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fluenced all the succeeding generations; Boileau and La Fontaine the poets, still widely read after nearly three centuries; Bossuet, Bourdaloue and Flechier the orators, among the greatest of history; La Rochefoucauld and La Bruyère as moralists are still living forces, and La Rochefoucauld is almost more quoted than any author since his time. Fenclon has a place by himself and it is very high. The period also saw the development of a school of romance, mainly of women writers. Madame de Sévigné wrote French prose while coteries of immortal French literary ladies made literature a fashion, though little of their work has survived. Mademoiselle de Scudéry's writings had an immense vogue and probably suggested the comic romance of Scarron and some other romantic developments. Madame de la Fayette wrote in the Princess of Treves,' a story that anticipates our modern fiction in many ways.

Three philosophers who have notably affected human thinking ever since wrote at that time. Descartes (1596-1650), who probably has influenced modern philosophy more deeply than any other, was distinguished as a mathematician, but put that aside to spend 20 years in retirement in Holland (near Leyden) elaborating his system of philosophy. He began hy doubting everything, even his own existence, but his "I think, therefore, I am,” became for him the foundation of certiiude. Spinoza (1632–77) was the greatest modern expounder of Pantheism. He was descended from Portuguese Jews and made his living as a lensgrinder in Amsterdam. His metaphysical speculations were founded on Descartes, who had gone into philosophic retirement not far from where Spinoza also retired when he gave lip his occupation to write out his Pantheistic theories. Pascal (1623–62) was like Descartes, first a mathematician and then a philosopher. He is famous for his prose style. He died before his magnum opus, an apology for Christianity, was completed. All that we have of it is the Pensées,' thoughts on great subjects.

The century proved a great period in the history of mathematics. Kepler succeeded Tycho Brahe as mathematician-astronomer to the Emperor Rudolph (1602). In working out Tycho's observations he deduced the great laws that bear his name. Galileo's discoveries opened further occasions for mathematics. Cassini's tables of the motions of Jupiter's moons led to his invitation to the observatory in Paris, and the Cassinis continued for generations as successful workers in astronomy and mathematics. Descartes and Pascal graduated from mathematics into philosophy and carried the modes of their previous discipline into the

sphere of thought. The Bernoullis, Jacques and Jcan were followed in succo

ccceding generations, like the Cassinis, by grcat mathematicians. Jacques Bernoulli (1654–1705) solved the isoperimetrical problem and discovered the properties of the logarithinic spiral. The two greatest mathematicians of the century are Leibnitz (1646–1716) and Newton (1642– 1727). Leibnitz was the inventor of the differential and integral calculus (independently discovered by Newton), and was also a writer of influence on philosophy. Newton's astro

nomical mathematics, depending on the determination of the length of a degree on the earth's surface by Picard in Paris (1671), made him famous. His Principia Mathematica was presented to the Royal Society (1086) and published the following year.

The name of the period around which everrecurring controversy has centred is that of Galileo (1564-1642) the physicist-astronomer. He invented the thermometer, discovered the isochronism of the pendulum and the hydrostatic balance and the barometer.

His great invention was the telescope, with which he discovered Jupiter's moons (1610). For teaching in opposition to all the mathematicians and astronomers of his time that the Copernican theory is the only tenable doctrine of the hcavens though his reasons for it have all since been contradicted, and Copernicanism is now held on entirely other grounds. Galileo was compelled by the Inquisition to abjure his Copernican teaching in 1633. He was disciplined but not imprisoned, and prominent ecclesiastics continued to be his friends. His long life considered as a whole was one of the most serene and enviable in the history of science (Bertrand, Perpetual Secretary Paris Academy of Science). His trial at Rome has been taken as the symbol of Church opposition to science, but as it is practically the only case in some six centuries, Cardinal Newman emphasized the fact that it had just the opposite sig, nificance, and was the exception which proved the rule of Church relations to science as favorable. Galileo himself continued to be a faithful and even devout Catholic.

