought to tears for his inincreased discharge of carbon dioxide and the

sulting attack on Aganon. He was eventually nitrogeneous wastes, urea, creatine and crea

slain by Achilles for piercing with his spear the tinine. When fever prevails the action of the

eye of the dead queen of the Amazons, Penheart is accelerated, the secretions of glands are

thesilea, whom he had also spoken of with impaired and the intricate process of metabol

contumely. ism is deranged. Heat-regulation, effected by THERY, Edmund, French writer on ecoreciprocal changes in heat-production and heat- nomics: b. Ragnac, France, 1854. He is a comdissipation and depending essentially upon the mander of the Legion of Honor, member of influence of cutaneous impulses and the tem- numerous societies interested in his line of perature of the blood, is governed, it is gener- work and has represented his government in ally believed, by two nerve-centres, one control- various economic missions to several countries. ling heat-production, the other heat-dissipation. His writings include Europe et Etats-Unis

THERMOTROPISM, a tendency toward d'Amérique (1899);, 'La France economique warmth, exhibited in the reactions of animals.

et financière pendant le dernier quat de siècle An example is found in the care with which

(1900); La Banque de France de 1897 a 1909) ants move their eggs and larvæ from place to

(1910); L'Europe économique (1911); (Le place in order to secure a proper and equable

regime actuel des chemins de fer en Russie temperature for their welfare. Compare HELIO

(1913), etc. TROPISM, with which tendency this is somewhat THESEUM, thê-sē’úm, or THESEION, confused.

thē-sē'on, a temple in ancient Athens dedicated THERMORPHA, or ANOMODONTIA,

to the commemoration of Theseus and his exan order of extinct (Triassic and Perman)

ploits. It stood on an elevated site north of the reptiles. «The dominant group among the ear

Areopagus (q.v.) and in early Christian times liest reptiles in each quarter of the globe where

was used as the church of Saint George of they have as yet been discovered,” say Wood

Cappadocia. Within its precincts Cimon is ward, "is directly intermediate in 'skeletal char- said to have deposited the bones of the hero acters between the highest labyrinthodonts

which he had brought from the island of (Mastododonsaurus and its allies) and the

Scyros, but archæologists do not support this lower mammals (Monotremata). Its members claim. The temple was begun 465 B.C. Many first received the name Anomodontia in allusion consider it to have been originally dedicated to the varied modifications of the dentition, so to Heracles or Hephæstus, but there is no reaunusual among reptiles. They were afterward son to doubt that it is actually a Theseum. It named Theromorphia or Theromora

was constructed of Pentelic marble in the in allusion to the many obvious resemblances in purest Doric style and is technically to be detheir skeleton to that of monotreme mammals.” scribed as an amphiprostyle, hexastyle peripThese similarities are chiefly of the dentition, teral temple, with pronaos, and opisthodomos or zygomatic arch, pelvis, cruro-tarsal joint, scapula epinaos. The façade and rear pediment have and occasional doubling of the occipital condyle.

each six columns;' the sides 13 each; their The general shape of the skull is often closely height being about 30 feet. A fragment of the mammalian, but its details show its unquestion

portico and the roof of the stella are still standable reptilian features. Three suborders are

ing. There are also some noteworthy remains recognized – Pareiosauria, Theriodontia and of the statuary with which the building was Anomodontia.

adorned by sculptors of the school of Phidias. The theromorphs were all land-reptiles with

On the metope are set forth the exploits of short, stout limbs and powerful jaws. Some Theseus and Heracles and the frieze of the were massive and of great size, like great alli

cella is also in part standing. The dimensions gators with turtle-like or even dog-like heads; of the building are roughly to be estimated at others small and probably as agile as a weasel.

104 x 451/2 feet. Consult Stuart and Revett They were the predatory beasts of their age,

Antiquities of Athens) (London 1762-1816); and were adapted in powers and characteristics Leake, Topography of Athens' (London 1841); to the pursuit of a large variety of animal prey.

Dyer, Ancient Athens, Its History, Topography The most unreptile-like were those of the sub

and Remains(London 1873). order Theriodontia.

