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and is prepared by the contact process," described in this article.
The uses of sulphuric acid in chemistry and in the arts are past enumeration; for this acid is one of the most important chemical substances known, and it is employed is so many industrial processes that it has been said that the wealth and prosperity of a nation can be estimated from its consumption of sulphuric acid. About half of the total quantity manufactured in the United States is consumed in the preparation of fertilizers. The two general methods now in use for manufacturing the acid are described in this article.
The sulphur used for the manufacture of sulphuric acid is obtained (1) from the gases generated by burning iron pyrites (FeS.), (2) from the sulphur deposits of Louisiana, Sicily and elsewhere, and (3) to a very limited extent from the waste gases given off by sulphide smelters. At the present time pyrites is the most important source, but it is probable that smelter gases will be utilized to a greatly increased extent in the future, and they may eventually compete with pyrites. The sulphur dioxide that is now wasted by discharging the fumes from smelters into the air would far more than supply the United States with sulphuric acid. Moreover, the fumes are exceedingly objectionable, and they are destructive to vege on.
The fundamental principles in the manufacture of sulphuric acid are (1) to oxidize sulphur or a suitable sulphide, so as to obtain sulphur dioxide, SO2; (2) to further oxidize this to the trioxide, SO;; and (3) to effect the combination of the trioxide with water, in ac-. cordance with the equation SO3+H2O=H2SO,. In attempting to carry out the second of these processes, however, we are confronted by the fact that sulphur dioxide does not readily take up oxygen, so as to become completely converted into the trioxide. To effect this oxidation we are in fact compelled to resort to one or the other of two expedients: (1) To mix a certain amount of an oxide of nitrogen with the sulphur dioxide and air — the oxide of nitrogen then acting as a sort of carrier", taking up oxygen from the air and passing it on to the sulphur dioxide; or (2) to subject a mixture of air and sulphur dioxide to the action of a suitable catalyzer. The first of these expedients is used in the chamber process” and the second in the contact process.
The first step in the manufacture of sulphuric acid is to provide a suitable supply of sulphur dioxide gas. This is usually obtained by burning sulphur or iron pyrites in a special furnace and considerable skill and judgment are required in this part of the operation, to obtain gases of proper composition. It is also important to minimize the quantity of dust that the gases carry over into the later parts of the process. Settling chambers, baffle plates, centrifugal separators, parallel-plate separators, and filtration through piles of marbles or other loosely aggregated solid lumps are among the devices used for the removal of the dust.
Chamber Process.-- In manufacturing sulphuric acid by the so-called "chamber process the hot gases from the burners (consisting of air, sulphur dioxide and moisture) pass first nyer (uiter pots, which contain nitrate of soda
and sulphuric acid, and which give off the nitric oxide gas that is to act as an oxygen carrier. Then, after passing through the dustremoving apparatus, the gases are passed upward through a tower (technically known as a "Glover tower)) that is loosely filled with fragments of coke, pumice, acid-proof stoneware or other inert material to distribute the flow, and here they are met by a downward stream of aqueous sulphuric acid obtained from a later stage of the process and containing oxides of nitrogen in solution, The precise reactions that occur cannot be discussed here, partly because they are complicated, and partly because they are not fully understood. The general effect, however, is to oxidize the SO2 to SO3, and the downward-flowing stream of weak acid dissolves the SO3 and thereby becomes stronger. In certain plants of recent design the oxidation of the sulphur dioxide and the absorption of the resulting trioxide are carried out in a series of Glover towers, without the use of chambers of any sort; but it is usual, after the gases have passed through one or two Glover towers, to cause them to enter large lead-lined chambers (from which the process takes its name), where the oxidation of the dioxide and the consequent strengthening of the acid are continued. Liquid sulphuric acid settles in the bottom of these chambers, and is drawn off from time to time. Steam or wa is sprayed into certain of the chambers, as needed, to provide the H2O that is required for the formation of the H.SO.. The gases coming from the last chamber are passed up through a "Gay-Lussac tower, which resembles the Glover tower in general construction. The liquid that is sent down through this tower, however, is concentrated sulphuric acid, and its purpose is to absorb the nitric oxide gas that is present, thereby preventing its loss and diminishing the quantity of nitre that must be used in the early part of the process. Upon leaving this tower the gases (which then consist mainly of nitrogen and oxygen) enter a stack and pass off into the atmosphere. The acid that is drawn off from the bottom of the final GayLussac tower contains oxides of nitrogen in solution, and is introduced (diluted, as may be necessary, with weaker acid) into the tops of the Glover towers. As the acid passes down through a Glover tower, however, the heat due to the reactions that occur, added to that which the entering gases already possess, drives off the nitrous oxides, and these keep returning upward through the tower with the sulphur oxides and air, while acid nearly free from nitrous oxides comes away from the bottom of the tower.