The century stands out in the history of art, with two of the greatest artists of all time Rembrandt (1607-69) and Velasquez (1599– 1660). Admiration for the work of these men has grown ever since. A series of great painters, besides Rembrandt in the Netherlands and the contemporaries of Velasquez in Spain, are noteworthy. Rubens (1577-1640) did his best work in this century, and his pupil Van Dyke (1599-1641) belongs entirely to it. His greatest work was done in the fourth decade of the century in England. Ruysdael, Hobbema, Paul Potter, Vermeer, Teniers and others maintained the primacy of the Netherlands in painting during this century. Besides Velasquez there were in Spain many who reached distinction and that distinction has grown in recent years. The best known among them are Zurbaran, Murillo and Ribera. In France, though the French were under the influence of the Italians, such names as Nicolas Poussin and Claude (Lorrain) are forever famous.

Sweden came to occupy a very important place in European politics during this century. King Gustav Adolf (Gustavus Adolphus) intervened in the Thirty Years' War to prevent the further aggrandizement of the Hapsburgs. The Swedes looked upon the Baltic as a Swedish lake and their supremacy seemed imperiled. After the fall of Magdeburg, 1631, when that city was stormed by Tilly and given up to pillage, the Protestant princes of Germany, alarmed, united with the Swedish king. Tilly was defeated at Breitenfeld (Leipzig) 1631, and again the following year, when he was fatally wounded. The emperor had to turn to Wallenstein, who had been in disgrace. Under him a

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SEVENTEENTH CENTURY

waste.

battle was fought with the Swedes at Luetzen four great wars, three of them in this century in Saxony, which the Swedes won, but at the that about the Spanish Netherlands (1657– fatal price of their king. Wallenstein fell un- 68), that of the Protestant Netherlands (1672– der the suspicion of the emperor who caused 78), that of the League of Augsburg (1688-97). him to be assassinated (1634). After this the He succeeded in extending his rule over certain later part of the Thirty Years' War became a Flemish towns, but his war with Holland political struggle between the house of Bour- proved a failure, the sturdy Dutch cutting the bon and the house of Austria, though for a dikes, flooding their country, making the French time it had seemed to be a war on religious army useless and driving the French fleet from grounds between Catholics and Protestants. the seas. Louis seized the free town of StrassThe Treaty of Westphalia, which ended the burg (1681) without provocation and thus exwar, established the principles of balance of tended his kingdom to the Rhine. He revoked power in Europe, which has been the source of the Edict of Nantes which guaranteed religious so much disaffection and so many wars since. freedom to the French Protestants, but only

On the death of Gustavus Adolphus, his succeeded in depriving France of many worthy daughter Christina, but six years old, succeeded citizens, some of whom sought refuge in Amerunder a regency. At the age of 18 she assumed ica to be sturdy upholders of liberty, and others the government, at once concluded the war with in the Transvaal and the Orange Free State Denmark and hastened the conclusion of the to be the backbone of independence there. A Thirty Years' War in Germany. She had the League of Nations was formed against Louis, genius of her father but applied it to peace, embracing not only the Protestant countries, of and all his virtues and some of his faults. She England, Holland and Sweden, but also most patronized literature and philosophy, brought of the Catholic powers of Europe, including Descartes to Sweden and tried to bring order Spain and the emperor. The war lasted 11 out of the chaos at home and abroad. Dissatis- years.

