Slike strani




titles and other titles of nobility are forbidden rounded, with 10 primaries, of which the first by the Federal Constitution and the citizen of is exceedingly short. The tail as long as or another country who bears such a title when he longer than the wing is composed of 12 feathers, becomes a citizen of the United States must and usually rounded or graduated. The plumrelinquish his title. Various offices of dignity age of the body, long, soft and loose. and trust carry with them certain forms of ad- Of the 75 species of titmice, one-fifth occur dress, but these forms of address pertain to in America all of these having been taken the offices alone, and the holders of these offices within the limits of the United States. About have no claims to the prescribed form of ad- two-thirds of all the species belong in the genus dress after their terms of service have ex- Parus, and the same proportion holds among pired. The President, governors of States, and our American forms. The most abundant and ministers of foreign nations are addressed, and familiar of our species is the black-capped tit. spoken of, as your or his "Excellency,” save mouse (P. atricapillus), widely distributed and in the case of speaking to the President, who known everywhere as the chickadee. The should be addressed as "Mr. President. The tvpical form ranges in eastern America from vice-president, members of the Cabinet and

typical form ranges in eastern, but closely allied members of Congress, heads of departments, sub-species, or species, occupy practically all the assistant secretaries, comptrollers and auditors rest of the Continent. The general color is ashyof the treasury, clerks of the Senate and House

gray, the back with a brownish tinge, the under of Representatives, State senators, law judges, parts white, or nearly so; the crown, nape, chin mayors of cities, etc., are entitled "Honorable.” and throat black, with the cheeks white. In Military, naval, ecclesiastical and other pro- size, the various forms range from four and fessional dignities are distinguished by the

one-half to five and one-half inches, of which titles common to the English-speaking peoples the tail is about half. The chickadee is of the world. Consult the Almanach de

a very active, tireless little bird, retiring Gotha'; Burke's Peerage); Cokayne, G. E.,

the woods and Complete Peerage (new ed., 1910); Phillips,

swamps during the

summer, but in winter very abundant in our Walter Alison, "Titles of Honor? (in Encyclo

villages and parks and about houses. It can pedia Britannica, Vol. XXVI, Cambridge easily be attracted to any spot where food is 1911).

provided, and if unmolested by cats or otherTITLES OF HONOR. See ORDERS

wise will soon become very familiar. Although (ROYAL) AND DECORATIONS; TITLES.

it eats bread and crumbs and other articles of TITMARSH, M. A., or Michael Angelo, a vegetarian's diet, its tastes are carnivorous a pseudonym employed by Thackeray when con- and it is especially fond of meat-on-the-bone." tributing his Paris Sketch Book, Yellow- When foraging for themselves, chickadees eat plush Papers, etc., to Fraser's Magazine. an enormous number of insects and thus justify TITMOUSE, one of the diminutive birds

their existence, if that were necessary. As a of the subfamily Parina, family Paride, which

matter of fact chickadees are so familiar, so are among the most interesting of passerine daintily clothed, so cheerful even in the severest birds. There are more than 75 known species,

weather, and so courageous, and their usual call ranging widely over most parts of the world

note "chick-a-dee-dee, is so pleasing, none of except Australia, but most abundant in the

our birds is more universally loved and entemperate and colder regions of the northern joyed. In the spring, when the mating begins, hemisphere. None of them are really migra

the chickadee has another note, a plaintive, tory, though they roam widely during the

though not drawled, "pe-we.” The nest is a winter in search of food, nor are they gregari

mass of moss, feathers, wool, plant down, etc., ous, though in this particular also stress of

placed in a hole in a stump, tree or fence post, weather frequently causes them to gather in

usually not far from the ground. The eggs are flocks, often with other small birds, -as red

five to eight in number in each of the two polls, finches, etc. They are not songsters,

broods, and are white, spotted with reddishthough most of them have characteristic, and

brown. The chickadee of the South Atlantic frequently musical, call notes, and during the States (P. carolinensis) is said to have notes breeding season they sing after a fashion, quite different from the northern species. In rather weakly. They are very active, restless,

