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means of their formation: human agency; water-abrasion by wave-action; waterabrasion by streams, rivers and floods; soil-abrasion; the drag of ice; wear and tear on the surface of the ground. The "eoliths" occur abundpressure-chipped antly in hill-drifts of paleolithic age, but are rare in the contemporary valley gravels. W. does not accept the theory of colithic man, believing these forms to be the result of natural action, Discussion by others, pages 359-363. Weidemann (A.) Alphabet. (Arch. f. Religsw., Lpzg., 1906, VIII, 552-554-) Notes on the "magic" of the 24 letters, the "mystery" of the alphabet, etc., in Greek and early Christian thought. the early Coptic period 24 personalities developed out of the alphabet. Wittrock (K. J. H.) De olika slagen af folkmängdskartor. (Ymer, Stockholm, 1905, XXV, 428-444.) Treats of the different types of maps of density of population.


seum of Fine Arts, "representing one
of those mythical combinations of animal
and man so peculiar to Greek religious
thought". -an ithyphallic goat-man, a
demon closely related to the Pan and
Satyr type. Only five specimens of the
type of this statuette are known (2 from
Thebes, 2 from Locris, 1 from Rhodes).
An appropriate appellation is Tityros,
for the goat-man demon had phallic and
other kindred associations.

EUROPE The chronology of Abercromby (J.) prehistoric glass beads and associated (J. Anthr. ceramic types in Britain. Inst., Lond., 1905, XXXV, 256-265, 5 pls.) Enumerates 37 finds of prehistoric glass beads (particularly ribbed, notched beads of opaque blue vitreous paste) in connection with pottery, etc., The long ribbed in British barrows. and globular vitreous beads (found with cinerary urns with overhanging rims) were imported into Britain ca. 900 (or 800)600 B. C., during part of the Hallstatt period of central Europe. A signed amphora of Bates (W. N.) Meno. (Amer. J. Archæol., Norwood, Mass., 1905, IX, 170-181, 2 pl., 6 ígs.) Describes a red-figured amphora bearing the signature of the new painter Meno, an Athenian, not otherwise known, ca. 510 B. C., and trained in the black-figured school. He was possibly the grandfather of Meno, the accuser of Phidias. On one side are Leto, Apollo, and Artemis, and on the other side of the vase The vase is a warrior leading horses. now in the museum of the University of Pennsylvania-it came from some town Meno has some resemblances in Etruria. to Andocides in style, etc. Baur (P.) Tityros. (Ibid., 157-165, 1 pl., i fg.) Describes a terra-cotta figure (local Theban ware, middle of fifth century, B. C.), now in the Boston Mu

Beddoe (J.) Colour and race. (J. Anthr.
Inst., Lond., 1905, XXXV, 219-250, 2
pl., I fg.) Discusses color as a race-
mark, drawbacks to its use (change with
age, fugitiveness after death, operation
of various forms of selection, personal
equation), systems of classification, rela-
tive values of hair and iris color, effects
of geographical situation, migration, etc.
The maps of Dr B. show the distribution
of color and race in central Europe and
in the British Isles (tables of pigmenta-
tion). Dr B. regrets "the diminution
of the old blond lympho-sanguine stock,
which has hitherto served England well
in many ways, but is apparently doomed
to give way to a darker and more mobile
type, largely the offspring of the prole-
tariat, and more adapted to the atmos-
The brunet type
phere of great cities."
is not gaining in Scandinavia, but the
growth of towns may induce a change.
In southern Europe the blond seems to
persist only by constant reinforcement
from the north. There are reasons for
believing that man in Europe had origin-
ally red hair.

Biehringer (F.) Die Sage von Hero und
Leander. (Globus, Brnschwg., LXXXIX,
1906, 94-97.) Discusses the Hero-Lean-
der legend and its distribution (see also Jel-
linek's Die Sage von Hero und Leander
in der Dichtung, Berlin, 1890) in Eu-
rope (particularly in Teutonic countries).
The legend may be of Indian origin,
though this is by no means certain.
Blaschke (E.) Weinachtsherligeromt ei
der Schwenzer Schmiede vor 30 Jahren.
(Mitt. d. Schles. Ges. f. Volksk., Bres-
lau, 1904, H. XII, 103-107.) Describes
Christmas customs of 30 years ago in
Schwenz, district of Glatz.