The French made important conquests fied, she secured the election of her cousin but were unable to hold them and laid them Charles Gustavus as her successor, abdicated in

At the end of the war, all parties gave 1654 and embraced the Roman Catholic faith. up the territory they had won, though Louis She settled in Rome, where she became the succeeded in retaining Strassburg. patroness of letters and science and collected a

The most interesting character of the cengreat library which was afterward incorporated tury is Oliver Cromwell. The son of a simple with that of the Vatican,

country gentleman, educated at Cambridge, he The beginning of the century saw a series was returned by his university to the Short and of contradictory movements begin. The Jesuits Long Parliaments. He became captain of a established their Reductions in Paraguay, Parliamentary company of horse in 1642, and where a solution of the social problems of life then colonel. He organized a regiment which, for savage peoples was probably best presented on account of its invincible courage, was known in history. About the same time the Roman- as the Ironsides. He was a prominent member offs became tsars of Russia to continue absolu- of the High Court that signed the death wartism until well on in the 20th century. In 1620 rant of Charles I. His position in the army slavery was introduced by the sale of African gave him a controlling voice in the government, negroes in Virginia and the Pilgrims landed on and after his expedition to Ireland (1649), he Plymouth Rock.

was made commander-in-chief. Later, defeatFrance became the dominant power in Eu- ing the Scotch (1651), and expelling the Rump rope during this century. This was largely due Parliament, he was made Lord Protector of to the genius of Richelieu, but also to his al- the Commonwealth (1653). He ruled practimost complete disregard for any law, human or cally alone. He was a benevolent autocrat who divine, that opposed his ambitions for his coun- labored "to make England great and to make try. He intrigued with Protestants when that her worthy of greatness. His autocracy was suited his purpose, was the champion of Cath- tempered by his manifest desire to rule England olicism on occasion, oppressed the nation at in accordance with Scriptural precepts. He had home and schemed abroad - the type of states- the vindictiveness of the Old Testament deep in man praised because he put the state above his character. His treatment of the Irish put every other consideration." He aimed to make an indelible stain on his memory. Over half a the power of France supreme in Europe and to million of them were killed or banished. The make the king absolute in France. By intrigue, best lands of the island were confiscated and by diplomacy, by every other means, he suc- granted to English and Scotch settlers. The ceeded in these ambitious projects. He crushed famous Cromwellian settlement is called the the Huguenots, suppressed the aristocracy and curse of Cromwell” by the Irish. Disaffection wiped out the local assemblies and courts with has existed ever since. As Lord Protector, their old privileges. He did not live to see Cromwell ruled firmly and secured the respect France the leading power of Europe, but his of foreign countries and peace and prosperity policy carried out, proved successful in the at home. He made England the leading Prothands of others. When Louis XIII died, his estant country and interposed wherever Protson Louis XIV was but five years of age. He estantism on the Continent needed an ally. He reigned 68 years. It looked as though, under a protected the Huguenots, won the Duke of Savoy child ruler, France might lose her prestige, but to stop the persecution of the Vaudois and opCardinal Mazarin continued Richelieu's policies, posed the political policies of France and Spain loading France with the taxes that eventually except when they might favor Protestantism. brought the Revolution in its train, to do so. Confident that the Pope was responsible for When Mazarin died, Louis at 23 at once took all opposition to Protestantism, he had him inthe government into his own hands. For more formed that unless there was peace, the sound than 50 years he was his own Prime Minister of English guns would be heard in Rome. and gave attention to every detail. He waged When he died unexpectedly of influenza (1658), he was succeeded as Lord Protector by his I am the state," -- but his career exemplified son Richard, timid and without resolution, who that motto. Since Henry VIII's time, the diyielded to the disaffection of the army and re- vine right of a monarch in England had besigned his office the next year. Anarchy seemed come more explicit and was formally claimed by in prospect, but General Monk, commander of James I and the Stuarts after him. The second the army in Scotland, took control and the half of the 17th century brought with it the Long Parliament restored the Stuarts in the beginning of the reaction against this exaggeraperson of the son of Charles I. Charles II tion of the place of royal authority and thorwas received with the heartiest of welcomes. oughly prepared for the revolutionary moveHis reign saw a long reaction against the ments of the next century. gloomy Puritanism of the preceding generation, With the beginning of this century, English during which morality sank to a low ebb, the America comes into history. The settlement of drama declined, women appeared as actresses Jamestown, Virginia (1607); of the Pilgrims and literature became a pander. England suf- in Massachusetts (1620); of the Dutch in New fered severely from plague (1665) and the York (1621); of the Swedes in New Jersey great fire in London (1666) wiped out most (1633); of Lord Baltimore and his colony in of the town but gave opportunity for recon- Maryland (1634) and of the Quakers in struction, with widened streets and created much Pennsylvania (1681), are the important events more healthful conditions. Sir Christopher of this period. All of the colonies suffered Wren was put in charge of the reconstruction much from the Indians except Pennsylvania, and built a number of handsome buildings. where William Penn paid them for their land Great dread existed lest Roman Catholics gain and always treated them fairly. Most of the any power in England and the announcement colonies developed slowly but by the beginning of the discovery of a Popish plot (1678) to of the 18th century, had begun to show some kill all Protestants, beginning with the king signs of the power they were to be. Unfortuand Parliament, caused great excitement. In- nately the colonists brought with them all the formers came forward to testify and Titus prejudices of their former European environOates, particularly, gained notoriety. Many ment. Even those who had been driven from Catholics, convicted on the testimony of per- Europe by religious persecutions refused to perjured witnesses, were condemned.

