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effect of the air, which in summer is almost pestilen- | government intrusted to 200 citizens, called Bacchiades. Heren tial. A thick dew falls during the night; and, early thinks that the Bacchiades were, at least several of them, mer

chants. To this oligarchy followed a monarchical form of governin the morning, every thing is as wet as if it had been ment, which was succeeded by a constitution approaching nearer drenched with rain." “ The Acrocorinthus, or acro- to oligarchy than to democracy. In the sequel, C. became the polis of C.," Dodwell continues, “is one of the finest head of the Achæan league, and was conquered and desti syed by

the consul Mummius, B. C. 146. Julius Cæsar, 24 years later, reobjects in Greece, and if properly garrisoned, would be

built it; but its commerce could not be restored: the prodi vions a place of great strength and importance. It abounds of the East now took the road to Rome. St. Paul lived here a with excellent water, is in most parts precipitous, and year and a half. The Venetians received the place from a Greek there is only one spot from which it can be annoyed emperor: Mohammed II. took it from them in 1458; the Vene

tians retook it in 1687, and fortified the Acrocorinthus again.: bat with artillery: this is a pointed rock, at a few hun- the Tarks took it anew in 1715, and retained it until the late redred yards to the SW of it, from which it was bat- volution of the Greeks, during which it was the seat of the Greek tered by Mohammed II. Before the introduction of government. artillery, it was deemed almost impregnable, and had CORINTH, a township of Penobscot co., in tno never been taken except by treachery or surprise. It state of Maine, U. S., 85 m. NNE of Augusta, drain. shoots up majestically from the plain to a considered by Kenduskeag stream, an affluent of the Peuobable height, and forms a conspicuous object at a great scot, and generally fertile. Pop. in 1840, 1,970 distance: it is clearly seen from Athens, from which Also a township of Saratoga co., in the state of New it is no less than 44 m. in a direct line. Strabo affirms York, 52 m. NW of Albany, bordering on the l on that it is 3} stadia in perpendicular height, but that Hudson river. Its surface is undulating, and its soil the ascent to the top is 30 stadia by the road, the cir- sandy loam. Pop. 1,365. The village, called also cuitous inflections of which render this no extrava- Jesup's Landing, is situated on the Hudson, and gant computation. The Acrocorinthus is at present consists of about 20 dwellings.-Also a township of regarded as the strongest fortification in Greece, next Orange co., in the state of Vermont, 34 m. SE of to that of Nauplia in Argolis. Athenæus commends Montpelier, drained by branches of Wait's river, which the water of the fountain Peirene in the Acrocorin- afford good water-power. The soil is loamy and very thus as the most salubrious in Greece. It was at this fertile. Pop. 1,318.—Also a village of Heard co., in fount that Pegasus was drinking when taken by Bel- the state of Georgia, 120 m. W of Milledgeville, conlerophon. After gushing from the rock, it branches sisting of about 30 dwellings. into several small rills, which find their way imper- CORIO, a town of Piedmont, cap. of a mandaceptibly to the lower city.” Both Clarke and Dod. mento, in the prov. and 21 m. NNW of Turin, on a well speak in glowing language of the view obtained hill. Pop. 5,298. from the summit of this ridge. The former, describ- CORIO HARBOUR, a harbour of S Australia, at ing the prospect seen from the outer gate, says: “As the head of a deep inlet midway on the W shore of from the Parthenon at Athens we had seen the cita- Port Phillip, at the N end of the township of Geelong. del of C., so now we had a commanding view across CORISCO BAY, an indentation of the coast of the Saronic gulf, of Salamis and the Athenian acro- South Guinea, 15 m. from the islands at the mouth polis.” Lord Nugent says he saw the Hymettian of the Munda, extending 32 m. N and S, between range very distinctly; but he thinks Athens is masked Cape Esterias and Cape St. John. It is studded with from Corinth behind Corydallus. “Looking down numerous islands, including one of the same name, upon the isthmus," continues Clarke, “the shadow in N lat. 0° 55', and E long. 9° 38'. This island, alof the Acrocorinthus, of a conical shape, extended though of considerable extent, rises but little above exactly half across its length, the point of the cone the level of the sea. The islands, and the shores of being central between the two seas. Towards the N the bay, are all thickly clothed with verdure. we saw Parnassus covered with snow, and Helicon CORITIVA. See CURITIBA. and Cithæron. Nearer to the eye appeared the moun- CORK, a maritime county of the prov. of Munster, tain Geranion, between Megara and C.” The bear- in Ireland. It is bounded on the N by Limerick; on ing of the leading objects in the surrounding horizon the NE by Tipperary; on the E by Waterford; on beheld from the summit of the acropolis are: Athens the SE, S, and SW by the Atlantic; and on the w S 85° E; S point of Salamis S 78° E; E peak of Ger- by Kerry. The county has a sinuous and very irreanion N 70° E; W peak, N 45° E; Helicon, N 40° gular outline; but may, in a general view, be regardE; Parnassus N 4o E; Cyllene N 72° W; Hymettus ed as presenting a side of 29 m. to Limerick, one of S 83° E. Strabo has characterised the prominent 224 m. to Tipperary and Waterford, one of 83 m. to features of this view, which comprehended six of the the Atlantic, and one of 53 m. to the Kenmare esmost celebrated states of ancient Greece: viz. Achaia, tuary and to Kerry. It is the largest county in IreLocris, Phocis, Bæotia, Attica, and Argolis. The land, and is surpassed in extent by no English county scenery of the isthmus is superb: the sea frequently except that of York. Its greatest length, in a straight entering from both sides into its deep recesses, and line WSW from Youghal-harbour to the mouth of the assuming the appearance of lakes on whose azure Kenmare, is 80 Irish m.; and its greatest breadth, in surface the pine-clad mountains are beautifully re- the opposite direction, from the point of the Old-Head flected. On the side of the Peloponnesus, the view of Kinsale, is 44 Irish m. Its area, by the latest and is bounded by a range of bills extending from Ken best authority, is 1,846,333 acres,-of which 1,308,882 kries to near the foot of the Acrocorinthus, where are arable land; 465,889 uncultivated land; 52,180 there is a pass. On the opposite side, the high ridge continuous woodlands; 6,515 towns; and 12,867 waof Geranion extends from shore to shore.