Sulphuric acid, as made by the chamber process (and especially when made from pyrites) is likely to be contaminated with lead, arsenic, nitrous oxides and many other substances. Certain of these may be removed in considerable measure by treatment with sulphurctted hydrogen. If an acid of high purity is required, however, it is better to make it hy the contact process, presently to be described. When treated with sulphuretted hydrogen for the removal of impurities, the acid should not have a greater specific gravity than 1.4, corresponding to about 50 per cent of actual HESO, and must be diluted to this strength if
it is already stronger. After the removal of water, in order to yield an acid that is quite the arsenic the purified acid is concentrated by pure. It might naturally be supposed that evaporation if a strong product is required. water would be the best absorbent for the triThe evaporation may be carried out in leaden oxide; but it is found that an acid that contains pans, but a better product is obtained by effect- from 97 to 99 per cent of H2SO4 is a better ing the concentration in platinum stills. Owing absorbent; and in the practical conduct of the to the high cost of platinum, however, it is com- process the trioxide is absorbed by an acid of mon to perform the evaporation in a series of this strength; the stronger acid that its solution evaporating dishes constructed of fused silica. yields being continuously drawn off and conThese are arranged like a flight of steps, the tinuously replaced by fresh supplies of the 97 lip of each one projecting out over the next to 99 per cent acid, except when fuming acid of dish below. A slow stream of acid is kept a very high degree of concentration is wanted. running down through the cascades of dishes, The minute details of the contact process are while heat is applied to each dish from below. trade secrets and are carefully guarded. When an apparatus of this kind is properly The standard work on sulphuric acid manuarranged and operated it gives excellent re- facture is Lunge's Sulphuric Acid and Alsults. Hoods should be arranged over the kali.?. Very good general accounts will be dishes, however, to take up the vapors that are found, however, in Rogers' (Manual of Indusgiven off and dispose of them in some proper trial Chemistry and Thorp's Outlines of Inway.
dustrial Chemistry.' The Contact Process.- In the contact proc
ALLAN D. RISTEEN. ess for the manufacture of sulphuric acid, the SULPHURIC ETHER. See ETHER. sulphur dioxide is caused to combine with the oxygen of the air by bringing the mixed SULPHUROUS ACID, an acid having gases into contact with finely divided platinum, (probably) the formula H.SOs, and prepared by or with platinized asbestos. The catalytic ac- dissolving sulphur dioxide gas (see SULPHUR) tion of platinum (that is, its power of inducing in water to saturation; the acid being formed combination in this way, without being itself by the union of one molecule of the dioxide consumed or otherwise permanently affected) with one molcule of water, according to the was discovered by Sir Humphrey Davy, in 1818; equation SO2 + H2O=H2SO3. Sulphurous and in 1824 Doebereiner showed that finely acid has never been isolated, and is known divided platinum can effect the ignition of a only in its aqueous solution, in combination jet of hydrogen, when this gas impinges upon it with bases in the form of the salts known as in contact with air. Peregrine Phillips, of Bris- sulphites, and as a solid hydrate. At 70° F. tol, England, first produced sulphur trioxide by water dissolves about 35 times its utilizing the catalytic effect of finely divided volume of sulphur dioxide; the solubility being platinum upon a mixture of oxygen and sul- greater at lower temperatures, and less at higher phur dioxide, taking out a patent for this proc- ones. When an aqueous solution of sulphurous ess in 1831; and Schneider, in 1848, made a acid is cooled below 41° F., a crystalline hyworking model of an apparatus for manufac- drate of the acid separates out, the