The re

mit religious liberty in America. Only the vulsion of feeling over the injustice done led Quakers in Philadelphia allowed freedom of to the Habeas Corpus Act (1679) which has worship. As a result, Philadelphia, though stood ever since as the safeguard of personal latest founded and situated far from the sea, liberty all over the English-speaking world. soon became the largest city of the colonies and

The hero of the century is John Sobieski, the centre of their cultural and commercial life. the brave king of Poland (1629-96). He had Massachusetts grew very rapidly, receiving risen by merit to the command of the Polish some 20,000 immigrants before the middle of army when Poland was the most important the century, and Harvard College, the first colcountry in central Europe and had been espe- legiate institution in English America until the cially successful against the Cossacks and 18th century, was founded in 1638. The first Tartars, encroaching on the frontiers. Later, book printed in the English colonies was the when the Turks invaded Poland, he won sev- Massachusetts Bay Psalm Book (1639). eral battles from them and his crowning victory The great social worker of the century, the of Chocim cost them 20,000 men and many guns. type of social reformer that was to come, is He became a national hero and was unani- Vincent de Paul (b. 1576; d. 1660), perhaps mously elected king (1674). His reign was the greatest benefactor of the poor that ever occupied in battling with the Turks. Finding lived. Ordained priest at 25, he was captured it vain to attack the Poles, the Turks turned by Turkish pirates shortly afterward and sold in against Austria, laid siege to Vienna, from

Tunis as a slave. After two years, he escaped which the Emperor Leopold fled, after implor- with his master, a renegade Christian, whom ing Sobieski's help. In spite of political rea- he brought back to his religion. After this exsons to the contrary and Louis XIV's counsel perience, the one ambition of his life was to against it, Sobieski at once went to the rescue do good to those in need. The poor in the and with an army of scarcely more than 75,000 country places in France were sadly neglected men, defeated some 300,000 Turks and saved little better than slaves on the land. He orVienna. The victory was largely due to the ganized missions and conferences of charity for prestige of Sobieski's name, for the Turks their benefit. By his enthusiastic and yet stood their ground until they heard that «The thoroughly practical ways, he won to his aid a Northern Lion” was on the field, when they number of distinguished patrons. Then he took lost courage and broke in confusion.

up the care of the convicts in the galleys. What has been called the political revolu- While on land, they were crowded, in chains, in tion of modern times begins after the peace of damp dungeons, their only food black bread and Westphalia (1648). For the next century and water, and they were covered with vermin and a half the seeds of political disaffection grew ulcers. He went among them, bringing them 10 reach fruition in the French Revolution food, medicines and, above all, human solace. (1789). The revolutionary spirit was fostered Nothing was repulsive to him and he dressed by the frequent wars of the time, so many of the ugliest of wounds. He began his work in them undertaken merely for the benefit of par- Paris and when it attracted the attention of the ticular reigning families, that the period has king, Louis XIII, and he was appointed Royal been called in history the era of dynastic Almoner, he took advantage of the position to wars. The culmination of arbitrary power visit Marseilles and Bordeaux. In each place centred in one man was reached in Louis XIV a hospital was erected for the convicts. Their of France, who may not have used the expres- moral regeneration was even more his care than sion attributed to him often «L'État c'est moi their physical improvement. He recognized the