Bore (E.) Tidsbilder från det forna Gelli-
vare. (Svenska Landsmål, Stockholm,
Notes on folk-life in
1904, 27-41.)
Gellivare, a parish in the extreme north
of Sweden: Fairs in 1860-1870, famine
among the Lapps, ecclesiastical festival

in 1890, the catechizing tours of the curé of Gellivare in Karungi. Brunšmid (J.) Kameni spomenici hrvats koga narodnoga Muzeja u Zagrebu. (Vjesn. hrvat. Arheol. Društva, Zaghreb, 1905, N. S., VIII, 35-106, 132 fgs.) Describes and figures nos. 58-189 of stone statues, sculptures, inscriptions, etc. (Roman, Greek, etc.) in the Croatian National Museum at Zaghreb (Agram).

Starine ranijega srednjega vijeka iz Hrvatske i Slavonije. (Ibid., 208-220, 8 fgs.) Treats of antiquities (bronze fibulæ, etc.) of the early Middle Ages in Croatia and Slavonia, specimens of which are in the Croatian National Mu


Nekoliko nasasca novaca na skupu u Hrvatskoj i Slavoniji. (Ibid., 176192, 7 fgs.) Treats of nos. 18-25 of numismatic finds (Italian, African, Hungarian, Teutonic, etc.) in Croatia and Slavonia.

Caskey (L. D.) Notes on inscriptions from Eleusis dealing with the building of the porch of Philon. (Amer. J. Archæol., Norwood, Mass., 1905, IX, 147– 156, I pl.) Treats of 6 inscriptions and the data to be obtained therefrom. The restorers reproduced the building substantially as it was before its destruction; though the workmanship is Roman, the forms are those of the fourth century B. C., copying the best period of Greek architecture, as was the custom of the age. Diehl (-) Kleinere volkskundliche Mitteilungen aus Archivalien. (Hess. Bl. f. Volksk., Lpzg., 1905, IV, 206-210.) Treats of St John's day celebration in Dreieich in 1578, cemeteries in 1611 and 1710, votive offerings in 1628, a witch of 1663.

Dieterich (A.) Griechische und römische Religion. (Arch. f. Religsw., Lpzg., 1906, VIII, 474-510.) Résumés and critiques of recent works (1903-1905) relating to Greek and Roman religion, including Harrison's Prolegomena to the Study of Greek Religion (Cambridge, 1903), Frazer's Early History of the Kingship (Lond., 1905), Reinach's Cultes, mythes et religions (t. 1, Paris, (1905), de Visser's Die nicht menschengestaltigen Götter der Griechen (Leiden, 1903), Bloomfield's Cerberus, the Dog of Hades (Chicago, 1905), Foucart's Le culte de Dionysos en Attique (Paris, 1904), Decharme's La critique des traditions religieuses chez les Grecs (Paris, 1904), De Marchi's Il culto privato di

Roma antica (Milano, 1903), Cumont's Die Mystérien des Mithra (Leipzig, 1903), Lucius-Anrich's Die Anfänge des Heiligenkults in der christlichen Kirche (Tübingen, 1904), and Politis' Thesaurus of Modern Greek Folk Ideas (1904). Fossum (A.) The theatre at Sikyon. (Amer. J. Archæol., Norwood, Mass., 1905, XX, 263-276, 2 pl., 3 fgs.) Describes investigations made in the summer of 1898, with restoration of certain parts. The object of one reconstruction was to deepen the stage according to the method adopted at Priene-"it is of Roman origin and may date from the period when Sikyon superseded Corinth in political significance.' Frasseto (F.) Sopra due crani rinvenuti nell' antico sepolcreto di Bovolone veronese attribuito ai terramaricoli. (A. d. Soc. Rom. di Antrop., 1906, XII. 145-153.) Describes two male skulls (indexes, 75.2 and 70.7) in the Florence Anthropological Museum, exhumed in 1876 in the Veronese cemetery of Bovolone, attributed to prehistoric terramaricoli, but really Ligurian. Dr F. thinks that the terramaricoli were Ligurians, the terramare being "stations."

Crani rinvenuti in tombe etrusche. (Ibid., 155-182, 6 fgs.) Describes, with measurements 15 skulls (3 pentagonoid, 4 ovoid, 8 ellipsoid; 12 male, 3 female) from Etruscan tombs - sutures and special bones are examined in the second part of the article, pages 177-182 (the occipital presents the most variations and anomalies). Dr A. considers the Etruscan (Italy) a mixed people, a view in harmony with linguistic and archeological facts. Like the Italians, they belonged to the Mediterranean race. They arrived in Italy in the 8th century, B. C. Of the crania here considered 10 have cephalic indexes under 76. Fürst (C. M.) Skelettfynd i jämtländska grafvar från den yngre järnåldern. (Ymer, Stockholm, 1905, XXV, 372401, 20 fgs.) Describes, with details of measurements, crania and other skeletal remains of three men and two women from the iron age cemetery at Ås in Jämtland (see Kjellmark, K.). Another grave contained the skeletons of two young children. In all 5 males, 3 females, and 2 children are referred to. Of the male skulls two are dolichocephalic, one mesocephalic, the female dolichocephalic. Height (estimated):