the southeastern United States, ranging north familiar birds, usually showing little fear of

to New Jersey, but rarely further, is another man and oftentimes coming about houses in very abundant titmouse, quite different from their continual search for food. They eat

the chickadee in both color and form, known everything from seeds to the eggs and young

as the tufted titmouse (Parus bicolor). It is of other birds. The nesting habits are varied,

a gray bird, with a black forehead, and a conbut they lay numerous eggs and raise two or spicuous crest, an inch longer than the chickamore broods each season. The plumage is

dee and not so attractive. The notes are not never brilliant, though occasionally striking, so attractive as those of the chickadee and bebut is most frequently plain, though very taste- come monotonous; the most common rendering ful.

in words is "peto, peto, peto, but it also has Structurally the titmice, aside from their other calls. The tufted titmouse is not so small size, are hard to distinguish from the familiar or confiding as the chickadee and is jays. to which birds their habits also ally them distinctly a woodland bird, seldom seen about in many ways. The bill is short and stout, houses. It is not shy and is readily apstraight and unnotched, and there are no rictal proached, while the prominent crest makes it bristles, but the base is covered by tufts of easy to recognize. The nesting habits and the bristly feathers, directed forward, entirely con- eggs are similar to those of the chickadee, but cealing the nostrils. The feet are stout, with the latter are considerably larger. A tufted scutellate tarsi and short toes. The wing is titmouse occurring in the valley of the Rio

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81 A.D.

Grande (Parus atricristatus) is notable for its and was present at that first council which glossy black crest, while the bridled titmouse recognized Gentile converts as part of the (P. wollueberi) is a related species occurring in Church, and exempted them from the burden the southwestern United States, and is remark- of the Mosaic ritual (cf. Acts xv, 1 -- 35 with able for the very conspicuous black and white Gal. ii, 1-3). Paul soon afterward carried out markings on the head. Besides several other the liberty thus accorded by refusing to require interesting species of Parus, the southwestern Titus, a Greek, to be circumcised (Gal. ii, 3–5). United States is the home of four or five very Titus was subsequently with Paul at Ephesus small titmice, belonging to the genera Psaltri- (56), whence the former was sent on a special parus and Auriparus. The former are called mission to the Corinthians, carrying with him "bush-tits” and though very plainly colored with Paul's second epistle to that church (2 Cor. black, brown and plumbeous, their very small viii, 6, 22, 23; xii, 18). When Titus returned size, four inches or even less, and their large, (57 A.D.) he found the apostle in Macedonia woven, pensile nests, with lateral entrance, (2 Cor. vii, 5-6, 13–15). Subsequently (65 or make them an interesting group. The gold tit 66 A.D.) he was left in Crete to arrange the (Auriparus flaviceps) is of about the same size, affairs of the Church and lordain elders in but is notable for the rich yellow head, the every city» (Tit. i, 5). Returning thence to other upper parts being ashy and lower parts Rome he was dispatched by Paul (66 or 67) to whitish. These little birds build great globular Dalmatia (2 Tim. iv, 10). Titus returned to nests of twigs, in the bushes, lining them with his work in Crete, and died at an advanced down and feathers. The eggs are pale bluish age. See also TITUS, EPISTLE TO. speckled with brown. Of the tits of the Old World, seven species

TITUS, Flavius Sabinus Vespasianus,

Roman emperor: b. 40 A.D.; d. Reate, 13 Sept. occur in Great Britain, but one of them, the crested tit (Parus cristatus), is only an acciden

He was the son of Vespasian, whom

he succeeded as emperor in 79 A.D., and was tal visitor. The great tit (P. major) is the

brought up at the court of Nero with his friend largest European species, though only about the

Britannicus, whom he accompanied in his wars size of our tufted titmouse. The general color is yellowish and gray, with white cheeks and

in Germany and Britain. Later he commanded

a legion in the war of Vespasian against the black head and throat. The blue tit (P. cæruleus) and the coletit (P. ater) are the

Jews, conducting the campaign in Judæa in 69

in the place of his father, who was then called commonest of the English species. The former has the top of the head light blue and a bluish

to the imperial throne. At the end of a long cast to the rest of the plumage. It is the species

and cruel siege Jerusalem was taken by Titus 8 usually called «tom-tit.) The azure tit (P.