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need of special training for the assistants in such social work for the missions and charities, and so he established an association for this purpose. He gathered around him as an auxiliary a number of ladies of the nobility of France, organized as the Ladies of Charity. Through them he collected immense sums of money which were distributed to the poor. Foundling children were his special care, particularly after he discovered that sometimes they were deliberately deformed by scoundrels who thus appealed to public pity. nicipal asylum for foundlings was little better than a place for them to die. The 17th century was a time of war, with poverty rife, and the children suffering above all, so Vincent next organized the Daughters of Charity, young women who were willing to devote their lives to social service. This foundation still exists as the well-known Sisters of Charity, all over the world. Poverty became so bitter that Vincent had to organize for the shelter and employment of some 40,000 unemployed near and around Paris. His reputation and prestige enabled him to get the needed help. The king granted the lands of the Salpetrière for a hospital and lodgings. In what is known as the French Period of the Thirty Years' War, the war zone, as in our own time, was in Lorraine, FrancheComté and Champagne, around Metz, Toul and Verdun, for nearly 25 years. Vincent came to the assistance of the poor people there, secured hundreds of thousands of dollars at a time when money was worth five or six times as much as

He established a periodical, Le Magasin Charitable, in order to publish accounts of what was done, to call attention to special needs, and touch the hearts of others by letters received from those helped. He founded a series of public kitchens to feed the poor, and also to instruct them how to prepare their food economically and advantageously. He himself gave minute instructions as to the quantity of fat, butter, vegetables and bread people should use and the mode of preparing the soup:

He founded societies to bury the dead and clear away dirt to prevent disease. These were under the Sisters of Charity. He distributed seeds so that the war-stricken people might prepare their harvest. The triumph of his charity is the foundation of a special organization for the relief of the impoverished nobility. In the midst of all this work, he lived to be 85 years of age and wrote some 30,000 important letters, all of them without exception for some good purpose for others.

JAMES J.

now.

1629. Cardinal Richelieu becomes Prime Minister of France. 1631. Battle of Leipzig. 1632. Death of Gustavus Adolphus at the battle of Lutzen. 1641. The Irish rebellion and massacre of Protestants. 1642. Civil war begins in England. Battle of Edgehill. 1643. Louis XIV of France begins to reign. Wars of the

Fronde. 1644. Cromwell's victory at Marston Moor over the English

royalist forces. The Chinese Ming dynasty over

thrown and the Manchu rule established. 1645. Complete defeat at Naseby of King Charles of England. 1648, End of Thirty Years' War. 1649, Charles I of England beheaded. 1653. Cromwell becomes lord protector of England. 1660. The English restoration. Charles II becomes king of

Great Britain. Death of the great social reformer

of the century, Vincent de Paul. 1665. The great plague of London in which 68,000 persons

died. 1666. The great fire of London which in three days de

stroyed 13,000 houses. 1667. French invade the Netherlands. 1668. The peace of Aix-la-Chapelle. 1678. The habeas corpus act passed in England. 1683. The Turks capture Vienna. 1685. James II becomes king of Great Britain. The New

tonean philosophy first published. Revocation of

the edict of Nantes. 1688. War of the Spanish succession. Revolution in Great

Britain. James II abdicates 1689. Peter the Great becomes tsar of Russia. William and

Mary crowned rulers of Great Britain. 1690. The Battle of the Boyne. 1092. The Massacre of Glencoe. 1097. Charles XII becomes king of Sweden. The peace of

