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He then records on what is called "subject section cards" his choice of subjects for the next term, and by definite instructions of class officers under supervision of program committee the student also records the appropriate period numbers. All of this is checked by the class officer with permanent record sheets.

The cards are then turned over to the program committee, who proceed to assign the definite classes to be attended. This is done by a plan of period table committees of two men each, attended by a sorting and resorting of the cards by subjects, until every subject has been recorded. This work is completed by Friday of that week.

Chapter III.



The plan outlined herewith has been used in the preparation of a general schedule for the Detroit Southwestern High School for five semesters. The use of this plan was brought about by crowded conditions, necessity for maximum teacher load, and the change from eight 45-minute periods to seven 60-minute periods with supervised study:

1. Pupils make their election of subjects in consultation with faculty adviser by the twelfth week. A blank is used divided in two by perforation. One-half has space for studies of the present semester, with a division at the bottom for the indication of subjects for the new semester with columns for periods and room numbers. The other half of the blank is the pupil's schedule form or class certificate. Having conferred with the faculty adviser, the pupil writes his proposed subjects on the blank and fills out a class card for each period of the school day, indicating thereon the subjects (gymnasium, study, or lunch, as the case may be). Each card contains data in the order as follows:




The number indicates the pupil's home room. These cards are attached to the pupil's blank with a paper fastener. A pupil will hand to his adviser his blank with attached cards, and if the school session is one of seven periods there will be seven cards, one for each

of the following as a typical case: English, 2; algebra, 2; history, 2; shop, 2; gymnasium; lunch; study. If there are any subjects which do not meet five times a week more than one card is used to complete the period.

2. Home-room teachers tabulate and consolidate proposed subjects and send the same to office by the end of the fourteenth week. 3. From office a survey is made to ascertain the number of incoming pupils. Consolidation of tabulations for the school is made and the number of sections for each subject is determined. The general schedule is then laid out on a schedule frame. The frame is very similar to the so-called post-office filing frames. It contains openings or boxes large enough to receive class cards. Each period is represented by a horizontal row of openings, the first row being the first period, the second row the second period, and so on. (For compactness the arrangement may be reversed and the periods represented by vertical rows.) Under each opening a card is stuck giving subject and course number for the class to be represented.

4. Home-room teachers, at their convenience, using the general schedule frame, assign periods to the pupils' proposed subjects on the pupils' blanks. As each subject, study, or lunch is assigned, the proper class card is filed in the class box. Teachers are directed to keep sections even, if possible, and confer with the assistant principal in case difficulties are encountered. The assistant principal marks any section receiving its full number of cards closed and makes any changes if such are deemed necessary in the arrangement of the schedule. Room numbers may be indicated on the board so that they may be recorded on the pupil's schedule at this time. Home-room teachers are instructed not to assign sure failures but to use their judgment in doubtful cases. All this is completed by the end of the sixteenth week.

5. Teacher assignments are made by the end of the seventeenth week, and if room assignments have not been made they are also made at that time. It is best to make teacher and room assignments at the same time. It is the practice to assign teachers and rooms the seventeenth week because if there is any manipulation on the general schedule board periods only are affected. After teacher and room assignment, a copy of the general schedule by subjects, alphabetically arranged and showing period and room numbers, is given to each teacher. The home-room teacher usually has pupils transfer to the class certificate from the proposed subject division of the blank the subjects with assigned periods. The pupils then can copy from the general schedule the proper room number for each


6. Incoming pupils' schedules are made out the twentieth week.

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7. Semester examinations terminate on the third day from the end of the semester. Teachers are required to hand to each home-room teacher a list of the failures in the group by 9 a. m. of the day next to the last day of the semester. Home-room teachers have that day to adjust failures. Late the same day, the teachers assemble and are given the class cards from the schedule frame so that each teacher has data for class lists.

8. Classes run one-half periods the first day of the new semester and on the second day full periods are held.

To summarize the steps:

Step 1. Pupil makes his election of subjects in consultation with faculty adviser by end of twelfth week.

Step 2. Home-room teachers tabulate and consolidate elections and send same to principal's office, fourteenth week.

Step 3. Survey of incoming pupils. From tabulations, the number of sections for each subject is determined and the program built by assigning subjects and sections to periods, fifteenth week.

Step 4. By a "pigeonhole" system (using the classification and a card with pupil's name and home room on it for each subject) pupils are assigned to classes, classes are equalized, and conflicts adjusted, sixteenth week.

Step 5. Teacher and room assignments are made on the program, seventeenth week.