composition turing sulphuric acid by this method. Since that of which is not definitely known. Sulphurous time many attempts have been made to make the acid has the taste and smell of sulphur dioxide contact process practicable for the manufacture gas, and is strongly acid. It readily gives off of sulphuric acid, and many other catalytic sulphur dioxide gas, and upon standing in conagents have been tried besides platinum. It was tact with the air it gradually absorbs oxygen not until about 1898, however, that the various and becomes converted into sulphuric acid. Its practical difficulties involved in the process were composition is also modified by the action of satisfactorily overcome, largely through the la- light, probably by the formation of a more bors of Herr Knietsch of the Badische Anilin complex oxy-acid of sulphur. It acts as und Soda-Fabrik, a German company for the dibasic acid, combining with the oxides, hymanufacture of chemical substances of nearly drates and carbonates of many of the metals every kind. It was found that the prime con- to form salts (that is, sulphites) which are dition of success in the application of the con- readily decomposed by the addition of stronger tact method is that the gases that are treated acids, with the liberation of sulphur dioxide. shall be absolutely free from dust, arsenic, It is used in the bleaching of silk and wool mercury and certain other substances. The but not so much as formerly, having been gases from the pyrites-roaster cooled largely displaced by hydrogen peroxide. When very slowly and are then purified by filtration the hydrogen atoms of the acid are both reand washing. When passed to the tubes con- placed by a metallic base, the resulting salt is taining the platinized asbestos that is used as called a "normal sulphite); and when only half the catalytic agent, 100 volumes of the roaster- of the hydrogen of the acid is so replaced, the gas contain 7 volumes of sulphur dioxide, 10 salt is called an (acid sulphite, or a "bisulvolumes of oxygen and 83 volumes of nitrogen phite. Both of the sulphites of sodium are (from the air). The catalytic platinum is main- extensively used in photography; the normal tained at a temperature of about 750° F., since sulphite having the formula Na2SO37H,O, and it is found that at this temperature the produc- the acid sulphite the formula HNSOz. (See tion of sulphur trioxide is about 98 per cent PHOTOGRAPHY). Industrially, the bisulphites of of the theoretical production. The nitrogen calcium and of magnesium are of exceeding that is present has no influence upon the reac- importance, since the aqueous solutions of these tion, when the apparatus is working properly. substances possess the power of dissolving the The sulphur trioxide that is produced by this gummy matters by which the fibres of certain method needs only to be dissolved in previously kinds of wood are cemented together. Upon prepared sulphuric acid containing more or less this property, the "sulphite process) for the
manufacture of wood pulp is based. (See the archipelago are divided into four groups, PAPER). Calcium sulphite is also used in the according to their origin and customs: (a) brewing industry.
The Guimbajanos, the aborigines living in the SULPICIANS, súl-pish'i-ąnz. See ORDERS,
mountains; (b) the Malay and Visayan slaves; RELIGIOUS.
(c) the Samales; (d) the Moros proper, the dominating
Mohammedanism SULPICIUS SEVERUS, sul-pish'i-ŭs sě
is the vē'rús, Roman ecclesiastical writer: b. Aqui
prevailing religion; polygamy and slavery are
recognized institutions. Piracy was formerly tania, 363 A.D.; d. Marseilles, between 410 and 429. He was from a family of high rank and
a regular occupation of the people and their
depredations were carried as far as Singapore. in the practice of the law at Toulouse attained
(See Moros). Spain never occupied but a few a great reputation for learning and eloquence
towns on the coast and the native government and led a gay though charitable life. The death of his wife led him to more serious pursuits.