THESEUS, thē'sūs or thē'sē-ŭs, in Greek It is a natural suggestion that the race of legend, a king of Athens and national hero of mammals, undoubtedly of reptilian origin, must Attica, son of Ægeus by Æthra, the daughter of have descended from this group, whose bones Pittheus of Trezen, in Peloponnesus. He was (numerous in the Triassic rocks of the western educated at Trezen, at the house of Pittheus, United States) show so many mammalian fea- and passed for the son of Poseidon (Neptune). tures; but thus far no direct connection can be When he came to years of maturity he was sent shown. The dinosaurs, however, seem cer- by his mother to his father, and a sword and tainly to have descended from this stock. sandals were given him by which he might make 548




himself known to Ægeus (q.v.) in a private criminal informations, decided civil causes, took

On arriving at Athens he narrowly the votes at elections and performed other escaped being poisoned by Medea, the sorceress,

duties. but his

father recognized the sword, and re- THESPESIUS, also called Claosaurus, a ceived Theseus as his successor on the throne. dinosaur whose fossil remains found in the He next caught alive the wild Marathonian

upper Cretaceous strata in Wyoming, Montana bull; but a much more important service was and Colorado show it to have resembled the the slaying of the Minotaur and the freeing of Iguanodon. It was upwards of 30 feet long Athens from the tribute of seven youths and and stood from 10 to 25 feet high. Like others seven maidens annually sent to Crete to be de

of its species it was herbivorous and balanced voured by that monster. (See MINOTAUR). Fear

its long forward body by its heavy tail. Coming his son had perished while in Crete Ægeus plete sketches of the animal are found in the destroyed himself; hence Theseus on his return principal museums. (See DINOSAUR). Consult succeeded his father as ruler of Athens. The

Marsh, O. C., The reconstruction of the CreAthenians were governed with mildness, and taceous Dinosaur (in Transactions of the ConTheseus made new regulations and enacted necticut Academy of Sciences, Vol. XI, New new laws. The number of the inhabitants of Haven 1902). Athens was increased: a court was instituted,

THESPIS, Greek author. He was a native which had the care of all civil affairs; and Theseus made the government

of Icaria, a deme of Attica, lived in the time of democratic,

Solon, in the 6th century B.C., and is considered while he reserved for himself only the com

the inventor of tragedy, as he added to the mand of the armies. To him also the Athenians

dithyrambic choruses of the feats of Bacchus an ascribed the union of the towns of Attica into

actor, who, when the chorus was silent, genera single state, with Athens at the head, and the division of the people into the three classes of

ally recited a mythical story; and probably carEupatridæ, Geomori and Demiurgi (nobles, hus

ried on dialogues with the leader of the chorus,

appearing successively in different characters in bandmen and mechanics). Perhaps the most celebrated of the events in the career of

a piece. This was a decided step toward the

drama. Theseus after the slaying of the Minotaur was his war with the Amazons. He is said to have THESSALONIANS, Epistles to the. invaded their territory and carried off their

Authorship.- While Paul's authorship of the queen, Antiope (according to another account, First Epistle to the Thessalonians has occathat with which the readers of Chaucer and

sionally been questioned, the consensus of Shakespeare are familiar, Hippolyta). The critical opinion is at the present time so nearly Amazons in their turn invaded Attica, and a

unanimous in favor of its genuineness that it batile was fought in the city of Athens itself. seems needless to argue the question at all. Theseus was victorious, and the Amazons The external evidence is strongly favorable; driven out of Attica. He was absent from the style and vocabulary are admittedly PaulAthens on various expeditions, and when he

ine; the doctrinal content, while not very full, returned the Athenians had forgotten his serv

is in harmony with Paul's teachings elsewhere; ices. He retired to the court of Lycomedes,

above all, in its whole tone and temper it is king of Scyros, who threw him down a deep unmistakably and inimitably an outpouring of precipice. În 469 B.C. his bones, as supposed, the very heart and soul of the great Apostle. were found by Cimon in Scyros, and brought As concerns the Second Epistle the case stands to Athens, where they received a magnificent, somewhat differently. Though the external eviburial. Statues and a temple (the Theseum, dence is even stronger than for the First Epistle, q.v.) were raised; and festivals and games were yet its Pauline authorship has been far more publicly instituted to commemorate his actions.

disputed. The difficulties which have been A portion of the temple still remains standing.

raised_grow mainly out of its relation to the What shreds of history, if•any, there may be

First Epistle, and practically reduce to three : in the accounts of Theseus cannot be ascer