Sept. 70. Titus returned to Rome in 71, where

he was rewarded with the title of Cæsar and cvanus) of Siberia, which is sky-blue and white, and the large Japanese tit (P. varius),

given a part in the government of the empire. which is handsomely marked with chestnut,

He early manifested the qualities of a humane will serve as examples of the more brightly

and able ruler and he became the idol of the

Roman people. The Colosseum, begun by Vescolored titmice. The long-tailed tits of the genus Ægithalos are remarkable not merely for

pasian, was completed under his direction, and their excessively long tails but because they

the public baths named in his honor, and other build very elaborate cozy nests, which are purse

institutions for the public benefit were estabshaped and hang free or are attached along

lished by him one side to the trunk of a tree. The eggs are TITUS, Epistle to, one of the epistles of very numerous, as many as 20 having been Saint Paul, stated to have been written to found in one nest.

Titus, as bishop over the Cretans, from NicopConsult in addition to standard ornithologies, olis in Macedonia. It is known as one of the Coues, Birds of the Northwest? (Washington (Pastoral Epistles, because devoted chiefly to 1874); and (Birds of the Colorado Valley) admonitions on the subject of pastoral duties. (Washington 1887), and Evans, A. H., Birds In this epistle Saint Paul describes what a (in (Cambridge Natural History, Vol. IX, bishop ought to be, and applies severe language New York 1900).

to certain of the Cretans. This, and the two TITTLEBAT TITMOUSE, the name of

epistles to Timothy, have been subjected to a London shop clerk who figures as the hero of

much discussion. See TIMOTHY AND TITUS, «Ten Thousand a Year, a novel by Samuel

EPISTLES TO. Warren (q.v.).

TITUS ANDRONICUS. Several plays of TITULAR BISHOP, an episcopal title in

the Shakespeare canon preserve a mystery due the Roman Catholic Church substituted by Pope

to almost total absence of external evidence; Leo XIII for the older one of bishop in parti

in the case of Andronicus) the tantalizing unbus in fidelium.

certainty arises from the existence of an unusuTITULAR CHURCH, a name given to

ally large mass of data. Shakespeare's sub

stantial concern in the tragedy is avouched by the parish churches of Rome, as distinct from

the double testimony of Meres, who in 1598 the patriarchal churches, which belong to the

lists (Titus Andronicus) among Shakespeare's Pope, and from the oratories. Each titular

tragedies, and of Hemmings and Condell, who church is under a cardinal priest, has a district assigned to it, and a font for baptism in case

in 1623 included the play in the Shakespeare

Folio. On the other hand, three quarto ediof necessity.

tions are anonymous, and though this is natural TITUS, companion and well-loved friend enough in the case of the first (1594). it is of Saint Paul. He was converted by the surprising that the publishers of the 1600 and apostle (Tit. i, 4), at Antioch 50 or 51 A.D., and 1611 quartos should not have mentioned in the same year accompanied him to Jerusalem, Shakespeare's then popular name. Moreover,

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a large majority of the best critics have been lications Modern Language Association 1-65, strong in their conviction that the marks of 1901); but it seems probable that thes: foreign Shakespeare's mind are not evident in the plot, works, as well as another Germar. play of the characterization, or the language of this which traces exist, are based upon perversions play. There is little of the unevenness here of the extant (Titus Andronicus) text, as diswhich one finds in works written by inferior seminated by traveling English actors, and not, authors and revised by Shakespeare; in versi- as Fuller argues, upon two hypothetical earlier fication as in dramatic power this tragedy is English plays. Early 17th century allusions to pretty consistent throughout, and it bears much (Titus Andronicus, though not very numerous, more affinity to the work of Kyd or Peele than are such as to prove that the play was popular to Shakespeare's. The problem is complicated with the masses of the public. Later, John by references to what may conceivably have Downes, writing of the performances of Sir been earlier versions of our play. A drama William Davenant's company after the Restocalled “Titus and Vespacia' (Vespasian?) was ration, mentions (Titus Andronicus) among acted for the first time, 11 April 1592. We