remained largely independent of Spanish do
minion. When the islands were transferred to Having entered a monastery, he spent some
the United States, after the Spanish-Ameriyears in preparing an abridgment of the scriptural narrative, which from the purity of its
can War, negotiations were immediately begun
for establishing satisfactory relations between style was long a favorite textbook in the schools
the United States government and the sultan of the Middle Ages, but is liable to the charge
of Sulu and his datos (or chiefs). In August of serious tampering with the facts, arising
1899 a treaty was signed in accordance with in part probably from the desire to rebuke in
which the sovereignty of the United States over this guise some contemporary rulers. He continued this history, describing the destruction
the whole archipelago was recognized, but the
government of the sultan and datos continued of Jerusalem and bringing the narrative down to his own time, under the title of "The Chron
under this supreme jurisdiction, the rights and icle of Sulpicius Severus,' in which he varies
religion of the Moros to be respected, with the
following important stipulations: the United materially from Josephus. His other works are Life of Saint Martin, Bishop of Tours);
States shall occupy and control such parts of
the archipelago as public interest demands; any (Three Dialogues and a collection of letters. From the elegance of his Latinity he was called,
person can purchase land with the sultan's con
sent; piracy shall be suppressed; American not undeservedly, "the Christian Sallust.” His works have been often printed.
courts shall have jurisdiction except between
Moros; the American government shall protect SULTAN, in Arabic, signifies monarch, the island against foreign aggression. Pop. ruler. The title is borne by various Moham- (estimated) 22,680. (2) A group of islands in medan rulers, while the Turkish emperor as- the central part of the Sulu Archipelago, lying sumes the title of Sultan-es-selatin, Sultan of between the Balanguingui group on the north sultans. The daughters of the sultan have
and the Tapul group on the south; area 380 also the title of sultan. The title of sultana
square miles. All of the larger islands of this is given out of Turkey to the chief concubines
group are volcanic, each of them being formed of the sultan, but no such title is in use for of a central peak sloping to a narrow stretch them in Turkey. If the mother of the sultan of level coast land; the islets are generally is living she is styled sultan Valide.
rocks. All the staples of the archipelago are SULU, soo-loo', or JOLO, ho-lo', Philip- cultivated; a small amount of hemp and indigo pines. (1) An archipelago, consisting
is exported; but cattle raising and fishing oc400 islands, forming the southern central por- cupy a larger number of the inhabitants. The tion of the Philippine Archipelago, lying be- trade between islands is by native craft; the tween the parallels 4° 30' and 121° 52' N. lat. port of export is the town of Sulu. Pop. 14,500. and the meridians 119° 25' and 121° 52' E. long; (3) An island, the central and largest one of area 1,029 square miles. The archipelago is the Sulu group; area 333 square miles. It is surrounded by the Sulu and Mindanao seas on traversed from northeast to southwest by three the north and west and the Celebes Sea on the nearly parallel mountain chains, between which south and east. The islands form a long chain
lie fertile valleys; there are several important extending from northeast to southwest and are peaks, of which the highest has an elevation divided into five principal groups: (1) Balan- of 2,894 feet.