ter. The length of coast-line is usually estimated at The department of C. has an area of 948 sq. m., 200 m.; but if minutely followed around all the curwith a pop., in 1836, of 25,960; in 1838, 28,717. It vatures and sinuosities of the numerous estuaries, is divided into 32 dimes or cantons.

bays, and creeks, it would be found far to exceed History.] C. derived, in ancient times, great advantages from that extent. Some of the bays, as those of Cork, its situation on the isthmus, between two bays, belonging to what Ross, and Dunmanus, but especially those of Bantry may be called two different seas, if we consider the state of navi and Kenmare, are large; and several are much ramilian goods took place here. The duty paid on these goods afforded fied and subdivided by peninsulæ and islands. a large revenue to the state; and the citizens accumulated such Surface and Soil.] The whole of the W border of wealth, that C. became one of the most magnificent, but at

the county is mountainous; and but for a broad and the same time most voluptuous cities of Greece. The famous Sisyphus was the founder of C. His family was succeeded by the pronged projection on the S, cleft by the bay of BanHeraclides, who were dethroned after several centuries, and the I try, it might be described as a band of mountain only

from 3 to 5 m. broad. From the S division of this SE to NW cuts through the mining districts of Cornborder, the surface of the country rolls gradually off wall, crosses the channel, and then intersects the SW to hill and knoll and plain; from the central division portion of Ireland; and, with the exception of tin, it goes mountainously away in one upland range of similar mines of copper and lead are found in Kerry considerable breadth and extent, and in another, which and in Cork, but much richer than those of Cornwall. is prolonged to the very boundary with Waterford, The Cosheen copper-mine in Cork yields 43 per and may be figuratively regarded as the backbone of cent. of metal, while that of Cobre in the island of the county; and from the N division it proceeds east- Cuba yields only 224 per cent. The veins which fill ward in a long and doubtful struggle between upland many of the fissures of the clay-slate rock abound in and lowland character; and rises eventually up at iron, copper, lead, and manganese ores. The various the extreme E in small sections of the Galtees and limestone of the county differs even more in econoKnockmeledown or Kilworth mountains. The chief mical adaptation than in geognostic structure, and valleys S of the great range, and W of Cork harbour, furnishes both manuring material to the agriculturist, are those of the Jee, the Bandon, and the Annabuoy; and a marble which vies with some of the Italian to the they extend nearly parallel to it and to one another. statuary and the ornamental architect. Marl, fuller's The valleys S the bisecting mountain-range, and earth, potter's clay, and brick clay, occur in considerE of the city of Cork, are all mere vales or dells. able abundance. The soil of the coal-formation disThe valleys N of the Blackwater, with some unim-trict is cold, retentive, and moorish; that of the limeportant exceptions on the frontier toward Limerick, stone districts is warm and friable; and that of the all extend in a S direction, and open into the valley greater part of the schistose-formation districts is dry, of the Blackwater; the principal of them are those of sandy, and what has technically been termed hungry, Allua, Awbeg, Funcheon, and Arraglin.