several others which “being old plays, were cannot positively determine whether this was acted but now and then; yet being well peran old form of Titus Andronicus) or, as the formed were very satisfactory to the town.” title more naturally suggests, a quite unrelated In 1687 Edward Ravenscroft published an work on the subject of two historical Roman adaptation Titus Andronicus, or the Rape of emperors. Another work, called by Henslowe Lavinia. Acted at the Theatre Royal,' with a (Titus and Andronicus) or Andronicus,' was preface containing some important remarks put on the stage as a new work in January concerning the old play. Among the more uns 1594, by the Earl of Sussex's company and conventional modern theories regarding the revived in June of the same year by the Lord authorship of Titus Andronicus) may be noted Admiral's and Lord Chamberlain's (the last

Grosart's argument that it was written by Shakespeare's company). On 6 Feb. 1594, A Greene, Englische Studien? (1896); J. M. Noble Roman History of Titus Andronicus) Robertson's that it is essentially Peele's Did was licensed to John Danter, and in the same Shakespeare write Titus Andronicus) (1905), year our play, called "The Most Lamentable and an ill-considered recent hypothesis of Roman Tragedy of Titus Andronicus,' was

H. D. Gray that the play, was originally by printed by Danter for Edward White and Shakespeare, revised by Greene and Peele, Thomas Millington. The subsequent quarto Flügel Memorial Volume' (1916). editions in 1600 and 1611 were printed for

TUCKER BROOKE. White, and all three were sold at the same TITUSVILLE, Pa., city in Crawford shop. Without entering into fuller discussion

County, on Oil Creek and on the Pennsylvania of this evidence and of other entries in the and the New York Central railroads, 100 miles Stationers' Register, it may be said that the

north of Pittsburgh and 50 miles southeast of records seem to establish the identity of Hens- Erie, Pa. The city is on a plain which slopes lowe's 'Titus and Andronicus) with our play slightly toward the south and east. The natuas printed in 1594. (The contrary conclusions

ral drainage is supplemented by an excellent of Prof. G. P. Baker, Publications of Modern

system of sewerage. The water is obtained Language Association 66-76, 1901, have been from artesian wells. The broad streets are invalidated by the discovery in 1905 of the largely paved and tree-lined. Electric trolley 1594 quarto). If we eliminate Henslowe's ear- lines traverse the principal streets. The manulier Titus and Vespacia' as probably unre- facturing industries consist of one of the larglated, there seems little reason to believe that est iron works in the country, a high grade any version of (Titus Andronicus) existed in

steel works, machine shops and foundries, large Shakespeare's lifetime which differed essentially oil refineries, paraffine works, large branch of from that we possess. Danter licensed (Titus the American radiator works, large branch of Andronicus) for publication (6 Feb. 1594) on the Bethlehem Steel Company, chemical works, the same day on which Sussex's company is last planing mills, specialty works, cutlery works recorded as acting it, and his manuscript, and an electric light and power plant. The outprinted later in the year, would seem to be that put consists of iron, car tanks, steam engines which they acteil. We have no reason to be- and boilers, forgings, oil well machinery and lieve that Shakespeare revised any plays either fittings, gasoline engines, refined oils, gasoline, for this company or for Pembroke's company, etc. There are large oil fields in the vicinity which is said also to have performed the piece. and the first well sunk for petroleum was The text of the play in the Shakespeare Folio drilled just outside of the city limits in the of 1623 must, on the other hand, be that acted summer of 1859, striking oil on 27 August by the Lord Chamberlain's company in Jụne, of that year. There are three banks consist1594, or later. Since the differences between ing of a national bank, a commercial bank and these versions, however, are relatively quite un- a trust company. One of the finest banking important (Act III, sc. ii is added in the Folio), buildings in the State was erected in 1918. it appears as likely on bibliographical as on Among other public buildings are 12 large edistylistic grounds that Shakespeare had no more fices and two halls for religious services, a than a slight part in the play.