small guingui; (2) Pangutárang; (3) Sulu;, (4) streams; which are nearly or completely dry Tapul; (5) Tawi Tawi. The larger islands during the summer
The climate is are generally high and of volcanic formation; particularly good, the temperature being even the smaller islands are low and rest on coral; and unusually cool for the latitude. The soil mountain chains traverse the islands of Sulu is fertile and is well cultivated; rice, however, and Tawi Tawi. The larger islands are fer- is imported and the chief articles of export, as tile; rice, coffee, chocolate, corn, hemp, saffron, in the rest of the Sulu Archipelago, are the indigo, sesame and cotton are cultivated, but products of the fisheries. The mountains are not as a rule for export. The raising of heavily wooded and valuable cabinet woods horses, cattle and goats is an important indus- are also among the exports. Under the Ameritry; there is some metal working in the manu- can jurisdiction, a school has been established facture of chisels, knives, etc., and weaving for on the island. (4) A town, capital of the Sulu home consumption. The chief industry from Archipelago, situated on the northwest coast the commercial standpoint is pearl and pearl of Sulu Island, 540 miles south of Manila. It shell fishing, large quantities of pearl shell was the ancient residence of the Sulu sultans, especially being exported; other exports are but scarcely a trace of the ancient Moro town shark's fins, beche de mer and native cordage. remains; the present town was built in 1878 by The trade is largely in the hands of the the Spaniards. It is surrounded by a wall, Chinese. The forests contain many of the most within which the town is regularly laid out, valuable woods of the East. The people of with three principal streets, broad and well
shaded. The houses are mostly well built and sumac (R. copallina), similar in size to the there is a large modern market house. It is above species, and like them having panicles the chief town and chief port of the Sulu of bloom succeeded by scarlet masses of drupes, Archipelago and carries on a large trade with is more bushy in growth, forming low thickets Singapore and Manila, as well as a native inter- in sandy or dry, almost sterile soil, and is island trade. In the channel between the road- peculiar in that the main stem of its compound stead and Maroñgas is a pearl oyster bed, leaves bears coriaceous wings between the which employs a large number of fishing boats leaflets. The latter are shining above, and and the town is the centre of this industry. pubescent beneath, and, like those of R. glabra,
when dried are material for tanning. They SULZBERGER, Mayer, German-Ameri
are, however, said to be inferior to those of can jurist: b. Heidelsheim, Germany, 22 June the Rhus coriaria, native to and cultivated in 1843; d. Philadelphia, Pa., 20 April 1923. Dur
the Mediterranean regions, which are especially ing the Revolution of 1848 his father came to
valuable for tanning fine leathers, as the lightAmerica with his wife and family, settling in
tinted moroccos. They are collected, dried, Philadelphia in 1849. He received his early and exported in great quantities in the shape education at the public schools where he gradu- of a fine dust. The Venetian sumac, or smokeated in 1859 from the Central High School, tree, is also used for the same purpose. (See being at the same time an apt pupil at home in
SMOKE-TREE). The sumacs Hebrew language and literature. On 16 Sept: tree shrubs to the Indians of the western United
are very useful 1865 he was admitted to the bar, where his career was brilliant and his commanding abilities matic sumac, having small three-lobed leaves,
States. The twigs of Rhus trilobata, the aroreceived their recognition on his appointment
are soaked, scraped and split, resoaked in water, as judge of the Court of Common Pleas (1895–1915), and presiding, judge (1902–15); conjunction with other materials
. These light,
and then woven into baskets., sometimes in Judge Sulzberger edited The Occident for a
straw-colored withes are used probably more year after its founder's death, was tendered the
than any material except the willows for position of United States Minister to Turkey
native basketry. R. diversiloba, the poisonduring President Harrison's administration but
oak, although greatly dreaded by the Cherokees, declined the honor, was prominently identified
who endeavor to conciliate it by addressing it with Jewish charities and instructions, and was
as “my friend," does not seem to injure certain a trustee of the Baron de Hirsch Fund. He is the author of "Am ha-Aretz (the ancient
Californian tribes so much. They even use it Hebrew Parliament) (1909); (The Polity of
as medicine, sometimes poisoning themselves the Ancient Hebrews) (1912); The Ancient internally by the practice
, and use iwigs of it as
water-sprinklers in sacred ceremonies; it is Hebrew Law of Homicide! (1915).