Ryswick. 1700. The grandson of Louis XIV of France succeeds to the

Spanish throne. SEVENTH CENTURY. The outstanding events of this century centre around the rise of Mohammedanism or Islam (submission to God). From a small town in Arabia it spread over Asia to the Indus, through northern Africa, then to Spain and across the Pyrenees into southern France within a century. Mohammed, born at Mecca in Arabia, was a camel driver. He was a young man who was brought in contact with many different peoples, and earlier had been a watcher of flocks by night when men are tempted to think deeply about the relations of man to the universe. The Arabs and the Hel

he two most important branches of the Semitic race, to whom ihe world owes so much of thought with regard to religion. Mohammed passed through a series of mental struggles, and though unable to read and write declared that the angel Gabriel came to him in sleep and made a series of revelations so that he thought of himself as a messenger of God. These revelations became the Koran. He lived in retirement, teaching, but making few disciples especially in Mecca, though his doctrines were carried to Medina where ney attracted a number of converts. The Meccans, fearing that his new teaching would disturb popular feeling toward their Holy City where was the Kaaba (the cube stone around which centred the idolatrous worship of the Arabs), rose against him and he fled to Medina. This flight (622) hegira (Arabic) was adopted as the beginning of a new era from which Mohammedan history still reckons. At Mecca, Mohammed had only preached, but at Medina he became a ruler and lawgiver. After a time he led his troops to the capture of Mecca, and Islam as a conquering religious empire began its history. Ten years after the hegira Mohammed died, but his teaching and the kingdom which he had founded lived on. At first his doctrines were scarcely more than Judaism with a slight admixture of Christianity adapted for the Arabs. His first disciples were

vs are

Author of "The Thirteenth, GreatesWojsten

turies,
PRINCIPAL EVENTS OF THE SEVENTEENTH

CENTURY. 1603. Queen Elizabeth of England dies. Union of Scotland

and England under James I. 1605. The English gunpowder plot. 1607. Hudson's Bay discovered by Hendrik Hudson. 1608. Galileo with a telescope observes the satellites of

Jupiter. 1610. Assassination of Henry IV, king of France. 1614. Logarithms invented by Napier. 1618. Manchus in vade China. 1619. Harvey discovers the circulation of the blood. 1620. Voyage of the Mayflower. The Pilgrims land at

Plymouth Rock. Slavery introduced in Virginia. 1625. Charles I of England begins to reign. 1627. Siege of Roch lle. Torricelli invents the barometer.

Drabellius invents the thermometer.

were

instructed to turn toward Jerusalem to pray, of attacks on civilization from the West which but later Mecca was substituted, and Judaism so often put it to the hazard. The followers and Mohammedanism definitely parted.

of the religion of the camel driver of Mecca The spread of Mohammedanism is a mystery threatened at one time to overrun and rule the until it is realized that it represents the religious world. Their war cry, "God is God and Momotives which animated a series of barbarous hammed is His Prophet,” came to be the terror tribes in their national efflorescence. The of Christians everywhere. Mohammedan piArabians discovered their power just when the rates made the Mediterranean itself, and even Roman Empire was reaching a depth of de- many of the larger coast cities, places of terror cadence that made it a ready victim. Moham- because of their rage. The contradictions in med taught that man's life was fated, pre- the Koran, the emphasis on the sensual rewards destined to good or evil from all eternity, but that the faithful were to enjoy in the hereafter, that death for the cause of Mohammedanism the denial of the moral freedom of man, ali was an assurance of heaven. Fanatic fatalism these did not prevent the spread of the docmade indomitable warriors of the Arabs and a trine. series of commanders arose who led armies in The Mohammedans were in close touch with all directions that soon gave wide extension to the Grecian culture in the Eastern countries, Mohammedanism. The interior of Arabia was and as ever in history "captive Greece led its conquered, and the whole Arab nation united captor captive. The Saracens, children of the in six years, Syria was overcome and all the desert as they called themselves, were in the Byzantine Grecks, Damascus was taken and the course of two generations of close contact with victory of Yermuk in Palestine completed the the Greek cities of Asia Minor, deeply influconquest (636). Jerusalem opened its gates to enced and reached a stage of high intellectual the Caliph Omar, and finally Antioch, the great development. They often were more highly capital of Syria, surrendered (638). The army civilized in the intellectual sense of the term directed toward Mesopotamia was equally suc- than the Germanic conquerors of the Roman cessful. Persia was defeated in a great battle Empire with whom they came in contact in the at Kadesia which lasted three days and in which West. For some centuries the Arabs carried 150,000 Persian soldiers overcome by on the Greek tradition and represented the 30,000 Arabs. Ctesiphon fell into their hands, highest culture in the world. They accomIspahan was captured and Persepolis sacked, plished little that was progressive, though the and by the middle of the 7th century Khorasaan Arabian Nights and some of their poetry are became subject to the Arabs. Egypt suffered