high school with a four-year course, four No direct source for Titus Andronicus) graded public schools and a kindergarten, all has been discovered. Its relation to two later under one superintendent; Saint Joseph's Acadcontinental works, Aran en Titus) (Aaron emy, kindergarten and parish school. The city and Titus) by the Dutch poet Jan Vos (printed has also an excellent library, Benson Memo1641) and a German play of Titus Andronicus Library, excellent Young Men's and the arrogant empress (ca. 1620), has been Christian Association. and Young Women's learnedly discussed by H. De W. Fuller (Puba Christian Association and the Titusville Hospi



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tal. Titusville was first settled in 1796, becom- City, was in ancient time a large city, but its ing a borough in 1847 and chartered as a city 1919 population is only 2,800. It has a bishop's in 1866. The town was laid out in streets in palace and a statehouse that retains much of 1809. It suffered great damage from flood and their former grandeur. The holy well of Ocotfire 5 June 1892 which destroyed one-third of lan, in the suburbs, is covered by a costly and the city with a loss of 60 lives. The city owns imposing sanctuary. The state lies within the and operates the waterworks and one of the plateau region, and its surface is broken by electric light plants. The government is vested high mountains. The principal occupations are in the mayor and five commissioners, the mayor agriculture and some manufacture of cloth, being elected for four years and the commis- though iron and silver are found in the mounsioners for two years. The majority of the tains. Tlaxcala was at the time of the Discoypeople are native born, the predominating for- ery, a powerful native state which had maineign element consisting of Scandinavians, Irish tained its independence of the Aztecs. It beand Germans. Pop. 8,550.

came an ally of Cortes and retained its own TIUI, tē-wě', or TIVI, tē'vē, Philippines,

government for a time under the Spaniards. pueblo, province of Albay: on Lagano Bay, on

Pop. about 192,000, almost all Indians. the northeast coast, 23 miles north by west

TLEMCÉN, tlěm-sěn', Algeria, in the provfrom the pueblo of Albay. It is the centre of ince of Oran, 70 miles southwest of the city a hemp growing region, and exports hemp by of Oran, and 30 miles from the Mediterranean. way of Tabaco. It is especially celebrated for It is a walled town with nine gates, and is its thermal springs of iron and sulphur waters divided into three sections, namely, the citadel with medicinal properties, which are visited by and military establishment; the business porlarge numbers of natives. Pop, about 11,000. tion, containing the residences of foreigners; TIUMEÑ, tyoo-měny', Russia, in Siberia,

and the native section. The town stands on a government of Tobolsk, 120 miles southwest of

mountain slope at an elevation of 2,500 feet, Toboisk, on the Tura River. It is an important

amid olive-groves and vineyards. It has 32 centre of trade, lying on several commercial

mosques, Protestant and Catholic churches, a routes, with railroad communication. It has a museum and Jewish synagogue. The manufaclarge technical school. Its principal manufac

tures comprise textiles, carpets and leather tures are leather, soap, candles, carpets, pot

articles, burnooses, etc. Trade is important, tery and woolen goods. These articles are ex

especially with Morocco. It is a historic city, ported to China, the Kirghiz steppe, Bokhara

some of the mosques dating from the 11th cenand everywhere in Siberia. The Tiumen and tury. At the height of its prosperity, in the

13th and 14th centuries, it is reputed to have woven carpets are especially renowned. In Tieumeñ was located a famous exile prison.

had 125,000 population. Pop. 39,874. Pop. about 35,000.