(1) the resemblance in portions of the two tained. Consult Harrison, J. E., Mythology

letters, considered by some to be too close to and Monuments of Ancient Athens (London

permit us to think of the second as an inde1890); Lübker, F., Reallexikon des Klassischen pendent composition; in answer to which it is Altertums? (Leipzig 1914); Schultz, A., De

said that this likeness covers no more than a Theseo? (Breslau 1874).

third of the letter, and may easily be explained

in any of many ways, as, for instance, that just THESMOPHORIA, a pagan festival of

before writing Paul might have glanced at ancient Greece. It was celebrated only by

copy of his first letter; (2) the difference in women, in honor of Demeter Thesmophoros

tone and temper of the two letters, Paul seem(“the lawgiver”) as foundress of agriculture,

ing in the second more formal and less cordial and thereby of orderly social life and the mar

and affectionate, a fact for which several exriage. At Athens the festival extended to

planations have been offered, as that if the three days, beginning with 24 October. On the

first letter had failed helpfully to affect some of first day there was a procession to the temple the Thessalonians, he might naturally speak in of Demeter at Halimos, southeast of the city;

a more formal and distant way in his second on the second a fast; and on the third day,

letter, or, as Harnack has suggested, this letter called Kalligencia ("the bearer of a fair off

may have been intended solely for the Jewish spring”), general and often licentious indul

section of the church, while the other was for gence.

the main body of the church, which was Gentile THESMOTHETE, thěs'mő-thēt (from a in origin, and more loyal to Paul; and (3) the Greek word meaning lawgiver), one of the six difference in the eschatological teaching, which, inferior archons at Athens who presided at the however, does not amount to a contradiction election of the lower magistrates, received but is to be regarded partly as a correction of a





misunderstanding of the teaching in the first written response from the Thessalonians themletter, which misunderstanding seems in spite selves, Paul learned that some disorders conof the correction still to continue in some tinued and that his teaching about the Last circles, and partly is an addition of certain Things needed supplementing to correct miselements in Paul's doctrine of the Last Things understandings, and thus arose the Second which had not come out earlier, resulting in an Epistle. apparent change of emphasis, but not in a real Contents. These letters are peculiar in inconsistency. Certainly the difficulties in the that two of Paul's fellow-workers, Silas and way of explaining the letter as a forgery have Timothy, are associated with him in the address been found greater than of accepting it as (i, 1), though it is plain that in composition and genuine, and consequently the later criticism in thought as well as in personal relations it is seems decisively to favor the Pauline author- definitely his own letter. In 1 Thess., he first ship of both Epistles.

gives an explanation of his failure to return to Date and Place.- From the First Epistle them, adding an assurance of his strong affecitself in comparison with Acts it is easy to tion for them and an assurance of his confidence ascertain the date and place of composition. in their affection for him and their continuing On his second great missionary journey, faith in Christ, all so put as to answer any misthe second European city in which Paul representations of him and his work which worked was Thessalonica, the modern Saloniki. might be current (i, 2-iii, 13). Then come vaHere he established a church at once, rious moral injunctions, first, to chastity, and but his very success caused him to be driven then to brotherly love, with which is associated from the city after a stay possibly of only three the duty of diligent labor (iv, 1-12). There weeks, almost certainly of only about as many follows the correction of the painful misunmonths. From there Paul went to Greece, derstanding of some of the Christians as to making a short stay at Athens and establishing their friends who had lately died, by the ashimself for a year and a half at Corinth. It surance that through their resurrection they is plain that Timothy, who was sent back from would be at no disadvantage when Christ should Athens to visit, comfort and confirm the Thes- return, and encouragement for all in reference salonian Church, rejoined Paul at Corinth with to the same return (iv, 13-v, 11), and, finally, his report, and the first letter must have been warnings against various disorders, couched in written almost at once. According to some brief injunctions, and a few salutations (12-28). the second letter followed the first even without In the second letter, after a brief greeting waiting for an answer and in any case the (i, 1, 2), Paul gives utterance to a remarkable interval carnot have been long, a few weeks expression of thanksgiving and prayer (i, 3-12); at most. The most common dating is in the then corrects the misunderstanding of what he spring of 51, but chronologists vary two or had said in his first letter, assuring them that three years either way so far as the years to before the “Day of the Lord there was much be assigned to the various events of Paul's history to be made, including a great apostacy work are concerned. These Epistles are accord- (ii, 1-12); a brief encouragement to faintingly among the very earliest New Testament hearted brethren follows (ii, 13-iii, 5), and books, only James and Galatians being con- warnings to the idle and dissolute (iii, 6-15), sidered by any to be earlier.