males 1620-1710 mm., females 15001580. The dolichocephalic crania represent the characteristic Scandinavian type of the period. The mesocephalic skull resembles the coast-type from mediæval Trondhjem - a mixed, or foreign, element. Giuffrida-Ruggeri (V.) Elenco del materiale scheletrico preistorico e protostorico del Lazio. (A. d. Soc. Rom. di Antrop., 1906, XII, 183-189.) Treats of a male skeleton (skull mesocephalic) from an eneolithic grave near Sgurgola, two male skulls from an artificial eneolithic grotto at Cantalupo Mandela (indices 70.97 and 86.54), a male brachycephalic skull from the tombs of the Esquiline, an imperfect male skeleton from Gabii (with excessive development of forearm). The skull from Sgurgola is colored red on forehead and face.

Cro-Magnon, Grenelle e i loro meticci. (Ibid., 219-221.) Criticizes Houzé's account of the métis of Cro-Magnon and Grenelle, said to be represented by the skull from Sclaigneaux. What has really happened in these regions is a mixture of races giving rise to an increase of brachycephals.

Gobat (T.) Un antique nom topographique de Liège, Merchoul. (Bull. Inst. Archéol. Liègeois, Liège, 1905, XXXV, 141-154.) Discusses the etymology of the local name Merchoul in Liège (several derivations have been put forth). The word is not derived from Matricula, but, as the form Merdecoul indicates, refers to the deposit of human ordure.

Gusinde (K.) Ueber Mundartengrenzen im Kreise Oels. (Mitt. d. Schles. Ges. f. Volksk., Breslau, 1904, H. XII, 8688.) Gives specimens of the diphthongizing dialect from Great and Little Zöllnig 5 brief summer songs," 6 lullabies, and a few superstitions. Haas (A.) Fünf Sagen aus dem Riesengebirge. (Ibid., 91-94.) Five short tales (Night-hunter, "Candlestick," Will-o'-the-wisp, Digging for Treasure, the "Bierwêtzel") collected in Brückenberg in 1904.

Hartung (C.) Einiges neuere über das antike und das heutige Rom. (Mitt. d. K.-K. Geogr. Ges. in Wien, 1906, XLIX, 118-136, 2 fgs.) Notes on the forums, the baths of Diocletian, Caracalla, and Agrippa, the Porta Pia (Michelangelo), various palazzi, the Capitol, temple of Vesta, recent excavations at

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Hellquist (E.) Svenska sjönamn. (Svenska Landsmål, Stockholm, 1903-1905, XX, 3-610, 1-32.) Exhaustive alphabetic list (A-S) of Swedish lake-names, with historical, etymological, and grammatical notes. A valuable contribution to the literature of geographic names. Herrmann (F.) Eine Geisterbannung im Schlosse zu Darmstadt, 1717-1718. (Hess. Bl. f. Volksk., Lpzg., 1905, IV, 167-176.) Describes in detail, with citations from contemporary accounts, excommunications of spirits at the castle of Darmstadt in 1717 and 1718. Hippe (H.) Volkstümliches aus einem alten Breslauer Tagebuche. (Mitt. d. Schles. Ges. f. Volksk., Breslau, 1904, H. XII, 79-85). Cites from a Breslau diary of 1640-1669 in Latin belonging to the then rector of the gymnasium, Elias Maior, various items of folk custom and belief: Lätare Sunday, Christmas bells, Wandering Jew, exhibitions of dancing bears, horse-races, races of women in 1666, protection of workmen against ill-repute as gallows-makers, etc. Hoffler (V.) Prethistorijsko groblje u Smiljanu Gospića. (Vjesn. hrvat. Arheol. Drustva, Zaghreb, 1905, N. S., VIII, 193-203, 6 fgs.) Treats of the prehistoric cemetery (22 graves) at Smiljan Gospić and the objects discovered therein bronze fibulæ, coils, bracelets, etc.; amber beads and other ornaments. Olovna plocica sa zavjetnim relijefom


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iz Srpske Mitrovice. (Ibid., 118-128, 8 fgs.) Describes a votive relief-plate of lead from Servian Metrovica compared with other like objects of Roman type from Petrovaca, etc.

Olovna pločica sa relijefom iz Divosa. (Ibid., 204-207, 2 fgs.) Describes a lead relief-plate from Divos. Johnnson (P.) Sägner från östra Göinge.