TLINKET, or TLINKIT, a group of TIVERTON, R. I., town in Newport

tribes which constitute a distinct linguistic County, on Narragansett Bay, near Fall River,

stock known as Kolushan. They inhabit the Mass., and on the New York, New Haven and

coast and islands of southern Alaska. Previous Hartford Railroad. There are cotton manufac

to the advent of the white men their houses tories and oyster and fishing industries. Pop.

were rudely constructed, and their trade car4,032.

ried on with neighboring tribes. The exchange

of slaves was carried on extensively, and they TIVOLI, tē'vo-lē, Italy, in the province and were treated by their masters with the greatest district of Rome, on the Teverone or Aniene,

cruelty. They have greatly diminished of late 16 miles northeast of the capital. Its position

years, till there now remain but about 5,000, on a rocky height overlooking the river is ex

a large number of them being employed in the tremely picturesque. Tivoli commands a fine

canning industry. view of Rome and the Campagna. It contains a fine modern cathedral which contrasts sadly

TO A SKYLARK. Shelley's (Skylark,' with the other town buildings. Its antiquities

perhaps the most famous of English lyrics, was are numerous and interesting, and include a

written at Leghorn, Italy, and published with temple of the Tiburtine sybil, temple of Vesta,

(Prometheus Unbound' in 1820. It is com'villa of Hadrian, etc. The artificial cascades

posed of 21 five-line stanzas, each of which ends formed by the Teverone constitute an interest

with a long line that represents the brief pause ing feature of the landscape and supply power

of the bird on the wing as it prepares for yet for the electric lighting of Rome, and for vari

higher flight. Mrs. Shelley says: “In the spring ous factories. The old Latin name was Tibur,

we spent a week or two at Leghorn, borrowing

the house of some friends who were absent on important in the Latin Confederation. It became subject to Rome in 338 B.C. The popula

a journey to England. It was on a beautiful tion of the commune is about 15,000. Consult

summer evening while wandering among the Baedecker's Central Italy and Rome.)

lanes, whose myrtle hedges were the bowers

of the fireflies, that we heard the carolling of TLAPALLAN, the mythical home of the

the skylark, which inspired one of the most Toltecs, and the land from which came their beautiful of his poems. This exquisite lyric great culture god, Quetzalcoatl, and to which he

has been used in generations of school ”readreturned when his mission on earth was done.

ers) and "selections, but even such familiar Sce QUETZALCOATL;

MEXICO — MYTHOLOGY ; handling has not served to tarnish the peculiar CHOLULA.

qualities in which it still remains matchless TLAXCALA, tläs-kä'lä, or TLASCALA, and unapproachable. Shelley's skylark, unlike Mexico, the smallest state in the republic, situ- Wordsworth's, loses itself in the empyrean; it ated between the states of Puebla, Hidalgo and is a spirit not a bird, an embodied voice, an Mexico. Area, 1,534 square miles. The capital, aspiration. It is beside the mark to urge that Tlaxcala, located about 60 miles east of Mexico the poem has the defects of its qualities); for,

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from the standpoint of what the poet meant to do, it has no defects. It is a perfect work of art, having a worthy purpose which it perfectly attains, The poem pursues the flight and the song of the bird swiftly up to the blue; four exquisite similes liken the lark to the poet, to the maiden, to the glow-worm and to the rose; the song of the bird sings itself in the heart of the poet; at the end comes the pathos of the infinite and unsatisfied desire never absent from Shelley's nature lyrics. The criticism of almost a century has applied to the Skylark the epithets which have long since become banal but which seem inevitable: it is melodious, exquisite, ethereal, ecstatic. As such it is unsurpassed and is probably unsurpassable. Wordsworth's (Skylark) represents a more human point of view; Keats' Ode to a Nightingale, an equally consummate achievement of a different kind.

MARION TUCKER. TOAD, an amphibian of the anourous family Bufonide or some related family in the series Arcifera, in allusion to the structure of the shoulder girdle. The Bufonide present the following distinctive features: The tongue is well developed, fixed to the front of the mouth, and has the hind end free. The result of this arrangement is that it can be filliped by means of appropriate muscles with the greatest speed and precision, and thus serves these usually totally toothless animals in the capture of insects which adhere to this mucous-coated organ. Teeth are always absent from the jaws, but may be present on the vomer in a few foreign gen

The hind toes are more or less webbed, the front toes webless and the ends of the toes are neither clawed nor furnished with adhesive discs. In all cases the vertebræ are procælous or have their bodies hollowed in front, the transverse processes of the sacrum panded and ribs are absent. This family is an extensive one of about 15 genera and 100 species and is cosmopolitan, but is especially well represented in tropical America. The species differ considerably in habits, most of them being terrestrial burrowers, but some are aquatic, others arboreal.