also a material for woven fabrics. Its juice, SUMAC, any shrub or tree of the genus
which turns black rapidly on exposure to air, Rhus. Some species are poisonous to the
is utilized as an intense black dye for basketry. touch. (See PLANTS, POISONOUS). One of the
R. trilobata likewise yields a dye. A strong most common innocent eastern species of
decoction of the leaves and twigs is made, to America, and the largest, is Rhus hirta, the
which is added roasted pinyon gum and yellow staghorn sumac, so called because its young,
ochre, forming a rich, blue-black fluid, which short branches are covered with down, in color
is practically an ink, the tannic acid of the
sumac combining with the iron in the yellow and texture not unlike a deer's antlers in the velvet.” The trees are not more than 30 feet
ochre, and being strengthened with the carbon
of the burnt gum. The lacquer or varnish of high, but are apt to grow in clumps and have
China and Japan is nothing but the sap of a tropical appearance, with their long pinnate
another sumac (R. vernicifera) or varnish-tree, leaves turning to vivid yellow and crimson in
cultivated in those countries. When the bark autumn. Their autumnal beauty is further en
is cut, the shrub exudes a juice, darkening after hanced by the torch-like panicles of fruits,
exposure. When kept for some time this sap small drupes matted together by the crimson
becomes thick and viscous, blackish-brown in plush of the hairs that cover them in to pyra- color in one mass, but yellow-brown and transmidal bunches terminating the branches. These parent in thin layers. When properly applied fruit-masses remain throughout the winter, and in successive layers and dried, it becomes a are a favorite food of chickadees, in spite of the natural varnish of great hardness and unalfur and the acidulous taste. The sour flavor
terability. Nut galls, or iron in solution, added was taken advantage of by the Indians and
to this, or gold and other metals, make the colonists who made a cooling drink from the various kinds of lacquer or japanning, which plant. The crimson hairs also yielded a red it often takes years to perfect. Japan wax is dye, when immersed in boiling water. The a vegetable wax used chiefly for candles and wood is yellow and handsomely veined, but is obtained by crushing, steaming and pressing very brittle; it is, however, occasionally made the drupes of this species and of the Asiatic into canes. The fragrant, or sweet-scented
R. succedanca. sumac (Rhus crenata), is a low shurb with SUMATRA, soo-mä'trą, an island in the aromatic leaves and large panicles of greenish, Indian Seas immediately under the equator. honey-scented flowers which bloom in spring Its extreme limits are lat. 5° 45' N., and 5° and are a famous foo for es. R. glabra 55' S.; long. 90° 40' E., and 106° 5' E. In the is the upland or smooth sumac, which is smooth direction of its greatest length it extends from and even glaucous; its leaves were added to northwest to southeast. Its greatest length is the tobacco of the aborigines; and an efficient about 1,000 miles, and its greatest breadth about gargle is made from the refrigerant and as- 260 miles; its area is about 161,600 square miles. 'tringent drupes. The dwarf black or mountain It ranks in magnitude as the second of the
Asiatic islands, Borneo being the first, The zoin and gutta-percha. Pepper is the chief culpopulation is about 4,000,000.
tivated product. Sago and rice are also cultiTopography.- The west side of the island vated, and excellent tobacco and coffee are is mountainous, but the east side has a totally grown for export. The fauna of Sumatra in different character, and spreads out into inter- some respects resembles that of Borneo more minable plains nearly as level as the sea. The closely than that of the countries with which mountains viewed from the west appear at first it is almost in contact. The elephant and the view to form a continuous ridge, but a closer tapir, frequent in Sumatra, are unknown in examination reveals breaks in the chain, and Java. The former island has the two-horned, discloses the fact that two or three ridges lie the latter a single-horned rhinoceros. The behind that which is mainly seen from the orang-utan is found locally. The tiger occurs coast. This chain, known generally as Barisan, both in Sumatra and Java, but not in Borneo; extends from the northwest of the island to Sumatra has also some species of deer and anteSunda Strait. The islands of Pulo Bras and lope, the sunbear, a peculiar kind of hare, and Pulo Wai really form detached parts of it, and the muntjac. The most notable birds are the near them, at the northwestern end of the is- Argus pheasant, several trogons, bush-shrikes, land, it attains a height of 5,663 feet in Mount rain-birds, pheasant-cuckoos, etc. Of the doYamura. Farther south, but still in Achinese mesticated animals the most important by far territory, are the lofty volcanoes Abong-Abong is the pig, next to which rank the cow and the and Lusé, whose heights are estimated at over horse. The buffalo is more frequent in the low 11,000 and 12,000 feet respectively. Mount country, but is only valued as food, and never Ophir, close to the equator, is an extinct vol- yoked for labor as in Java. The horse of the cano 9,610 feet above sea-level. Not far to the highlands is small, but vigorous and capable south is Mount Merapi, one of the most violent of enduring much fatigue. of Sumatran volcanoes. Other notable peaks Government.