(Svenska Landsmål, Stockholm, 1904, 108-115.) Gives texts of 9 brief historical tales (17th century, relating to Danish-Swedish war), from the district of Söinge in northern Scania. Also " "pact between a peasant and the devil," from Emitslöv.

Kahle (B.) Der Ragnarökmythus. (Arch. f. Religsw., Lpzg., 1906, VIII, 431-455; 1906, IX, 61-72.) Chiefly a résumé and critique of the views of Dr Axel Olrik as expressed in his Om Ragnarok (1902), with notices of subsequent literature of the subject. K. agrees with O. in considering the poem essentially heathen, but differs from him as to the Christian influence.

Der höchste Name. (Ibid., 556558.) Points out that the belief in the power of "the highest name" is also found in Old Icelandic literature.

Karo (G.) Archäologische Funde und Forschungen. (Ibid., 511-525, 1 pl. 3 fgs.) Treats of Evans' explorations in Knosos, Doerpfeld's in Phaistos, and those of the Italian expedition on the Hagia Triada hill west of Phaistos, itself, the chief objects discovered, graves and buildings examined, etc.


Saxon, etc., 994-1035), also human remains. See Fürst (C. M.). Lewis (A. L.) Prehistoric remains in Cornwall. Part 2, West Cornwall. (J. Anthr. Inst., Lond., 1905, XXXV, 427– 434, 2 fgs.) Treats of the "Dance Maen" or "Dawns Maen," a stone circle near Penzance; the "Nine Maidens at Boscawen-an, three miles from the first; "Lanyon Quoit" and "Chun Quoit"; the 66 Tregaseal Dancing Stones"; the "Men-an-Tol," on the moors north of Lanyon Quoit, and near it the "Men Scryffys"; the Boskednan circle, the Zennor Quoit," and the "Mulfra Quoit"; the beehive chambers at Chrysoister, Gulval; the Trencrom hillfort; the subterranean passages and chambers at Carnbrae, and the "FogOu near the "Dance Maen." Mehlis (C.) Die neolithische Ansiedelung an der Eyersheimer Mühle in der Pfalz. (Globus, Brnschwg., 1906, LXXXIX, 57– 59, 11 fgs.) Describes briefly objects found at the Eyersheim neolithic “station"-stone axes (jadeite and syenite), "amulets," pottery fragments (some 70 were found) with little ornamentation. The culture-data here indicate the end of the neolithic period in the region of the middle Rhine (left) and transition to the metal period. Nehring (W.) Die slovenische Volkslieder. (Mitt. d. Schles. Ges. f. Volksk., Breslau, 1904, H. XII, 44-61.) Résumé and critique of Dr K. Strekelj's monumental Slovenske narodne pesmi (2 vols., Larbach, 1895-1903), with notices of previous literature of the subject. Professor S's work contains 1006 narrative (epic) and 3722 lyric songs. The epic songs are richer in content and perhaps more varied as to motive. Nichols (M. L.) Geometric vases from Corinth. (Amer. J. Archæol., Norwood, Mass., 1905, IX, 411-421, 6 pl., 4 fgs.). Treats of 16 geometric vases discovered in 1898-1899 near the center of Peirene, "resembling most closely those found in the lowest geometric layer at Eleusis," and belonging probably to the tenth century B. C., immediately post-Mycenæan. This find, according to Miss N., is "one more link in the chain of evidence in favor of the spread of the Dorian influence along the Isthmus into Attica." Nothing Mycenaean has yet been found at Corinth. The style of decoration is very simple. Nilsson (A.) Äril, spis och ugn. (Ymer,

Kent (R. G.) The city gates of Demetrias. (Amer. J. Archæol., Norwood, Mass., 1905, IX, 166-169, 3 fgs.) Notes on Thessalian and Magnesian gates of Demetrias (founded ca. 290 B. C.), near the modern Thessalian city of Volo. K. concludes that the main gate of Demetrias was where the city walls once stood; these have now entirely disappeared. Kjellmark (K.) Ett graffält från den yngre järnåldern i Ås i Jämtland. (Ymer, Stockholm, 1905, XXV, 351-371, 32 fgs.) Describes excavations (4 men's 2 women's, and one child's grave) at a cemetery of the younger iron age near Ås in Jämtland, the objects discovered (iron axes and knives, bells, bit, rings, sword, etc.; bronze buckles, sword-hilt, etc.; bead necklaces; bits of silver, and silver coins - Swedish, Anglo

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Stockholm, 1905, XXV, 193-214, 30 fgs.) Treats of hearth, fire-place, and oven, old and new in various parts of Sweden.