the Epistle ending with a word of explanation Conditions of Composition.- It is plain of how the Apostle added to his dictated letfrom 1 Thessalonians as well as from Acts ters a certificate in his own handwriting and the that the reception of Paul and of his teaching benediction with which he commonly closed his at Thessalonica was peculiarly prompt and letters (iii, 16-18). cordial. In a very short time a church was Bibliography.- Frame, J. E., Commentary established, consisting partly of Jews, but on the Epistle of Saint Paul to the Thessalomainly of proselytes and Gentiles, including nians (International Critical Commentary, some of the principal men and women of the 1912); Lake, K., (The Earlier Epistle of Saint city. Paul turned back to Thessalonica as a Paul (1911); Milligan, George, Saint Paul's place where his work had been a peculiar de- Epistle to the Thessalonians) (1908); Moffatt, light, and the mutual affection of the Apostle James, First and Second Epistles to the Thesand his converts must have been unusual. But salonians) (Expositor's Greek Testament, 1910). his stay at the longest had been brief, and in

David FOSTER ESTES, spite of his plans and endeavors he had found Professor of New Testament Interpretation, it impossible to return, while at the same time Colgate University. he had reason to fear that misrepresentations

THESSALONICA. See SALONICA. were being circulated touching both his failure to revisit them and his purposes in his mis- THESSALY, thěs'a-li

, or THESSALIA, sionary work and his relations to his converts. the northeastern division of ancient Greece From the report of his messenger Timothy, and proper, bounded on the north by the Campossibly from a letter to Paul from the church, bunian Mountains, separating it from Macequotations from which some have thought they donia; on the west by the chains of Pindus and found embedded in this letter, it appeared that Tymphrestus, separating it from Epirus; on on the one hand a certain fanaticism showing the south by Mount Eta, separating it from itself in immorality and on the other hand a Ætolia, Doris and Locris; and on the east by certain doctrinal and spiritual uncertainty had the Ægean Sea. The rich plain enclosed begrown up in the Church. It was to remedy tween hese mountains belongs almost entirely those conditions that Paul wrote his first letter. to one river basin, that of the Peneios (SalamThe second is a natural pendent to the first. bria), which traverses it from west to east, and It is usually held that Paul's letter mainly ac- finds an outlet into the Thermaic Gulf through complished its purposes, but that either by the the vale of Tempe. It was especially famed return of the messenger who carried it or by for its fine breed of horses and its skilful horse



men. The name of Thessaly was derived from department of the Ministry of Finance. Soon, the Thessali, a Greek people who are said to however, he turned his attention to literature. have come into this land from the west, and In 1896 he was elected a member of the French who became the governing class in the country. Academy, having received the prix Vitet in 1890. Thessaly was broken up into separate states His poems include (Le chemin des bois) (1867) loosely united under a tagus, and long exerted Le Bleu et le noir (1873); Nos oiseaux no important influence on the affairs of Greece (1886); and La ronde des saisons et des generally; but it rose for a brief period to a mois) (1891). He also published Jules Basposition of greater consequence when (about tien-Lepage, l'homme et l'artiste (1885), but is 375 B.C.) Jason of Pheræ, having been elected best known by his novels, among which are tagus, brought the whole of Thessaly com- Nouvelles intrines) (1870); Mlle. Guignon pletely under his power, and began to threaten (1874); Channe dangereux' (1891); La the rest of Greece, but the confederacy was Chanoinesse (1893), etc. He was the author of again weakened after his assassination in 370 some 60 works of fiction. He also wrote several B.C. Thessaly afterward became dependent on dramas including, Jean-Marie? (1871); Le Macedonia, and finally was incorporated with maison des deux Barbeaux) (1885), and Jour the Roman Empire. În 1393, after the fall of d'été (1901). the Byzantine Empire, Thessaly came, with the

THIAN-SHAN (te-än'shän') MOUNrest of the imperial dominions, into the hands of the Turks, and till recently formed a part