--- The authority of the Dutch are: Talang (8,343), an extinct volcano, from extends, nominally at least, over the greater which the natives obtain sulphur; Indrapura part of the island, and may be considered to be (12,000), the highest peak yet ascended in Su- real over all the coast districts. In the interior, matra; Mount Paung; Mount Kaba (5,413); however, there are still considerable tracts unMount Dempo (10,562), an active volcano; and der native rulers, or forming village confederaMount Tangkamus (7,422), near the Straits of tions, over which the Dutch exercise little or no Sunda. Granite, slates, clay-schists and sim- authority. The Dutch possessions are divided ilar rocks abound, and limestones of Carbonif- into six chief divisions. The government of the erous age occupy much of the surface. The west coast, with an area calculated at 31,649 Tertiary formations cover a very large area. square miles, extends along the middle portion All the peaks seem to be volcanic. Various of the west coast, and includes Padang and metals have been found in the island, and ex- other districts. The governor resides at Pacellent coal is known to be abundant.
dang. The residency of Benkulen lies to the Rivers and Lakes. The rivers that flow south of that of the west coast, and has an toward the west are naturally short and of area of 9,399 square miles, Benkulen being the small importance for navigation, but those trav- capital. The residency of Lampong comprises ersing the broad alluvial eastern slopes are the southern districts of the island on the Strait long and deep. Many of them form large del- of Sunda, and has an area of 11,284 square tas. In order from south to north the most miles. The residency of Palembang on the east important are: the Musi or Palembang, about coast, with an area of 53,497 square miles, lies 400 miles long, passing the town of Palembang to the north of Lampong, and has as its capital and entering the sea opposite the island of the large town of Palembang. The district of Banka, an important highway for trade; the Indragiri, farther north, belongs to the resiJambi or Batang-Hari, over 500 miles long, dency of Riou, which is named after the island and navigable throughout most of its length of that name. Farther north is the residency important as an outlet for the chief coal-fields; of the east coast, its area being estimated at the Indragiri; the Kampar; the Siak, rising 35,312 square miles; and at the extreme northnear Mount Ophir; the Rakan and the Batu west that of Achin, which still remains semiBara. Of the west-coast rivers the Singkel independent, area 20,471 square miles. is the most important. The lakes of Sumatra Racial Characteristics.— Sumatra is inhabare mostly mountain lakes, and not a few of ited by a very mixed population. Malays colthem occupy the craters of extinct volcanoes. lected from every quarter of the archipelago The largest are: Toba, 500 square miles in inhabit the coast. Hindus appear to have setarea, at the source of the Singkel River; Sing- tled at an early age in the north, and to have kara and Maringin, about the centre of the modified the Malay type of the Achinese. The island near the west coast; Korinchi, near In- Arabs in the island, though few in number, drapura; and Danau. Sumatra is almost bi- have always formed an important class. Chisected by the equator, and in consequence the are numerous, particularly on the east monsoons of its northern extremity have differ- coast. Northwest of Palembang the Orangent directions from those of the southern end. Kubu live in a savage state, and shun any interDuring the periods when the monsoon is chang- course with the neighboring tribes. The Oranging, navigation in the neighboring waters is Kubu must not be confounded with the people impeded by squalls. The climate is generally of Menankabu, a pure Malay race inhabiting of the usual tropical character, and is on the the highlands of Padang, which some are diswhole rather unhealthy.
posed to consider the original seat of the Malay Flora and Fauna.— The flora of Sumatra stock. The Battaks are a peculiar and interdiffers much from that of Java. It is very rich esting race. Like the Malays they are of short in forest trees, many of which yield valuable stature, but they differ from the former in betimber or other useful products, such as ben- ing strongly built and well proportioned. The