eminently original contributions to world literathe same fate. Alexandria was seized about ture. The Arabs by a curious contradiction 646, and clever advantage was taken of the dis- consonant, however, with their Semitic characaffection on the part of the Copts, or natives, ter, possessed the two opposite qualities, the toward their Greek rulers whom they consid- mystic and the practical. They accomplished ered foreigners and heretics. Amru or Ainer, much more in science than in literature. The the Arab general in command in Egypt, proved number of words of Arabic origin used in the himself a statesman as well as a leader of sciences demonstrate this. Alchemy, alcohol, armies, and as he gave the country a much bet- alembic, algebra, almanac are but a few exter rule than it had had under the Eastern amples in "a.". They had the advantage of Empire, he won the people. The story that close touch with the work of the Greeks in either he or the Caliph Omar ordered that the science, and this enabled them to out-distance great library at Alexandria should be burned the Western Europeans. Their great cities — is probably without foundation.

Amru pro

Bagdad, Cairo and Cordova -- were centres of posed to connect the Nile and the Red Sea by learning as well as of world commerce. They canal but the project was abandoned for fear developed an attractive style of architecture of opening to the unbelievers a way to the and were the intellectual leaders of mankind sacred cities of Arabia.

in the mid-mediæval period. They added much In spite of divisions among the rulers, the less to what they had learned from the Greeks spread of Mohammedanism continued under than has been thought, and their reputation for the Ommiads, the first of whom, who became great advances in medicine and surgery has ruler in 661, was Moawiyah, the descendant of

been rudely disturbed by modern studies in Omayya, founder of a well-known Arab family. medical history. Their religious prejudices The Ommiads succeeded Ali, Mohammed's son- hampered the development of anatomy and of in-law, the husband of his daughter Fatima, and surgery, and their oriental tendencies led to occupied the throne for some 90 years until unfortunate polypharmacy. Arabian physicians

The last of these Ommiads escaped to developed what, from the number of ingredients, Spain and founded the Caliphate of Cordova, came to be known as calendar prescriptions. where the family ruled for nearly 300 years. Modern medicine had its real beginning when Under the Ommiads, Damascus became the Arabic influence declined and when Græcisms capital of the Mussulman Empire. By 672 their and not Arabisms are to be found in the medipower had become so firmly fixed that they cal writers. attacked even Constantinople itself by land and The intellectual light of the century in the sea, and the capital of the Greek Empire was West is Isidore (560-636), who became archonly saved by the use of Greek fire, an inven- bishop of Seville 599. His influence was fartion of a Syrian, which caused havoc among

reaching. He presided over the Fourth Counthe wooden vessels of the Mohammedans be- cil of Toledo (633) and to him are attributed cause water would not quench it but actually most of its decrees. All bishops were required caused it to burn more fiercely. Having spread to establish seminaries, the study of Greek and over northern Africa, the Mohammedans were Hebrew as well as the liberal arts was preready at the beginning of the 8th century to scribed, and interest in law and medicine encross over into Spain and to begin the series couraged. The Arabs are usually set down as

750 A.D.

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