Step 6. Room assignments are made on pupils' classification and the pupil's program is ready for his use the first day of the new semester.

Step 7. Incoming pupils' programs are made out the twentieth week.

Step 8. Failures are disregarded up to the end of the twentieth week, when adjustments are then made.

Step 9. Classes run on half-hour periods the first day of the new semester, and on the second day full 60-minute periods are held and continue throughout the semester.

Chapter IV.


The method of schedule routine used in the Barbour Intermediate School of Detroit is workable where it is possible to divide the pupils into groups electing the same subjects. The Barbour plan may be divided into several quite distinct steps. The steps listed below are not necessarily carried out independently of each other:



Step 1. The school territory is surveyed to ascertain the number of entering pupils. This survey gathers information of three types-numbers, grades, and sex. This survey is made by studying the enrollment of the schools which contribute pupils to the intermediate school.

Step 2. The choice of school courses is ascertained from the pupils who will advance in the school-for instance, the eighth and ninth graders. The pupils' choices are made based on talks explaining courses, literature bearing on the subject, and parental advice. A separate card is made out for each pupil which contains his name, age, grade, and choice of courses. These cards are then sorted so as to place all pupils making the same choice of courses into the same general group.

Step 3. The general groups are divided into class groups, by the use of intelligence tests and teacher judgment. The groups are called 7B1, 7B2, 7B3, etc., where the 7 designates the grade, B the class, and the last number the section.

Step 4. The number of teachers needed for each of these activities is ascertained. Since each group, for example. has a social-science class each day, the number of social-science classes reciting during the day is equal to the number of groups in the school. And since, furthermore, each social-science teacher is expected to hear five classes per day, it is easy to calculate how many social-science teachers will be needed for this school. Likewise, the number of teachers needed in each of the other activities is calculated.

Step 5. A schedule board or form is made. This contains two distinct parts; the one part which shows the program of the pupil groups, the other the program of the teachers.

Step 6. Pupil groups are assigned to home rooms.

Step 7. Pupil groups are assigned to home-room teachers. So long as the pupil group is intact it is best to assign a given pupil group to the same home-room teacher each successive semester.

Step 8. Assignments are made to all groups first where two or more groups meet for the same activity. The activities at Barbour require such assignments as auditorium, health education, and lunch. This step is necessary because it seems wise to choose certain groups to mingle together in these activities.

Step 9. Taking one group at a time, the remaining classes are assigned. The classes are assigned to teachers in this same procedure. By assigning teachers as the program proceeds the situation of assigning a mathematics class to a group and having no mathematics teacher available at that particular hour is avoided. Furthermore, when all the assignments are made for pupils, the same will have been done for the teachers.

Step 10. The schedule should be as flexible as possible in order to overcome irregularities. Since there are no study halls, and the pupils have no vacant hours, this is not an easy task. This may be done in large measure, however, by schedule. For example, have a 7B history class each hour of the day, a 7B mathematic class each hour of the day, etc., for each of the grades.

Step 11. From the large school program the teachers make out individual pupil programs, all pupils in a given group having approximately the same program. If this work is completed before the first day in the new term, it will be possible for the school to open its full and operate a complete schedule on the first day of the


Chapter V.


The following questions are answered on the basis of the returns from 21 high schools, enrolling approximately 1,000 students each.


Cicero, Ill., J. Sterling Morton High.

Chicago, Ill., Joseph .Medill High.

Decatur, Ill., Decatur High.

Denver, Colo., East Side Denver High.
Des Moines, Iowa, North High.
Detroit, Mich., Eastern High.
Detroit, Mich., Southwestern High.
Detroit, Mich., Barbour Intermediate.
Fon du Lac, Wis., Fon du Lac High.
Grand Rapids, Mich., Central High.
Grand Rapids, Mich., South High.
Grand Rapids, Mich., Union High.

Highland Park, Mich., Highland Park High.

Janesville, Wis., Janesville High.

Kalamazoo, Mich., Central High.

Kenilworth, Ill., New Trier Township High.

Moline, Ill., Moline High.

Muskegon, Mich., Muskegon High.

Muskegon, Mich., Hackley Manual Training School.

Rock Island, Ill., Rock Island High.

St. Joseph, Mo., Central High.

St. Louis, Mo., McKinley High.

Toledo, Ohio, Woodward Technical High.

Topeka, Kans., Topeka High.

What administrative heads or others are responsible for the planning and making of the program?

The following were reported responsible in the indicated cases: Ten schools-the principal.

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