—The prin- requiring rich and constant manuring. cipal mountain-summits of the county as to alt., are Agriculture.] Agricultural practice presents almost Hungry-hill, 2,249 ft.; Sheehy mountain, 1,796; every variety, from the most antiquated and barbarous Owen mountain, 1,760 ; Cahirbarna, 2,234 ; Tor, to the most improved and scientific methods of cul1,329; Knockinskea, 1,388; Mount-Gabriel, 1,335; ture. Nearly all the W districts, and a considerable Carrickfadda, 1,028; and Knockmadden, 1,029 ft.- proportion of the centre ones, are either not at all or The only lakes which claim notice are the small but very slightly touched by the improvement spirit of uniquely scenic lake of Gougane-Barra, at the source the last fifty years; but the E lowland districts, and of the Lee; and the lakes of Inchigeelagh or Allua, the vicinities of numerous towns and demesnes, and, in the bed of that stream, immediately above Inchi- in particular, the lower valleys of the Lee and the geelagh.—The Blackwater is by far the most volu- Blackwater, and the low country between Cork-harminous river of the county. It rises and has a course bour and the E boundary, exhibit a comparatively of 3 or 4 m. within Kerry; runs for some distance Shigh aggregate of improvement. A large proportion being the boundary between the counties; then de- of proprietors are resident; there is—what over most flects at a right angle, and runs due E across the of Ireland is a sad want-an intelligent middle-class; whole of co. Cork; and finally passes into Waterford, and the greater part of the low countries E of Malbut afterwards deflects again, and runs S so as to low and Bandon—even in spite of the occasional pretouch at its exit to the sea the extreme SE point of dominance of the hut-like home, and the miserable Cork. The chief of the numerous streams which dress of the peasantry-present very much of an Engdrain the district SW of the summit-level across the lish character. In 1841, the total of farms measuring head of the valleys of the Lee, the Bandon, and the from 1 acre to 5 acres, was 13,683; from 5 to 15 acres, Annabuoy, are the Cooleagh and the Moyatt to the 15,790; from 15 to 30 acres, 10,362; and upwards of head of Bantry bay, the Four-mile-Water to the head 30 acres, 5,691. In 1847 the total number of holdof Dunmanus bay, the Roaring-Water to the head of ings of from 1 to 5 acres was returned at only 4,805; Roaring-Water bay, and the Ilen to the head of Bal- of from 5 to 15 acres, 10,557; of from 15 to 30 acres, timore bay. The Lee runs parallel to the Black- 11,433; of above 30 acres, 18,568.—The extent of water at the mean distance of between 14 and 15 land under corn and beans, in 1847, was 288,265 in. to the S, and begins slowly to expand into estuary acres; under potatoes and green crops, 91, 744 acres. immediately below the city of Cork. The Bandon The produce of wheat amounted to 378,479 quarters; runs parallel to the Lee at the mean distance of about of oats, 598,129 9.; of barley, 200,884 q.; bere, 10,156 9 m. The Annabuoy or Arrigadeen, runs at the me- q.; rye, 2,535 q.; beans, 918 q. In 1841 the total o dium distance of about 51 m. from the Bandon, and, live stock, with their respective estimated value, was for the most part, at nearly the same medium dis- 60,108 horses and mules, £480,864 ; 2,579 asses, tance from the coast. The only navigable stream, £2,579 ; 150,588 cattle, £978,822 ; 252,895 sheep, apart from the bays or estuaries into which streams £278,184; 177,517 pigs, £221,897; and 919,144 pouldisembogue themselves, are the Blackwater to Cap- try, £22,978. Grand total of value, £1,985,324. But poquin within Waterford, the Lee to the city of Cork, these statistics refer only to the strictly rural districts and the Bandon to Innishannon.