TAINS, central Asia. See TYAN-SHAN. of the Ottoman Empire. The greater portion THIAZOL DYESTUFFS. See COAL-TAR of it passed to Greece in 1881, and the remainder COLORS. in 1919. The Greco-Turkish War of 1897 was fought principally within the borders of

THIBAULT, Jacques Anatole France, Thessaly. Consult Baedeker, K., Greece) (4th critic and novelist : b. Paris, 16 April 1844. He English ed., Leipzig 1909); Kent, R. G., A

is known wherever French is read and the History of Thessaly from the Earliest Histori- Latin genius appreciated as ANATOLE FRANCE, cal Times to the Accession of Philip V of and was called by Lemaitre, one of the shrewdMacedon? (Lancaster, Pa., 1904); Leake, W.

est of his contemporaries, the ultimate_flowerM., «Travels in Northern Greece (4 vols., Lon

ing of the Latin genius.) Son of a Parisian don 1835); Philippson, A., Thessalien und

bookseller, another (France) and a veteran of Epirus (Berlin 1897); Wace and Thompson,

the body-guard of Charles X, Anatole grew Prehistoric Thessaly) (Cambridge 1912).

up in the bookish atmosphere which he has conTHETFORD MINES, Canada, town in

veyed marvelously into several of his stories as

he has also his father's character. A Parisian Megantic County, on the Quebec Central Rail

of the Parisians, he was named officer of the way, about 76 miles south of the city of Quebec.

Legion of Honor in 1895 and received into It is chiefly known for the deposits of asbestos in the neighborhood. There

the Academy in 1896. For the rest the story of

his life is in his writing. Besides early verses small industries. Pop. about 7,500.

his well-nigh 50 volumes embrace charming THETIS, the'tis, in Greek mythology, a books. of autobiographic truth and fiction daughter of Nereus and Doris, therefore one of such as (Le livre de mon ami' (1895), Pierre the Nereids. Her nuptials with Peleus were Nozaire) (1900) and Les désirs de Jean celebrated on Mount Pelion, and were honored Sévier (1912); books of philosophic criticism,

) by the presence of all the gods except Eris or themselves, as he openly professes, evidencing Discord, who was not invited, and who, to

his own way of thinking in noting the ways of avenge the slight, threw in_among the com- others, chief among them articles collected pany the apple of discord. By Peleus she be

from Le Temps in five volumes of 'La vie came the mother of Achilles (q.v.).

litteraire) (1888–93) and 'Le génie latin THEURGY, from the Greek theourgia, (1913); dramatic experiments, among which meaning divine work, and used among the an- Thaïs is best known; an extended controvercients to signify supernatural agency in indi- sial biography. La vie de Jeanne d'Arc) vidual human affairs, or in the government of (1908); expressions of fervid patriotism in the world. Hence the act or art of invoking stress of war, such as (Sur la voie glorieuse) deities or spirits, or by their intervention con- (1915), and, finally and chiefly, a long series juring up visions, interpreting dreams, receiv- of books which in the guise of fiction express ing or explaining oracles, etc.; the power of all the manifold phases of his political observaobtaining from the gods, by means of certain tions, his social aspirations and indignations, observances, words, symbols or the like, a his philosophic speculations and the play of his knowledge of the secrets which surpass the recreative imagination in evoking the thought power of reason, to lay open the future, etc. and life of a long out-lived past. This fiction, The word also means that species of magic taken chronologically, gives the clue to the which more modern professors of the art allege development of France out from the dilettant to produce its effects by supernatural agency, as scepticism of Renan, through epicureanism, in contradistinguished from natural magic. Also its higher and also its lower sense, into an a system of supernatural knowledge or power earnest, though still ironic, socialism, with ocbelieved by the Egyptian Platonists to have been casional glints of fierce intolerance for obdivinely communicated to a hierarchy, and by scurantists, reactionary or clerical. Outstandthem handed down from generation to genera- ing among these books is first (Le crime de tion.

Sylvestre Bonnard? (1881), his second novel, THEURIET, Claude Andre, French poet whose genial sympathy with childhood and and novelist: b. Marly-le-Roi, 8 Oct. 1833; d. 23 large-hearted irony have attracted writers of April 1907. He studied law in Paris, received distinction, among them Lafcadio Hearn, to athis licentiate in 1857 and in that year entered the tempt its translation. Balthasar) (1900) and



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