Olbrich (C.) Die Freimaurer im deutschen Volksglauben. (Mitt. d. Schles. Ges. f. Volksk., Breslau, 1904, H. XII, 61-78.) Résumés German folk-beliefs concerning freemasons. Their "never-ending work to escape death," "magic" attributes, lore relating to symbols of the craft, connection with spirits and with the devil, etc. Old heathen lore has caused much to pass over to the folkideas about freemasons, aided by their secret doings and the fact that their great festival day is June 24, St John's day, near the summer solstice and rich in folk-lore and mystic beliefs.

Pacala (V.) A Nagyszeben vídéki resinárok lakóhelye és életviszonyai. (Földr. Közlem., Budapest, 1905, XXXIII, 307325, 350-367, 13 fgs.). Treats of the life and activities of the people of Resinar near Nagyszeben-dwellings, dress and ornament, weddings, disease and death, funerals, feasts and festivals, agriculture and related pursuits, trade, etc. Old customs and rites are dying out. The "Bethlehem singers" at Christmas and other similar practices at Easter still survive. The wedding ceremonies also are interesting. Pugh (W.)

Cockney children's games and chapties. (Grand Mag., Lond., 1906, III, 595-599.) Gives reminiscences of a writer who was once himself a London Arab, and speaks out of the fulness of knowledge." Most of the chanties are used "as accompaniments to the innumerable variants of Kiss-in-the-Ring."" R. (C.) Prähistorischer Bergbau auf dem Mitterberge bei Bischofshaven. (Globus, Brnschwg., 1906, LXXXIX, 90–92.) Brief account of the numerous remains of prehistoric (bronze and iron age) coppermining on the Mitterberg near Mühlbach in the Salzburg Alps. Renard (L.) Exploration d'un cimetière franc à Latinne. (Bull. Inst. Archéol. Liégeois, Liège, 1905, XXXV, 155-162, I pl., I fg.) Brief description of 9 tombs and contents explored by the author and M. E. Dairn-Rigot in 1901-1903 at Chapelle St Maur, Latinne. The cemetery dates from the Frankish period (V-VI century A. D.) and no Christian ornaments or symbols were discovered; the funerary objects were poor and the pottery crude.

Rapport sur les recherches et les fouilles exécutées en 1905 par l'Institut Archéologique Liègeois. (Ibid., 347360, I pl., 3 fgs.) Brief account of excavations at Ponthoz (Frankish cemetery), Waterschejd (Hallstatt incineration), Fraiture (Belgo-Roman tumulus), Grivegnée (IV-V century A. D.), Vervoz (Belgo-Roman), Java (Frankish cemetery), Herstal (Roman coins), etc. Reventlow (C. D.) Ringsjöfynden. (Ymer, Stockholm, 1905, XXV, 156172, 13 fgs.) Treats of the finds (flints, axes of stone, implements of horn, pottery, fragments, etc.) at the "stations" on Lake Ring, the inhabitants of which were probably lake-dwellers," or lived on rafts (a folk of hunters and fishers). No remains of cereals were found, but hazel-nut shells, raspberry-seeds, fruitstones, etc. They seem to have been "half-nomadic lake-dwellers." Some of the axes are of the type belonging to the older kitchen middens of Denmark.

Robarts (N. F.) Notes on a recently discovered British camp near Wallington. (J. Anthr. Inst., Lond., 1905, XXXV; 387-397, 8 fgs.) Describes excavations and lists objects found (cake of copper, earthenware loom-weights and perforated tiles, animal bones, pottery, mealing-stones, flints, partly calcined skeleton of child, remains of cremations, etc.). The fragments of red Samian ware (ca. 100 A. D.) found near by, as well as those of a "late Celtic" (ca. 50 B. C.) pedestal urn, may be much later than the camp itself. The remains are those of "a British camp, probably the headquarters of the Bibroci."

Rogers (J. D.) The meaning of ПYPгO in two Teian inscriptions. (Amer. J. Archæol., Norwood, Mass., 1905, IX, 422-426.) Argues for some connection between the Teian blocks and the upyo of the Teian inscriptions. Perhaps these blocks were used for deme lists, and "citizens of a certain tower are not those resident in or near a tower, of the city walls, but those enrolled in the deme register, called upyoç because of its fantastic shape which attracted attention and determined ultimately the popular designation."

Scholz (O.) Schlesische Tänze. (Mitt.

d. Schles. Ges. f. Volksk., Breslau, 1904, H. XII, 88-91). Describes peasant dance (minuet), peasant minuet (by four couples), "Tanzt och mit der

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