of the county. In 1841, the total of live stock in the A section of the Munster coal-field, to the extent city of C. was valued at £8,419. In the same year of about 400 statute sq. m., occupies the extreme NW the total of live stock within the other civic districts of the county. A narrow belt of mountain or carbo- of the connty amounted to £32,578.-In 1841, the niferous limestone, belonging to the vast central lime- continuous plantations within the co. consisted of stone-field of Ireland, goes up the whole of the Black 52,180 acres; and the total of wood was 66,564 acres. water to Mill-street. The old conglomerate, and the Trade.] The first cost value of the unbleached red, purple, green, and clay slate formations, the lat- linens brought to market in co. Cork, in 1822, was ter varying in induration from the hardest grit to the £49,183, and, in 1825, was £87,380. But both the most frangible rubble, occupy by far the larger part linen manufacture and the woollen manufacture of the area between the limestone belt of the Black- the latter of which was also at a recent date consid. water, and the coast to Youghal, nearly due north. erable-have declined. About 340,000 firkins of butClay slate, greywacke, and greywacke slate forma- ter, in value about £650,000, are annually brought to tions constitute, with small exceptions, the whole of market; but a proportion of this quantity is the prothe country lying S of the greater field of the preced- duce of the adjoining parts of the counties of Limeing formations. Iudications of metalliferons deposits rick and Kerry. The estimated value of exports, in are abundant on the W coast. A line drawn from | 1835, from the ports of Baltimore, Bantry, Berehaven,

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Cork, Kinsale, Ross, and Youghal, was £3,118,421; | --comprehended also a considerable tract of what now foring the and the estimated value of the imports in that year

cos. of Kerry, Limerick, and Waterford. This territory formed,

for some time before the arrival of Earl Strongbow, a separate was £2,891,406 88.-In 1849, according to returns kingdom, under the sway of the MacCarthys. Maurice Fitzmade by the officers of the coast-guard, the craft thomas, created Earl of Desmond in 1829, laid the foundation of and men employed in the fisheries of the co., were

a power which, as to extent of territory, and especially as to 352 first class boats, manned by 1,795 men and MacCarthy princes of the kingdom of Cork. The eighth Earl of

amount of control over it, greatly exceeded that of the quondain 135 boys; and 3,285 second class boats, manned Desmond, in consequence of previous enlargement of the Fitzby 14,071 men and 926 boys—total of fishermen, gerald estates, was proprietor of most of the territory which had

belonged to the MacCarthys; and the 15th and last Earl possess. 16,927. – The lines of greatest thoroughfare are

ed an estate which extended 150 m. throughout Waterford, Cork, those from the city of C. toward respectively Water- Kerry, and Limerick, and was estimated to contain upwards of ford, Dublin, and Limerick; and these, in spite of 574,000 acres of profitable land. In the war under Elizabeth, the crossing the second and third traversing mountains, Fitzgeralds allied themselves to the foreign Roman Catholic powers

who projected the conquest of Ireland, and they occasioned the and encountering_great inequalities of ground, are coast of Cork to be the adopted theatre of the descent of the inexcellent roads.-The Great Southern and Western vaders; and though Gerald himself, the 15th and last Earl of Desrailway, extendir:g from Dublin, by Kildare, Carlow, mond, affected some show for a season of fighting for the Queen, Portarlington, Thurles, and Mallow, to Cork, 1641 war replete with disaster to the country. The vast forfeited estates m. in length, is now in operation, with a branch to

of this nobleman were divided into seignories, and granted to disLimerick

and Tipperary. A railway has also been tinguished Englishmen in guerdon of their services. In 1602, Sir executed from Cork to Bandon, and Cork to Passage price the whole of Sir Walter Raleigh's estate of upwards of harbour.

20,000 acres in C. and Waterford; about the same time, he purDivisions and Towns.] The county of Cork is now chased also a large part of Mr. Fane Beecher's seignory of 12,000 divided into the E. Riding, the W. Riding, and the city. acres; and he colonized the whole of these lands with English -The towns of the co. are Cork, Bantry, Watergrass-Cloghnakilty, Baltimore, and Youghal. The war of the RevoluHill, Queenstown, Rathcormack, Bandon, Clogh- tion involved the county in a series of skirmishing, and irregular nakilty, Dunmanway, Rosscarberry, Skibbereen, Cas- but sanguinary conflicts; and led to the forfeiture of the Earl of tletownsend, Mitchellstown, Fermoy, Kilworth, Kan-Clancarty, Viscount Kenmare, Sir Richard Nagle, Colonel Barret, turk, Newmarket, Castletownroche, Doneraile, Glant- land affected by these forfeitures was 244,320 acres.

and various persons of less extensive property. The extent of worth, Mallow, Timoleague, Cloyne, Castlemartyr, Middleton, Youghal, Passage, Kinsale, Millstreet, CORK, a sea-port, a parliamentary borough, the Macroom, Buttevant, and Charleville.—The co. con capital of Munster, and the second town of Ireland, tains the whole of the dioceses of Cork, Cloyne, and on the river Lee, 53 m. WNW of Passage, 153 m. Ross, and 5 parishes within Duhallow barony of the NE by N of Bandon, 51 m. S by E of Limerick, and diocese of Ardfert and Aghadoe.