Within the United States, Bufo is the only genus, being represented by 9 or 10 species, most of which belong to the southwestern United States and Mexico. The common eastern toad (B. lentiginosus) is found in one or cther of its sub-species throughout the eastern United States and Canada. The familiar roughness and wartiness of the skin of toads is due to the presence of glands and, especially on the head, to bony deposits. They are chiefly terrestrial and nocturnal, and feed upon insects of which they destroy large numbers. Toads visit the water in March or April, their breeding season, for the purpose of depositing their eggs, which are long strings and are fertilized by the male upon their extrusion. During the mating season the males are very noisy at night and so pugnacious that they sometimes kill one another in their encounters. Development takes place rapidly and the tadpole-stage is passed in three or four months, when the young toads leave the water in multitudes. The popular repugnance to these perfectly harmless animals has no doubt arisen from their unprepossessing aspect and outward appearance. No venom or poison apparatus of

VOL. 26 - 42

any kind exists in these creatures; and save that the secretions of the skin may be of acrid or irritant nature when brought in contact with cut or exposed surfaces, they are utterly harmless to man. There is a swelling above the eyes covered with pores and large, thick and prominent enlargements behind the eyes which secrete an acrid fluid, which protects these animals from the attack of carnivorous mammals, They also swell up with air when attacked by snakes. When handled, toads frequently eject urine from the vent, but the widespread belief that the contact of this fluid with the skin produces warts is utterly, unfounded. Toads are extremely tenacious of life and can exist a long time without food; their hibernation in mud, cracks and holes has probably given rise to the stories of their being found in places where they must have existed for centuries without food and air. These stories, however, have no foundation in fact, for Dr. Buckland proved, by direct experiment, that no toad can live for two years if deprived of food and air. Another common belief that toads are often rained down is probably to be explained by the fact that great numbers of young toads frequently leave, during showers of rain, the vicinity of pools in which their larval life was spent.

Toads are really extremely interesting animals, and much entertainment can be derived from their observation.

Among foreign toads are the great Bufo agua, large enough to fill a quart measure, of the West Indies and South America; the green toad (B. viridis) of Europe, noted for its change of color; the long-tongued toad (Rhinophrynus dorsalis) of Mexico, which feeds on termites; the European fire-toad (Bombinator igneus), so called from its brilliant red under parts and belonging to the family Discoglosside; and the remarkable Surinam toads, which are tongueless and carry the young in little cavities on the back. The last belongs to the distinct family Pipide. The spade-foot toad (q.v.) and the tree-toads or tree-frogs (q.v.) belong respectively to the families Scaphiopide and Hylida. Many of the toads have remarkable and interesting breeding habits, for accounts of which reference must be made to works of herpetology. Consult Boulanger, E. G., Reptiles and Batrachians) (New York 1914); Cope, E. D., Batrachia of North America' (Washington 1889); Boulenger, G. A., (Tailless Betrachial (London 1892); Dickerson, M. C., (The Frog Book (New York 1914); Gadow, Amphibia and Reptiles? (New York and London 1901); Kirkland, Habits, Food and Economic Value of the American Toad (in Bull. 6, Hatch Exper. Sta., Amherst, Mass., 1897); Sampson, American Naturalist) (1900).

TOAD-FLAX, a common roadside weed (Linaria linaria) belonging to the family Scrophulariacea. It somewhat resembles snap-dragon, but is smooth and has many linear leaves, either alternate or opposite and verticillate on the lower portions of the stem, and very pale green. The stem is prolonged by a terminal bracted densely flowered raceme. The blossoms are pale yellow with a short spur, a two-lipped corolla, the lower lip spreading and three-lobed, with a base so enlarged as nearly to close the throat with an orange-colored




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