126 m. SW by S of Dublin. The site of the central Statistics.] The pop. in 1792, as estimated by Dr. part of the present city, and of the whole of the anBeaufort, was 343,000; and, as ascertained by census cient town, is the eastern half of a low and flat under act of parliament, was, in 1813, 523,936,-in oblong tract of ground, measuring 24 m. in length, 1821, 629,786, --in 1831, 703,716. The following sta- and 3] furlongs in extreme breadth. This tract contistics are all those of 1841, and exclusive of the city tinued, till a comparatively recent date, to maintain of Cork. Pop. 773,398; males, 385,062; females, in part the character which originally belonged to the 388,336; families, 133,295. Inhabited houses, 121,510; whole of its area,--that of a swamp or marsh. The uninhabited complete houses, 3,688; houses in the name Cork, therefore, is usually supposed to be a course of erection, 162; first class houses, 3,001 ; corruption of the Irish Corcagh, 'a morass.' The second class houscs, 20,309; third class houses, 37,304; principal streets and quarters of the city and suburbs fourth class houses, 60,896. Families residing in first are well-paved and lighted; but the lanes and narclass houses, 3,767; in second class houses, 25,318; row back streets are generally neglected. “C.,” says in third class houses, 40,295; in fourth class houses, Mr. Inglis, “I call a fine city, surpassed by few in 63,915. Families employed chiefly in agriculture, the excellence and width of its streets, or in the 97,723; in manufactures and trade, 22,397; in other magnificence of its outlets; and deficient only in the pursuits, 13,175. Families dependent chiefly on pro- architectural beauty of its public buildings. Although perty and professions, 3,078; on the directing of there is not in C. so great a contrast between splenTabour, 38,865; on their own manual labour, 87,205; dour and misery as in Dublin, more of this contrast on means not specified, 4,147.—The parliamentary re- is visible than English cities of the same size exhibit. presentation of C., previous to the Legislative union, The best quarters of C. are fully upon a par with the consisted of 2 members from the co., 2 from the city, best quarters of Liverpool or Manchester; but the and 2 from each of the following boroughs,-Kinsale, worst parts of C. are worse and more extended than Yonghal, Bandon, Mallow, Doneraile, Rathcormack, in those towns. The best streets in C. are the merMiddleton, Charleville, Castle-Martyr, Baltimore, and cantile streets; and in these the shops are little, if at Cloghnakilty. The present representation consists of all, inferior to those of Dublin. Few streets in C. 2 members from the county, 2 from the city, 1 from have the appearance of being inhabited by the upper Youghal, 1 from Bandon, 1 from Kinsale, and 1 from classes. One cause of this is, that so large a number Mallow. The county constituency, in 1841 -exclu- of the merchants live out of town. The passion for sive of that of the city and of Youghal and Bandon- country-houses is universal; and the extreme beauty amounted to 3,706. The annual rent value, as made of the environs is a great encourager of this passion. by order of the grand jury, in 1829–30, was £1,135,923 c. is a picturesque city, in its architecture, in its 16s. 2d.; in 1846, £1,412,602. In 1824, according to form, and in its situation. With scarcely an excepProtestant returns, the total of schools in the co. was tion, the streets are irregular, every house having a 1,288, and of scholars attending these schools, 69,118; style, height, and size of its own; in its outline, the of whom 9,831 were Protestants, and 58,174 Roman city is picturesque, for, although the principal part is Catholics. At the close of 1842, the National board tolerably compact, it branches out at various points, had in active operation within the co. 208 schools, following the course of the river and its tributaries; attended by 18,103 male and 14,445 female scholars. and it is eminently picturesque in situation, built as

History. The earliest known inhabitants of the territory which it is upon a most irregular surface, and doininated by now constitutes the co. of C., were the Coriondi, the Udiæ, the the wooded heights that form the magnificent bounVellubori, and the Uterini. The ancient territory of Co-or that daries of the river and its sea-reaches.' which, at the period of the Anglo-Norman invasion, included the

The extreme present territory of C., and was defined by well-established limits / length of the town, from N to S, is almost exactly 2

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